Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Cymbopogon citratus
(lemongrass)

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Datasheet

Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 March 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cymbopogon citratus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lemongrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cymbopogon citratus is a perennial grass that has been intentionally introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world for the essential oil extracts from its leaves and to be used as a culinary and m...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cymbopogon citratus (citronella grass or lemon grass); habit. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionCymbopogon citratus (citronella grass or lemon grass); habit. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cymbopogon citratus (citronella grass or lemon grass); habit. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
HabitCymbopogon citratus (citronella grass or lemon grass); habit. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cymbopogon citratus (citronella grass or lemon grass); leaves. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionCymbopogon citratus (citronella grass or lemon grass); leaves. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cymbopogon citratus (citronella grass or lemon grass); leaves. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.
LeavesCymbopogon citratus (citronella grass or lemon grass); leaves. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf

Preferred Common Name

  • lemongrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Andropogon cerifer Hack.
  • Andropogon ceriferus Hack.
  • Andropogon citratus DC. ex Nees
  • Andropogon fragrans C.Cordem.
  • Andropogon nardus subsp. ceriferus L. (Hack.) Hack.
  • Andropogon roxburghii Nees ex Steud.
  • Calamus aromaticus
  • Cymbopogon nardus
  • Cymbopogon nardus var. citratus (L.) Rendle (DC. ex Nees) Roberty

International Common Names

  • English: citron grass; citronella grass; fever grass; lemon grass; West Indian lemongrass
  • Spanish: hierba limon; pasto limón; sontol; te limon; yerba luisa; zacate de limón; zacate de té; zacate dete; zacate limón
  • French: citronelle; herbe citron; Sitonnèl; verveine des Indes
  • Chinese: xiang mao
  • Portuguese: cana-cidreira; cana-limão; capim-cidró; capim-santo; erva-cidreira; patchuli-falso

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: cana-cidreira; cana-limão; capim-cidró; capim-santo; erva-cidreira; patchuli-falso; yerbaluisa
  • Cambodia: slek krey sabou
  • Cuba: Caña de limón; Cañita santa; Cañuela; Corta calentura; Hierba de calentura; Hierba de limón; Hierba santa; Yerba de calentura; Yerba de limón; Yerba isleña; Yerba limón; Yerba santa
  • Dominican Republic: Citronela, Limoncillo
  • Germany: Lemongras; Zitronellgras; Zitronengras
  • India: bhustarah; gandhabene; gandhatran; injippullu; khavi; lilacha; majjigehallu; nimmagaddi; vasanapullu
  • Indonesia: sereh
  • Italy: citronella
  • Laos: 'si khai; 'sing khai
  • Lesser Antilles: fever grass
  • Malaysia: serai; serai dapur; sereh
  • Myanmar: sabalin
  • Peru: yerba Luisa
  • Philippines: balioko; salai; tanglad
  • Puerto Rico: Limoncillo; Zorra de limón
  • Saint Lucia: sitonnèl
  • Sri Lanka: sereh
  • Thailand: cha khrai; khrai; soet-kroei
  • Vietnam: sa chanh

EPPO code

  • CYGCI (Cymbopogon citratus)
  • CYGNA (Cymbopogon nardus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cymbopogon citratus is a perennial grass that has been intentionally introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world for the essential oil extracts from its leaves and to be used as a culinary and medicinal herb. It is a tall grass with rhizomes and densely tufted fibrous roots, which tillers profusely and has the potential to escape from cultivation. Once established it can spread fairly rapidly, becoming weedy and invasive in disturbed areas. Currently it is listed as a weed in Mexico and as an invasive species on the island of St. Lucia. On this island, C. citratus is an invader which, due to its high oil content, has the potential to increase fire risk in areas such as Pigeon Island and Dennery quarry where it forms monotypic stands.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Cymbopogon
  •                                 Species: Cymbopogon citratus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Poaceae is one of the largest Angiosperm families, including 707 genera and about 11,337 species widely distributed in all regions of the world (Stevens, 2016). The genus Cymbopogon comprises 59 species distributed across the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa and Australia (Barkworth et al., 2007; Flora of China, 2016). Several Cymbopogon species (i.e., Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon nardus) are cultivated commercially for the aromatic oils that are distilled from their leaves. Cymbopogon is closely related to Andropogon, Chrysopogon and Hyparrhenia, leading to taxonomic complications and frequent misidentification of species within these genera (Flora of China, 2016).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Flora of China (2016):

Cymbopogon citratus is a perennial, shortly rhizomatous grass. Culms tufted, robust, up to 2 m tall, 4 mm in diameter, farinose below nodes. Leaf sheaths glabrous, greenish inside; leaf blades glaucous, 30-90 × 0.5-2 cm, both surfaces scabrid, base gradually narrowed, apex long acuminate; ligule 1 mm. Spathate compound panicle large, lax, up to 50 cm, drooping, branches slender; spatheoles reddish or yellowish brown, 1.5-2 cm; racemes 1.5-2 cm; rachis internodes and pedicels 2.5-4 mm, loosely villous on margins; pedicel of homogenous pair not swollen. Sessile spikelet linear-lanceolate, 5-6 × 0.7 mm; lower glume flat or slightly concave toward base, sharply 2-keeled, keels wingless, scabrid, veinless between keels; upper lemma narrow, entire and awnless, or slightly 2-lobed with 0.2 mm mucro. Pedicelled spikelet 4-5 mm.

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Cymbopogon citratus is native to India and Sri Lanka (Clayton et al., 2016). It has been introduced and cultivated in Africa, South and Central America, the West Indies, China and South-East Asia (Zuloaga et al., 2003; Clayton et al., 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
AngolaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
BeninPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
CameroonPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016); Nguefack et al. (2004); Ntonifor et al. (2006)
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
Congo, Republic of thePresentCimanga et al. (2002a); Cimanga et al. (2002)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
EgyptPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016); Moawad (2003)
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
GambiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
GhanaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
GuineaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
KenyaPresentKokwaro (1979)
LiberiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
MoroccoPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
NigeriaPresentOparaeke (2006)
RéunionPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
RwandaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
SenegalPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
-Aldabra IslandsPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
TanzaniaPresentWilliams (1949)
ZambiaPresentChisowa et al. (1998)
ZimbabwePresentChagonda et al. (2000)

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016); Ashrafuzzaman et al. (1990)
CambodiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Yang Lei (2005)
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)Cultivated
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)Cultivated
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)Cultivated
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)Cultivated
-HubeiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)Cultivated
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)Cultivated
IndiaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016); CABI (Undated a)
-Andhra PradeshPresentMamatha et al. (2002)
-HaryanaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tomar Minhas (2004)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Srivastava Guleria (2003)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Krishnamurthy Hemalatha (2003)
-Tamil NaduPresentSoosairaj et al. (2005)
-Uttar PradeshPresentDevendra Singh et al. (2002); Mishra et al. (2002); Devendra Singh et al. (2003)
-West BengalPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Mandal De (2005)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016); CABI (Undated)
-JavaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
-SumatraPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
JapanPresentAlbo et al. (2003)
LaosPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
MyanmarPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
NepalPresentSingh et al. (1980)
PakistanPresentMaryam Mirza et al. (2005); Somia Khattak et al. (2005)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016); CABI (Undated)
South KoreaPresentHammer et al. (1990)
Sri LankaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)Cultivated
ThailandPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016); Detpiratmongkol et al. (2005); CABI (Undated)
VietnamPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016); CABI (Undated)

Europe

ItalyPresentBertea et al. (2003)
United KingdomPresentHumphrey (1973)

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Leung Foster (1996)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003); Pohl (1980)
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Esquivel et al. (1989)
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MexicoPresentIntroducedSánchez-Ken et al. (2012); Berlin et al. (1974)Listed as a weed growing in Chiapas, Coahuila, Jalisco, Morelos, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tabasco, Veracruz and Yucatan
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003)
PanamaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003); CABI (Undated)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint LuciaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveGraveson (2012a); Graveson (2012)Quite rare but presenting a fire and IAS hazard in critical areas e.g. Pigeon Island
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St Croix, St Thomas
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
-IndianaPresentRozzi et al. (2002)
-MarylandPresentNoel et al. (2002)
-New YorkPresentWilliamson et al. (1996)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentBeech (1990); Shivas et al. (1999)
New ZealandPresentCABI (Undated b)
Papua New GuineaPresentWossa et al. (2004)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003); Albo et al. (2003); CABI (Undated)
BoliviaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003); Moore et al. (2007)
BrazilPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-AcrePresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-AmazonasPresentDuke and Vasquez (1994)
-CearaPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-GoiasPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-ParanaPresentGomes and Negrelle (2006); CABI (Undated)
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-PiauiPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015); Leal et al. (2003); Silva et al. (2006)Naturalized
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)Naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentSalerno et al. (2004); CABI (Undated)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015); Figueiredo et al. (2002); Valarini et al. (2003)Naturalized
ChilePresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003); Pardo-Cardona (1999)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007)Naturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007)Naturalized
PeruPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003); Gade (1975)
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007)Naturalized
UruguayPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003); CABI (Undated)

History of Introduction and Spread

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After the First World War large-scale cultivation of C. citratus began in South and Central America and later in Africa, Madagascar and nearby islands. Cymbopogon citratus is now found cultivated and often naturalized throughout the tropics and warm subtropics. It is very common throughout South-East Asia where it is cultivated as an industrial crop and as a garden ornamental (Oyen, 1999). In the United States, it has been collected in Florida, across the Miami-Dade County (Wunderlin et al., 2016).

In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, C. citratus appears in herbarium collections made in 1876 and 1860 respectively. In Puerto Rico this species occurs primarily in cultivation in home gardens but is also found naturalized in humid areas (Más and García-Molinari, 2006).

In St Lucia, C. citratus forms monotypic stands in areas such as Pigeon Island and Dennery and has the potential to spread to dry degraded slopes between Vieux Fort and Micoud (Graveson, 2012).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. citratus is very high. This grass has been intentionally introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world for its essential oil and as a culinary and medicinal herb and has the potential to escape from cultivation (Oyen, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Habitat

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Cymbopogon citratus can be found cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics and warm subtropics, in warm and humid habitats and along roadsides. However, it is predominantly grown in cultivation (Oyen, 1999).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. citratus is 2n = 40 (Flora of China, 2016).

Reproductive biology

In most places Cymbopogon citratus flowers very rarely or not at all. It mostly reproduces vegetatively (Oyen, 1999).

Physiology and phenology

In China, C. citratus has been recorded flowering and fruiting during summer (Flora of China, 2016).

Longevity

Cymbopogon citratus has a life-span of 4-6 years (Oyen, 1999).

Environmental requirements

Cymbopogon citratus grows best under sunny, warm and humid conditions at elevations below 750 m, with mean annual temperatures ranging from 23°C to 30°C and mean annual rainfall between 2500-3000 mm. It is adapted to grow on a wide variety of soils types, but prefers well-drained soils with pH ranging from 5.5 to 7.5. However, this species has been recorded growing in Australia on clay soils with pH=9.6. It does not tolerate saline soils or frosty conditions (Oyen, 1999)

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 23 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall25003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cochliobolus cymbopogonis Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Cochliobolus lunatus Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In Guatemala, Helminthosporium cymbopogi [Cochliobolus cymbopogonis] causes a serious leaf-spot disease in Cymbopogon species resulting in significant damage. Curvularia lunata [Cochliobolus lunatus] causes another leaf disease, starting with elongated, discolored lesions that ultimately become brown with a paler border. Brown-tip disease is a physiological disorder in C. citratus, resulting from a low water content of the leaves at the end of the dry season (Oyen, 1999).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Cymbopogon citratus rarely produces seeds, and it spreads mostly vegetatively by rhizomes and tillers (Oyen, 1999).

Intentional introduction

Cymbopogon citratus has been actively introduced in tropical and subtropical regions around the world where it is cultivated as a culinary and medicinal herb, garden ornamental and as an industrial crop to extract essential oils from its leaves (Oyen, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionCultivated as an industrial crop for its essential oils Yes Yes Oyen, 1999
Escape from confinement or garden escapeRhizomes, tillers and plant fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Oyen, 1999
Garden waste disposalRhizomes, tillers and plant fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Oyen, 1999
Industrial purposesEssential oils Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Medicinal useMedicinal herb Yes Yes Oyen, 1999
Ornamental purposesCultivated as an ornamental in gardens and along roadsides Yes Yes Oyen, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesRhizomes, tillers and plant fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Oyen, 1999
Plants or parts of plantsLeaves and shoots are distributed commercially Yes Yes Oyen, 1999

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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As weedy grass, C. citratus tillers strongly and may quickly invade new habitats, forming monotypic stands that displace native vegetation (Oyen, 1999). It is a tall grass with rhizomes and densely tufted fibrous roots that, once established, is very difficult to remove (Gilman, 1999). 

On the island of St Lucia, C. citratus is listed as invasive species as, due to the high oil content of the leaves, it has the potential to increase the risk of fires in natural areas such as Pigeon Island and Dennery quarry where it forms monotypic stands (Graveson, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic value

Essential oil extracts from Cymbopogon are used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and perfumery. C. citratus is commercially cultivated in Africa and Asia, but the leading exporter of this species is Guatemala, trading about 250,000 kg per year (Avoseh et al., 2015).

Social benefit

Cymbopogon citratus is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, fevers and hypertension. It is commonly used in the form of tea as a “homemade remedy” for cough, flu, gingivitis, digestive problems and stomachache (Avoseh et al., 2015).

Environmental services

Cymbopogon citratus is planted in gardens and on bunds for soil conservation (Oyen, 1999).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Soil conservation

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Essential oils
  • Lipids
  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

References

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Abe S, Sato Y, Inoue S, Ishibashi H, Maruyama N, Takizawa T, Oshima H, Yamaguchi H, 2003. Anti Candida albicans activity of essential oils including lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil and its component, citral. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology, 44(4):285-291

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Albo GN, Henning C, Ringuelet J, Reynaldi FJ, Giusti MRD, Alippi AM, 2003. Evaluation of some essential oils for the control and prevention of American foul brood disease in honey bees. Apidologie, 34(5):417-427

Ambrose, D. C. P., Manickavasagan, A., Naik, R., 2016. Leafy medicinal herbs: botany, chemistry, postharvest technology and uses, CABI.xiii + 282 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20163250834 doi:10.1079/9781780645599.0000

Andrade BOC, Rodriguez POS, 2002. Assessment of efficiency of vegetative barriers as soil conservation systems on steep lands. Bioagro, 14(3):123-133

Anon, 1981. Annual Report 1980-81. Lucknow, India: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 68

Ashrafuzzaman MH, Khan AR, Howlider AR, 1990. In vitro effect of lemongrass oil and crude extracts of some higher plants on Rhizoctonia solani. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(1-2):17-18

Avoseh, O., Oyedeji, O., Rungqu, P., Nkeh-Chungag, B., Oyedeji, A., 2015. Cymbopogon species; ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and the pharmacological importance. Molecules, 20(5), 7438-7453. doi: 10.3390/molecules20057438

Balboa JG, Lim-Sylianco CY, 1995. Effect of some medicinal plants on skin tumor promotion. Philippine Journal of Science, 124(2):203-207; 2 ref

Barkworth, M. E., Capels, K. M., Long, S., Anderton, L. K., Piep, M. B., 2007. Grass manual on the Web. In: Grass manual on the Web . Logan, Utah, USA: Utah State University.http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/

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05/12/2016 Updated by:

Dr. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany, Smithsonian NMNH

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