Cyperus compressus (annual sedge)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Cyperus compressus L. (1753)
Preferred Common Name
- annual sedge
Other Scientific Names
- Chlorocyperus compressus Palla
- Cyperus brachiatus Poir
- Cyperus humilis Llanos (non Kunth)
- Cyperus meyenil Nees
- Cyperus pectiniformis R. & S.
International Common Names
- English: hedgehog cyperus; sedge
- French: souchet comprimé
Local Common Names
- India: mothi
- Japan: kugugayatsuri
- Malaysia: rumput tiga sagi
- CYPCP (Cyperus compressus)
- CYPHU (Cyperus humilis)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Cyperaceae
- Genus: Cyperus
- Species: Cyperus compressus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
The inflorescence has umbellate spikes, some of the rays (usually 3-4) are well developed and up to 8 cm long. Occasionally, all the spikelets are grouped as a sessile umbel. There are usually three or four leaf-like, unequal brackets which are longer than or as long as the primary rays of the umbel. The spikelets are strongly compressed laterally and there are 4-7 in each ultimate condensed umbellate spike. These are 1.5-3.5 cm long, 3-5 mm wide and grey-green, streaked with crimson. The rachis or rachilla are very much flattened and with hyaline wings (in fresh specimens). The two or three lowest glumes are small, hyaline and empty. The flowering glumes are broadly ovate when spread out, tightly imbricating, 3.0-4.5 mm long, mucronate, pale yellowish or brownish, several-nerved, broadly scariously margined, mucro-stout and sometimes excurved. There are three stamens with anthers 0.7 mm long which have an ovate-rotundate, reddish crest. The style is long with branches 3-4 mm long, divided about halfway down. The nuts are shortly stipitate, obovioid, broadly triquetrous, 1.5-1.7 mm long with three prominent angles and three concave sides. They are dark brown or blackish-brown, apiculate and glossy.
C. compressus flowers and fruits during May to December in eastern India and during July to October in North West India.
C. compressus exhibits morphometric and chromosomal variation (Mehra and Sachdeva, 1971; Sanyal, 1972; Rath and Ratnaik, 1978; Bir et al., 1982, 1988, 1992; Cheema, 1991; Cheema and Bir, 1996).
DistributionTop of page
The distribution map includes records based on specimens of C. compressus from the collections in the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, Uttar Pradesh, India (DD) and the Botanical Survey of India, Northern Circle, Dehra Dun, Uttar Pradesh, India (BSD).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Andhra Pradesh||Present||Original citation: Clarke, 1894|
|-Bihar||Present||Original citation: Clarke, 1894|
|-Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Present|
|-Gujarat||Present||Original citation: Herbarium (DD)|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present, Widespread|
|-Jammu and Kashmir||Present||Original citation: Herbarium (DD), (BSD)|
|-Mizoram||Present||Original citation: Clarke, 1894|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present, Widespread|
|-Tripura||Present, Widespread||Original citation: Clarke, 1894|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present, Widespread|
|-West Bengal||Present, Widespread||Original citation: Bennet, 1979|
|-Java||Present||Original citation: Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1968|
|United States||Present, Widespread|
|-Hawaii||Present||Original citation: St. John, 1973|
|-North Carolina||Present||Original citation: Herbarium (DD)|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Present|
|Papua New Guinea||Present|
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
ImpactTop of page
In the Punjab District, India, the rice crop has become second only to wheat in economic terms. In Patiala District, Bir and Sidhu (1974) made extensive observations on the distribution, frequency and lifespan of weeds in rice fields. They concluded that C. compressus, which grows along the rice field margins as well as within the fields themselves, attains 80% frequency of occurrence along with nine other weed species. The distribution pattern and density of C. compressus was such that it started appearing 20 days after the rice was planted and maximum numbers of C. compressus were found between 20-40 days, when rice plants were in the early stages of growth and had not formed full tillers. Maximum competition to rice crop by weeds was offered during the 40-day growth period. During the first 20-30 days of planting, five weed plants were seen per unit area of the field. This declined to four plants per unit area after 40-50 days and three plants per unit area from 50-90 days. C. compressus was amongst six chief weeds which affected the yield of rice in Patiala District: the others are C. bulbosus, C. iria, Echinochloa colonum, E. crus-galli and Eragrostis diarrhena. These weeds together constituted 80-90% of the weed population in the majority of the rice fields in the surveyed area.
As C. compressus is rarely, if ever, the only weed in a crop, there is no information on its direct effect on crop yield, but it is assumed that there must be competition for nutrients which contributes to the total damage caused by weeds. There is also some possibility of damage caused by pests and diseases for which C. compressus is an alternative host (see Natural Enemies).
Uses ListTop of page
Human food and beverage
- Essential oils
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Many species in the section Pycreus (often known as the Pycreus species) such as C. macrostaachyos (Pycreus macrostachyos) and C. polystachyos (P. polystachyos) have the annual habit and comparably flattened spikelets and look rather similar, but they only have two stigmas, flattened nutlets and the spikelets are arranged in spikes rather than digitately. C. mundtii (P. mundtii) has similar-looking spikelets but is a rhizomatous perennial.
Within the section Cyperus, confusion is possible with C. sphaelatus which has s similar habit and appearance, but the spikelets are narrower (up to 2.5 mm wide only, versus 3-5 mm in C. compressus). C. procerus has spikelets up to 3.5 mm wide but this is a perennial with stolons.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
Control of weed plants of C. compressus in rice fields is not difficult. During the mulching and puddling operations to prepare clean fields before transplanting rice, all the weeds should be uprooted and destroyed. Standing water in rice fields keeps down C. compressus to a great extent. It is only when the rice field dries up due to rain failure or non-availability of irrigation water, that the weeds start coming up. Farmers can use agricultural machinery or hand weeding to remove C. compressus.
Integrated Pest Management
In rice, the usual practices recommended are a combination of transplantation spacing (tall varieties placed far apart rather than dwarf varieties), hand weeding and chemical controls.
There are few specific herbicides used for control of C. compressus in rice, but those controlling other sedge weeds may be used (Moody, 1982; Ampong-Nyarko and De Datta, 1991). In perennial crops in Malaysia, methylarsonic acid plus 2,4-D has been used (Kostermans et al., 1987).
ReferencesTop of page
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Bir SS; Sidhu M, 1974. Observations on the weed flora of cultivable lands in Punjab. Paddy fields in Patiala District. Geobios, 1:156-159.
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Duthie JF, 1960. Flora of Upper Genetic Plain., II Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India.
Fischer CES, 1957. Flora of the Presidency of Madras., III Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India.
Haines RW, Lye KA, 1983. The Sedges and Rushes of East Africa., Nairobi, Kenya: East African Natural History Society.
Hooper SS, Napper DM, 1972. Cyperaceae. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, III (2) [ed. by Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN]. London, Crown Agents (HMSO). 278-349.
Kern JH, 1974. Cyperaceae. In: Flora Malesiana. Series I. Spermatophyta Flowering Plants, 7 (3) 435-753.
Matthew KM, 1981. Materials for a Flor of the Tamil Nadu Carnatic Tiruchirapalli. In: The Repinat Herbarium, St. Joseph's College,
Meenakshi, Sharma M, 1985. Flora of Ropar District Punjab., Patiala, India: Four Star Printers.
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Distribution MapsTop of page
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