Cymbopogon citratus (citronella grass)
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf
Preferred Common Name
- citronella grass
Other Scientific Names
- Andropogon ceriferus Hack.
- Andropogon citratus DC. ex Nees
- Andropogon nardus subsp. ceriferus L. (Hack.) Hack.
- Andropogon roxburghii Nees ex Steud.
- Calamus aromaticus
- Cymbopogon nardus
- Cymbopogon nardus subvar. citratus (L.) Rendle (DC. ex Nees) Roberty
International Common Names
- English: citron grass; fever grass; lemongrass; West Indian lemongrass
- Spanish: hierba limon; pasto limón; sontol; te limon; zacate de limón; zacate dete; zacate limón
- French: citronelle; herbe citron; verveine des Indes
- Chinese: xiang mao
Local Common Names
- Brazil: cana-cidreira; cana-limão; capim-cidró; capim-santo; erva-cidreira; patchuli-falso; yerbaluisa
- Germany: Lemongras; Zitronellgras; Zitronengras
- India: bhustarah; gandhabene; gandhatran; injippullu; khavi; lilacha; majjigehallu; nimmagaddi; vasanapullu
- Indonesia: sereh
- Italy: citronella
- Myanmar: sabalin
- Peru: yerba Luisa
- Saint Lucia: sitonnèl
- Sri Lanka: sereh
- Vietnam: sa chanh
- CYGCI (Cymbopogon citratus)
- CYGNA (Cymbopogon nardus)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Cymbopogon
- Species: Cymbopogon citratus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Cymbopogon is a very large genus within the grass family Poaceae, consisting of over 500 species that grow in the tropical and sub-tropical regions from mountains to grass lands to arid zones, including the species C. citratus and C. flexuosus.
Cymbopogon species are aromatic and produce commercially important oils, including citronella. Five Cymbopogon species yield three commercially important oils that are traded internationally. They are: lemongrass oil from Cymbopogoncitratus (Indian or West Indian lemongrass) and Cymbopogon flexuosus (East Indian lemongrass from Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Myanmar); palmarosa oil from Cymbopogon martini and citronella oil from Cymbopogon nardus (Sri Lanka) and Cymbopogon winterianus (Java) (Bertia and Maffei, 2010).
C. citratus is believed to be a native of Malaysia. In English, the herb is commonly known as lemongrass (or lemon grass), citronella grass or fever grass (Ambrose et al., 2016).
DescriptionTop of page
Lemongrass is a perennial, tufted, aromatic C4 grass.
Habit: Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short. Culms 100-200 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades tapering towards sheath; 45-90 cm long; 10-20 mm wide; aromatic.
Inflorescence: Synflorescence compound; paniculate; 30-60 cm long; open. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed.
Racemes two; paired; deflexed; 1-2.5 cm long. Rachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete; villous on margins. Rachis hairs 2-3 mm long. Rachis internodes linear. Rachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases flattened; subequal.
Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; one in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; one in the cluster. Pedicels linear; semiterete; villous; with 2-3 mm long hairs.
Sterile spikelets: Basal sterile spikelets well developed; two in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels free; linear. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile spikelets.
Companion sterile spikelets well developed; male; elliptic; 4-4.5 mm long; shorter than fertile; deciduous with the fertile spikelet. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas two; enclosed by glumes.
Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising one basal sterile florets; one fertile floret; without rachilla extension. Spikelets linear or lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5-6 mm long; 0.7 mm wide; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
Glumes: Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; one times length of spikelet; two-keeled; keeled laterally; wingless. Lower glume intercarinal veins absent. Lower glume surface flat or concave. Lower glume apex emarginate. Upper glume lanceolate; one-keeled. Upper glume apex acute.
Florets: Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret hyaline. Fertile lemma lanceolate; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex entire or dentate; 2-fid; muticous, or mucronate; 1-awned. Palea absent or minute.
Flower: Anthers three.
Seed: Cylindrical to sub-globose caryopsis with basal hilum.
DistributionTop of page
C. citratus is believed to be a native of Malaysia. Lemongrass was one of the herbs transported along the spice route from Asia to Europe. It is now found growing in all continents except Antarctica, and is particularly widely distributed in China, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Pakistan, Thailand, Cameroon, Congo, Egypt, Nigeria, North and Central America, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Italy and Papua New Guinea.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Bangladesh||Present||Ashrafuzzaman et al., 1990|
|China||Present||Yang Lei, 2005|
|India||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Andhra Pradesh||Present||Mamatha et al., 2002|
|-Haryana||Present||Tomar Minhas, 2004|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present||Srivastava Guleria, 2003|
|-Karnataka||Present||Krishnamurthy Hemalatha, 2003|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present||Soosairaj et al., 2005|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||Mishra et al., 2002; Singh et al., 2002; Singh et al., 2003|
|-West Bengal||Present||Mandal De, 2005|
|Indonesia||Present||Suyamto, and Howeler, 2004|
|Japan||Present||Albo et al., 2003|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||Hammer et al., 1990|
|Nepal||Present||Singh et al., 1980|
|Pakistan||Present||Khattak et al., 2005; Mirza et al., 2005|
|Philippines||Present||Balboa Lim-Sylianco, 1995|
|Thailand||Present||Detpiratmongkol et al., 2005; Dumri Lertsiri, 2005|
|Vietnam||Present||Nham, and Thoi, 1993|
|Cameroon||Present||Nguefack et al., 2004b; Ntonifor et al., 2006|
|Congo||Present||Cimanga et al., 2002a; Cimanga et al., 2002b|
|Zambia||Present||Chisowa et al., 1998|
|Zimbabwe||Present||Chagonda et al., 2000|
|Canada||Present||Leung Foster, 1996|
|Mexico||Present||Berlin et al., 1974|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Indiana||Present||Rozzi et al., 2002|
|-Maryland||Present||Noel et al., 2002|
|-New York||Present||Williamson et al., 1996|
Central America and Caribbean
|Costa Rica||Present||Pohl, 1980|
|Cuba||Present||Esquivel et al., 1989|
|Panama||Present||Covich Nickerson, 1966|
|Saint Lucia||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Graveson, 2012||Quite rare but presenting a fire and IAS hazard in critical areas e.g. Pigeon Island|
|Argentina||Present||Albo et al., 2003; Madia Gaetan, 2004|
|Bolivia||Present||Moore et al., 2007|
|-Amazonas||Present||Duke and Vasquez, 1994|
|-Parana||Present||Sevignani Jacomassi, 2003; Gomes et al., 2006|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present||Leal et al., 2003; Silva et al., 2006|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||Salerno et al., 2004; Salerno Rebelo, 2006|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Figueiredo et al., 2002; Valarini et al., 2003|
|Venezuela||Present||Andrade Rodriguez, 2002|
|Italy||Present||Bertea et al., 2003|
|Australia||Present||Beech, 1990; Shivas et al., 1999|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Wossa et al., 2004|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
C. citratus, West Indian lemongrass, is a tropical perennial plant, which yields an aromatic oil.
C. citratus flourishes in the sunny, warm, humid conditions of the tropics. It grows well between 900 and 1250 m above mean sea level and where the annual rainfall averages 2500-3000 mm. C. citratus is more drought tolerant than C. flexuosus , and in areas where rainfall is poor it can be grown with supplemental irrigation. A day temperature of 25-30°C, with no extreme low night temperatures, is optimum for maximum oil production. Short periods above 30°C have little general effect on C. citratus plants, but severely reduce oil content. Maximum plant height has been recorded during the rainy season and lowest during the second harvest in the non-rainy season. The yield of oil fluctuates greatly with season, condition of plant material, its moisture content and the age of the planting material (Thomas, 1995; Weiss, 1997; Singh, 1999). When the role of environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and soil moisture on variation of oil content under the agroclimatic conditions of the northeastern region of India was studied, results showed that the monsoon was characterized by higher oil content, whereas winter and autumn were characterized by comparatively lower oil content. However, each environmental factor studied in isolation did not appear to have a direct relationship with oil content. Climatic influence is cumulative. Biomass and essential oil recovery is maximum during the summer. The maximum biomass recorded is 16.1 t/ha (Tomar and Minhas, 2004). Culinary herb production in a retractable roof greenhouse can optimize biomass and quality of lemongrass in a semi-arid climate. Studies at CIMAP, Lucknow, India, showed that cultivation of perennial lemongrass, palmarosa and Indian basil could be suggested for efficient utilization of natural resources and higher economic returns from rainfed areas of subtropical northern India. Lemongrass is a very productive traditional species in agroforestry systems in the Caribbean (Palada et al., 2005).
Lemongrass flourishes in a wide variety of soils, ranging from rich loam to poor laterite. In sandy loam and red soils it requires good manuring. Calcareous and waterlogged soils are unsuitable for its cultivation, but good drainage is important. Plants growing in sandy soils have higher leaf oil yield and citral content. C. citratus is more commonly grown on soils with higher acidity than C. flexuosus. Lemongrass will grow and produce average herbage and oil yields on highly saline soils. It grows well on poor soils along hill slopes.
UsesTop of page
C. citratus is planted in home gardens and has been used as an important aromatic and medicinal plant since ancient times in South and South-East Asia. It is grown for both its essential oil and as a food and beverage flavouring. It is also used in cosmetics and as folk medicine in several regions of the world.
Lemongrass is commonly used as a condiment in Asian cooking (Joy et al., 2007). Freshly ground lemongrass is added to spice pastes in Thailand and Indonesia. It is a popular constituent of many curries. The herb's popularity comes from the mildness of its fragrance, which does not overpower the senses in the way that lime does.
Lemongrass oleoresin is mainly used in flavouring foods, drinks and bakery preparations. Lemongrass is cultivated for its oil, which is used in culinary flavouring. It is used in most major categories of food including alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts, confectionery, baked foods, gelatins, puddings, meat and meat products, and fats and oils.
The aromatic leaves of lemongrass are commonly used for tea and other beverages. The dried leaves are widely used as a lemon flavour ingredient in herbal teas, prepared either by decoction or infusion of 2-3 leaves in 250 or 500 ml of water (Wannamacher et al., 1990) and other formulations (Joy et al., 2006a, b). Lemongrass tea is diuretic.
Lemongrass is used in Chinese medicine to treat a variety of ailments including eczema, colds, headache, stomach ache, abdominal pain and rheumatic pain. In India it is an important Ayurvedic medicine. Lemongrass oil is a stimulant, antiseptic, febrifuge, carminative, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and is useful against rickets. Lemongrass has allelopathic, anthelmintic, anticancer, anticandidal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antinoceptive, antioxidant, antiplatelet and antiviral activities. It is cytotoxic, which could be exploited for pesticidal or chemotherapeutic agents (Dubey et al., 1997). It has insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal, pro-oxidative and repellent activities and is a vasorelaxant. Citral is a well known contact allergen and irritant (Heydorn et al., 2003).
Occasionally lemongrass is planted as soil cover and for erosion control, with the leaves harvested for the distillation of West Indian lemongrass oil (CSIR, 1950; Bose et al., 2001). It is useful for planting on bunds for soil conservation and as a mulch, and is sometimes grown for cellulose and paper production.
Uses ListTop of page
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
Human food and beverage
- Spices and culinary herbs
- Essential oils
ReferencesTop of page
Abe S, Sato Y, Inoue S, Ishibashi H, Maruyama N, Takizawa T, Oshima H, Yamaguchi H, 2003. Anti Candida albicans activity of essential oils including lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil and its component, citral. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology, 44(4):285-291.
Albo GN, Henning C, Ringuelet J, Reynaldi FJ, Giusti MRD, Alippi AM, 2003. Evaluation of some essential oils for the control and prevention of American foul brood disease in honey bees. Apidologie, 34(5):417-427.
Ambrose, D. C. P., Manickavasagan, A., Naik, R., 2016. Leafy medicinal herbs: botany, chemistry, postharvest technology and uses., Leafy medicinal herbs: botany, chemistry, postharvest technology and uses:xiii + 282 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20163250834
Anon, 1981. Annual Report 1980-81. Lucknow, India: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 68.
Beech DF, 1990. The effect of carrier and rate of nitrogen application on the growth and oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) in the Ord Irrigation Area, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 30(2):243-250.
Berlin B, Breedlove DE, Raven PH, 1974. Principles of Tzeltal Plant Classification. An Introduction to the Botanical Ethnography of a Mayan Speaking People of Highland Chiapas. New York, USA: Acad. Press.
Bertea CM, Tesio M, Agostino GD, Buffa G, Camusso W, Bossi S, Mucciarelli M, Scannerini S, Maffei M, 2003. The C4 biochemical pathway and the anatomy of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. cultivated in temperate climates. Plant Biosystems, 137(2):175-184.
Cardona VMP, 1999. Rust of lemon grass, a new disease in Colombia and South America. Fitopatologia Colombiana, 23(1/2):43-44.
Chagonda LS, Makanda C, Chalchat JC, 2000. Essential oils of cultivated Cymbopogon winterianus (Jowitt) and of C. citratus (DC) (Stapf) from Zimbabwe. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 12(4):478-480.
Chandra V, Singh B, Singh A, 1970. Observation on growth and yield of oil of C. winterianus at Lucknow. Indian Perfumer, 14:32-35.
Chisowa EH, Hall DR, Farman DI, 1998. Olatile constituents of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf grown in Zambia. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 13(1):29-30.
Cimanga K, Apers S, Bruyne Tde, Miert Svan, Hermans N, TottT J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, Kambu K, Tona L, 2002. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 14(5):382-387; 34 ref.
Cimanga K, Kambu K, Tona L, Apers S, Bruyne T, Hermans N, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, 2002. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 79(2):213-220.
Covich AP, Nickerson NH, 1966. Studies of cultivated plants in Choco dwelling clearings, Darien, Panama. Econ. Bot., 20, 285-301.
Detpiratmongkol S, Ubolkerd T, Yousukyingsatapron S, 2005. Effects of irrigation frequencies and amounts on growth and yield of local lemongrass cultivar. Proceedings of 43rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Thailand, 1-4-February, Subject: Plants, 632-640.
Duhan SPS, Gulati BC, 1973. Chemical weed control studies in Cymbopogon winterianus citronella java type: Effect of 2, 4-D on control of weeds, herb and oil yield. Indian Perfumer, 17:1-9.
Duke JA, Vasquez R, 1994. Amazonian ethnobotanical dictionary. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press.
Dumri K, Lertsiri S, 2005. Pro-oxidative activity in some Thai spices, Acta Horticulturae, (680):25-29.
Edris AE, Mahmoud SYM, 2003. Relationship between certain volatile components of lemongrass oil and its antiviral activities against bean yellow mosaic potyvirus. Bulletin of the National Research Centre Cairo, 28(3):289-299.
Esquivel M, Castiñeiras L, Knüpffer H, Hammer K, 1989. A checklist of cultivated plants of Cuba. Kulturpflanze 37, 211-357.
Farooqi AA, Khan MM, Vasundhara M, 1999. Production Technology of Medicinal and Aromatic crops, Bangalore, India: Natural Remedies Pvt Ltd.
Farooqi AA, Sreeramu BS, 2001. Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops. Hyderabad, India: Universities Press (India) Ltd.
Figueiredo RO, Delachiave MEA, Ming LC, 2002. Effect of growth regulators on citral content in lemongrass in different seasons. Acta Horticulturae, (569):47-50.
Figueiredo RO, Delachiave MEA, Ming LC, 2006. Growth regulators in biomass production and essential oil in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, in different seasons. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 8(3):31-35.
Gade DW, 1975. Plants, man and the land in the Vilcanota Valley of Peru. (Biogeographica 6). The Hague, Netherlands: Junk Publ.
Gomes EC, Negrelle RRB, limao C, 2006. Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf: subsidy to improvement of quality in the crop, industrialization and marketing in Parana State. Scientia Agraria, 7(1/2):119-120.
Graveson RS, 2012. Survey of invasive alien plant species on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia. Survey of invasive alien plant species on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia. Castries, Saint Lucia: Department of Forestry.
Hammer K, Dzae RJ, Hoang HD, 1990. Additional notes to the check-list of Korean cultivated plants (4). Kulturpflanze 38, 173-190.
Handa SS, Kaul MK, 1997. Supplement to cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants, India: CSIR, RRL, Jammu-Tawi.
Humphrey AM, 1973. The chromatography of the spice oils. Proc. Info. Conf. Spices, London, Tropical Prod. Inst., 123-128.
Jagadishchandra KS, 1975. Recent studies on Cymbopogon Spreng. (aromatic grasses) with special reference to Indian taxa. taxonomy, cytogenetics, chemistry, and scope. Journal of Plantation Crops, 3:43-57.
Joy PP, Mathew S, Skaria BP, Mathew G, 2007. Development of lemongrass oleoresin for flavouring. Final Report of ICAR Cess Fund Scheme, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, Odakkali, Asamannoor PO, Kerala, India.
Joy PP, Skaria BP, l Mathew S, Mathew G, Joseph A, Sreevidya PP, 2006. Lemongrass. Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, Odakkali, Asamannoor, Kerala, India.
Joy PP, Thomas J, Mathew S, Jose G, Joseph J, 2001. Aromatic plants. In: Bose TK, Kabir J, Das P, Joy PP, eds. Tropical Horticulture. Vol. 2. Calcutta, India: Naya Prokash, 633-733.
Khan, 1979. Integrated Plantation and Propagation to Expedite Development of Export Oriented Agro-based Industries. Chittagong, Bangladesh: BCSIR Laboratories.
Khattak S, RehmanS, Shah HU, Khan T, Ahmad M, 2005. In vitro enzyme inhibition activities of crude ethanolic extracts derived from medicinal plants of Pakistan. Natural Product Research, 19(6):567-571.
Kokwaro JO, 1979. Classification of East African Crops. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Literature Bureau.
Leal TCAB, Freitas SP, Silva JF, Carvalho AJC, 2003. Production of biomass and essential oil in plants of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf) of various ages. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 5(2):61-64.
Leung AY, Foster S, 1996. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics, Canada. A Wiley Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Luize PS, Tiuman TS, Morello LG, Maza PK, Nakamura TU, Filho BPD, Cortez DAG, Mello JCP, Nakamura CV, 2005. Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi. Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, 41(1):85-94.
Mar Mar Nyein, Win Myint, Mu Mu Sein Myint, Mya Bwin, Tin Aye, 1996. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from six medicinal plants. Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, 8(2):62-65; 12 ref.
Mirza M, Rizwani GH, Yaseen Z, Qadri RB, Ahmad M, Mehmood S, 2005. Pharmacognostic studies of some diuretic medicinal plants of Pakistan. Hamdard Medicus, 48(2):178-194.
Mishra LN, Pathak RA, Pandey AK, Pratap B, Singh SK, 2002. Effect of various mulches on the physico-chemical properties of the sodic soil under aonla+guava cropping system. Annals of Agricultural Research, 23(3):377-380.
Moore SJ, Davies CR, Hill N, Cameron MM, 2007. Are mosquitoes diverted from repellent-using individuals to non-users? Results of a field study in Bolivia. Trop Med Int Health, 12(4):532-9.
Muhammad Saleem, Nighat Afza, Anwar MA, Hai SMA, Ali MS, Shahida Shujaat, Atta-ur-Rahman, 2003. Chemistry and biological significance of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus from Pakistan. Natural Product Research, 17(3):159-163; 19 ref.
Nair EVG, Nair KC, Chinnamma MP, 1979. Field Experiments with micronutrients on the yield of grass, oil and citral content of oil of East Indian lemongrass (C. flexuosus var. OD-19). Indian Perfumer, 23:55-58.
Nelkin JB, Schuch UK, 2004. Retractable roof greenhouse production of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) in a semi-arid climate. Acta Horticulturae, 659(1):113-120.
Nguefack J, Budde BB, Jakobsen M, 2004. Five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon:their antibacterial activity and ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Listeria innocua examined by flow cytometry. Lett Appl Microbiol, 39(5):395-400.
Nguefack J, Leth V, Zollo PHA, Mathur SB, 2004. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin-producing fungi. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94(3):329-334.
Nguefack J, Somda I, Mortensen CN, Zollo PHA, 2005. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling seed-borne bacteria of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Science and Technology, 33(2):397-407.
Nham, Thoi N, 1993. Medicinal and aromatic plants in Vietnam. In: Chomchalow N, Henle HV, eds. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Asia: Breeding and Improvement. Lebanon: Science Publ., RAPA Publication 1993/19, 185-196.
Ntonifor NN, Ngufor CA, Kimbi HK, Oben BO, 2006. Traditional use of indigenous mosquito-repellents to protect humans against mosquitoes and other insect bites in a rural community of Cameroon. East African Medical Journal, 83(10):553-558.
Oparaeke AM, 2006. Field screening of nine plant extracts for the control of post-flowering insect pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 39(3):225-230.
Osman SM, Radwan OM, 2004. Isolation and identification of active components in some plant extracts and their effect on Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.). Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 14(1):181-185.
Palada MC, Mitchell JM, Becker BN, Nair PKR, 2005. The integration of medicinal plants and culinary herbs in agroforestry systems for the Caribbean:a study in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Acta Horticulturae, 676:147-153.
Pareek SK, Gupta R, 1985. On the status of agronomic research in Cymbopogon grasses in India with projections on future work. Indian Perfumer, 29 (3/4), 215-224.
Pauli FF, Opazo MAU, N=brega LHP, 2002. The study of the effects of repellent plants to insects in the corn seeds physiological quality stored in corn-cob through a statistic longitudinal analysis. Revista Brasileira de Produtos Agroindustriais, 4(2):167-174; 7 ref.
Pohl RW, 1980. Flora costaricensis. Fam. 15. Gramineae. Fieldiana, Bot. N.S. 4.
Pratibha G, Korwar GR, 2003. Crop diversification through medicinal, aromatic and dye yielding plants for sustainability in semi-arid regions. In: Mathur AK et al., eds. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 129-132.
Ram M, Singh R, et al, 1997. Effect of salicylic acid on the yield and quality of essential oil in aromatic crops. journal of Medicinal and Aromatic plant Sciences, 19(1):24-27.
Ranade GS, 2004. Essential oil (Lemongrass oil). FAFAI J., 6(3):89.
Rao BRR, Chand S, Bhattacharya AK, Kaul PN, Singh CP, Singh K, 1998. Response of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexousus) cultivars to spacings and NPK fertilizers under irrigated and rainfed conditions in semi- arid tropics. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 20(2):407-412.
Rao GN, Rao SJ, Ananthanarayanan K, Shahi SK, Patra M, Shukla AC, Dikshit A, 2005. Antifungal activity of some chemicals against human pathogenic fungi (Dermatophytes). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B, Biologica Sciences, 75(4):288-293.
Rao P, Rao G, Puttanna, Ramesh S, 2005. Significance of harvest intervals on oil content and citral accumulation in variety Krishna of Lemongrass. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 27(2):1-3.
Ravindran, P. N., 2017. Encyclopedia of herbs and spices
Sahoo S, Debata BK, 1995. Recent advances in breeding and biotechnology of aromatic plants. Cymbopogon species. Plant Breeding Abstracts, 65(12):1721-1731.
Sarma TC, Tridip Goswami, Goswami T, 1993. Plantation of certain fastgrowing tree species under short-rotation agro-forestry system for production of biomass for paper pulp. Advances in Forestry Research in India, 9: 19-34; 15 ref.
Shiva A, 1998. Methods of sustainable harvesting and value addition for economic uplift and biodiversity conservation. MFP News, 8(3):19-20.
Silva PA, Blank AF, Arrigoni BMF, Barretto MCV, 2003. Effects of the organic and mineral fertilization on lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf. Revista Ciencia Agronomica, 34(1): 92-96.
Singh M, 1997. Growth, herbage, oil yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen utilization efficiency of different cultivars of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexousus) as affected by water regimes. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic plant Sciences, 19(3):695-699.
Singh MP, Malla SB, Rajbhandari SB, Manandhar A, 1980. Medicinal plants of Nepal - retrospects and prospects. Econ. Bot., 33, 185-198.
Singh SA, Singh et al, 1999. Resource utilization efficiency, productivity and economics of traditional agricultural crops and aromatic crops under rain fed conditions of sub tropical North India. Journal of Medicinal and aromatic plant sciences, 21(4):972-977.
Skaria BP, Joy PP, Joseph A, Joseph R, 2007. Aromatic Plants. In: Peter KV, eds. Horticulture Science Series – I. New Delhi, India: New India Publishing Agency, 270 pp.
Skaria BP, Joy PP, Mathew S, Mathew G, 2006. Lemongrass. In: Peter KV, eds. Handbook of Spices. Vol.3. Cambridge, UK : Woodhead Pub. Pvt. Ltd., 400-419.
Soosairaj S, Britto SJ, Balaguru B, Natarajan D, Nagamurugan N, 2005. Habitat similarity and species distribution analysis in tropical forests of eastern ghats, Tamilnadu. Tropical-Ecology, 46(2):183-191.
Srivastava A, Guleria S, 2003. Evaluation of botanicals for mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) control in Brassica. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 29(1/2):116-118.
Suyamto, Howeler RH, 2004. Cultural practices for soil erosion control in cassava-based cropping systems in Indonesia. In: Barker DH, Watson AJ, Sombatpanit S, Northcutt B, Maglinao AR, eds. Ground and Water Bioengineering for Erosion Control and Slope Stabilization. Enfield, New Hampshire, USA: Science Publishers, Inc, 291-297.
Thomas J, 1995. Lemongrass. In: Chadha KL, Rajendra Guptha. Advances in Horticulture Vol. II- Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. New Delhi, India: Malhotra Publishing House, 726.
Wannmacher I, Fuchs FD, Pali CL, Gianlupi A, Fillmann AL, Lanca E, Marques A, 1990. Plants employed in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia: I. An ethnopharmacological survey in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fitoterapia, 61(5):445-448.
Williams L, Home V, 1995. A comparative study of some essentials oils for potential use in topical applications for the treatment of the yeast Candida albicans. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism, 7(3):57-62; 7 ref.
Williamson EM, Okpako DT, Evans FJ, 1996. Selection, Preparation and Pharmacological Evaluation of Plant Material. New York, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Yang SY, Lei Y, 2005. Antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus against utilized bacteria and fungus. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University Agricultural Science, 23(4):374-376, 382.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/