Cuscuta reflexa (dodder)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (1798)
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Cuscuta elatior Choisy (1841)
- Cuscuta hookeri Sweet (1826)
- Cuscuta macrantha Don. (1837)
- Cuscuta megalantha Steudel (1840)
- Cuscuta verrucosa Sweet (1823)
International Common Names
- French: cuscute; cuscute grosse
- CVCRE (Cuscuta reflexa)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Solanales
- Family: Cuscutaceae
- Genus: Cuscuta
- Species: Cuscuta reflexa
DescriptionTop of page C. reflexa has a similar morphology to Cuscuta campestris but is more robust, with a vine 1-2 mm thick, yellow or reddish, sometimes greenish. The flowers are also much longer, up to 10 mm long, white or pinkish with 5 obtuse lobes, much shorter than the lobes, in loose clusters. The capsule is elongated, conical, with a pair of simple stigmas on a very short single style. The seeds are large, 3-3.5 mm long.
DistributionTop of page The distribution data provided on the map are incomplete, but C. reflexa is mainly confined to tropical Asia.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Mauritius||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Afghanistan||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Bangladesh||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Bhutan||Present, Widespread||Parker (1992)|
|China||Present, Widespread||Parker and Riches (1993)|
|-Yunnan||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Yuncker, 1932|
|India||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1979)|
|-Assam||Present||Barua et al. (2003)|
|-Bihar||Present||Mishra and Prasad (1988)|
|-Gujarat||Present||Bhatt et al. (2006)|
|-Haryana||Present||Ashok Yadav et al. (2007)|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present||Ravi Upadhyay (2004)|
|-Odisha||Present||Pradhan et al. (2005)|
|-Sikkim||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Yuncker, 1932|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Rawat and Sachan (1994)|
|-Uttarakhand||Present||Paliwal and Beena Kumari (2009)|
|-West Bengal||Present||Debabrata Das (2007)|
|Indonesia||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1979); CABI (Undated)|
|-Java||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Yuncker, 1932|
|Nepal||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Pakistan||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Parker and Riches (1993)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page Cuscuta species are quarantine pests in many countries.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page C. reflexa is a robust species occurring mainly on perennial tree and shrub hosts. Bhattarai et al. (1989) list 39 host species in 28 plant families in India.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage
Biology and EcologyTop of page The biology of C. reflexa is largely comparable to that of Cuscuta campestris, but it is tropical in distribution, allowing it to behave as a typical perennial, persisting on its woody hosts for years. It has rather more chlorophyll than C. campestris giving it a greenish tinge, especially in young stages before it is attached to a host. It also differs in requiring short days for flowering.
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Natural enemies of Cuscuta spp., including C. reflexa, are reviewed by CAB International (1987).
ImpactTop of page C. reflexa is less widespread than Cuscuta campestris, but is capable of serious crop damage where it does occur. It is classified as a 'principal' or 'serious' weed in Afghanistan, Nepal, India and Pakistan (Holm et al., 1979).
Uses ListTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page C. reflexa is distinguished from Cuscuta campestris and many other species by having only a single style, and from other weedy species with this character by the style being shorter than the stigmas. Cuscuta monogyna, C. lupuliformis and C. japonica have styles longer than the stigmas, and also have smaller flowers less than 5 mm long (see Parker and Riches, 1993 for descriptions and key).
Cuscuta monogyna, with style and stigmas of about equal length, is a species of the Mediterranean and Middle East, eastwards to Afghanistan, which occurs mainly on woody shrub and tree hosts but also on some herbaceous plants. It is known to be troublesome in Iran, Pakistan, the former USSR, Afghanistan, Iraq, Jordan, Israel and Cyprus, on fruit trees including citrus and olive, and on vegetables including onion (Parker and Riches, 1993).
C. lupuliformis, with style about twice as long as the stigmas, is a European species, also occurring in India, Afghanistan and Brazil, which mainly attacks only tree and shrub species (Parker and Riches, 1993).
C. japonica, with style distinctly longer than the stigmas, occurs in East Asia, and is locally important in China and Japan on both woody and herbaceous hosts including potato and aubergine, but not tomato (Parker and Riches, 1993).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.See data sheet on Cuscuta campestris.
ReferencesTop of page
Ashok Yadav, Banga RS, Balyan RS, Malik RK, Punia SS, 2007. Evaluation of herbicides against dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) infesting the hedges of bougainvillea (Bougainvillaea purpurea) and cleridendron (Cleridendron splendena). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 77(7):462-463.
Yuncker TG, 1932. The genus Cuscuta. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 18:113-331.
Ashok Yadav, Banga R S, Balyan R S, Malik R K, Punia S S, 2007. Evaluation of herbicides against dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) infesting the hedges of bougainvillea (Bougainvillaea purpurea) and cleridendron (Cleridendron splendena). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 77 (7), 462-463.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Distribution MapsTop of page
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