Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cassava brown streak viruses
(cassava brown streak disease)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Cassava brown streak viruses (cassava brown streak disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cassava brown streak viruses
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cassava brown streak disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Ipomovirus

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Chlorotic mottling characteristic of CBSD.
TitleSymptoms on leaf
CaptionChlorotic mottling characteristic of CBSD.
CopyrightAnne Sweetmore/NRI
Chlorotic mottling characteristic of CBSD.
Symptoms on leafChlorotic mottling characteristic of CBSD.Anne Sweetmore/NRI
The chlorosis centres on secondary veins.
TitleSymptoms on leaf
CaptionThe chlorosis centres on secondary veins.
CopyrightAnne Sweetmore/NRI
The chlorosis centres on secondary veins.
Symptoms on leafThe chlorosis centres on secondary veins. Anne Sweetmore/NRI
ACMD (left) compared with CBSD. ACMD affects young leaves and causes distortion of the lemina. Where ACMD is present, symptoms of CBSD may be masked.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionACMD (left) compared with CBSD. ACMD affects young leaves and causes distortion of the lemina. Where ACMD is present, symptoms of CBSD may be masked.
CopyrightAnne Sweetmore/NRI
ACMD (left) compared with CBSD. ACMD affects young leaves and causes distortion of the lemina. Where ACMD is present, symptoms of CBSD may be masked.
Symptoms on leavesACMD (left) compared with CBSD. ACMD affects young leaves and causes distortion of the lemina. Where ACMD is present, symptoms of CBSD may be masked.Anne Sweetmore/NRI
Chlorotic speckling caused by cassava green mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) (left) compared with CBSD.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionChlorotic speckling caused by cassava green mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) (left) compared with CBSD.
CopyrightAnne Sweetmore/NRI
Chlorotic speckling caused by cassava green mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) (left) compared with CBSD.
Symptoms on leavesChlorotic speckling caused by cassava green mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) (left) compared with CBSD.Anne Sweetmore/NRI
Sharply delineated chlorosis between veins, probably caused by a nutrient disorder (left), compared with the more blurred chlorosis caused by CBSD.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionSharply delineated chlorosis between veins, probably caused by a nutrient disorder (left), compared with the more blurred chlorosis caused by CBSD.
CopyrightAnne Sweetmore/NRI
Sharply delineated chlorosis between veins, probably caused by a nutrient disorder (left), compared with the more blurred chlorosis caused by CBSD.
Symptoms on leavesSharply delineated chlorosis between veins, probably caused by a nutrient disorder (left), compared with the more blurred chlorosis caused by CBSD.Anne Sweetmore/NRI
Although the virus may be manifest on leaves or in tubers, the name brown streak was originally given to the disease for the brown lesions which sometimes appear on the young green stem.
TitleTuber symptoms
CaptionAlthough the virus may be manifest on leaves or in tubers, the name brown streak was originally given to the disease for the brown lesions which sometimes appear on the young green stem.
CopyrightJ. Legg
Although the virus may be manifest on leaves or in tubers, the name brown streak was originally given to the disease for the brown lesions which sometimes appear on the young green stem.
Tuber symptomsAlthough the virus may be manifest on leaves or in tubers, the name brown streak was originally given to the disease for the brown lesions which sometimes appear on the young green stem.J. Legg
Tuber symptoms consist of dark brown necrotic areas within the tuber. (Leaf symptoms do not necessarily imply the presence of tuber symptoms.)
TitleTuber symptoms
CaptionTuber symptoms consist of dark brown necrotic areas within the tuber. (Leaf symptoms do not necessarily imply the presence of tuber symptoms.)
CopyrightJ. Legg
Tuber symptoms consist of dark brown necrotic areas within the tuber. (Leaf symptoms do not necessarily imply the presence of tuber symptoms.)
Tuber symptomsTuber symptoms consist of dark brown necrotic areas within the tuber. (Leaf symptoms do not necessarily imply the presence of tuber symptoms.)J. Legg

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cassava brown streak viruses

Preferred Common Name

  • cassava brown streak disease

Other Scientific Names

  • cassava brown streak carlavirus
  • Cassava brown streak potyvirus
  • Cassava brown streak virus
  • cassava brown streak-associated (?) carlavirus
  • Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

International Common Names

  • English: cassava brown streak

English acronym

  • CBSV
  • UCBSV

EPPO code

  • CBSAV0 (Cassava brown streak-associated carlavirus

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Ipomovirus
  •                     Species: Cassava brown streak viruses

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was previously thought to be caused by either one or a complex of two viruses (then designated Cassava brown streak-associated virus and Cassava brown streak virus) (Lennon et al., 1985). It was then shown by molecular characterization that Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) alone causes the disease (Monger et al., 2001a, b). Genome analysis of virus isolates collected in cassava-growing regions of East Africa provided evidence that CBSD is caused by two distinct virus species for which Koch’s postulates were fulfilled (Winteret al., 2010). These viruses are now named: Cassava brown streak virus and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). The genome properties of CBSV and UCBSV are similar to those of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (Lecoq et al., 2000) and Squash vein yellowing virus (Adkinset al., 2008) and thus to be a member of the Potyviridae family and species of the genus Ipomovirus although the status of Ugandan brown streak virus as a species is pending ICTV approval.

Description

Top of page

CBSVs have slightly flexuous particles with a modal length of ca 650 nm. Particles contain single-stranded genomic RNA of approximately 9008-9070 nt which is encapsidated in a coat protein of ca 43 kDa for UCBSV and ca 45 kDa for CBSV (Winteret al., 2010). The genome structure of the cassava brown streak viruses is unique because of a MAf/Ham1-like sequence inserted upstream the coat protein gene and a P1 gene to which gene silencing suppression function was assigned.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Africa

BurundiPresentBigirimana et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentMulimbi et al., 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2013
Equatorial GuineaPresentMonger et al., 2001b
KenyaWidespreadNichols, 1950; Bock, 1994; Munga and Thresh, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014CBSV, UCBSV
MalawiWidespreadNichols, 1950; Thresh et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
MayottePresentRoux-Cuvelier et al., 2014
MozambiquePresentMonger et al., 2001b; Hillocks et al., 2002; Thresh and Hillocks, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentFAO, 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013
TanzaniaWidespreadSTOREY, 1936; Legg and Raya, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentAlicai et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentMulenga et al., 2018
ZimbabweAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

There is no known risk from the movement of seed but movement of vegetative propagation materials is a serious hazard as shown from recent records (Bigirimana et al., 2012; Mulimbi et al., 2012). Measures are required to restrict the movement of infected cuttings within and from countries where CBSD occurs. It is particularly important to prevent entry of infected material from affected to unaffected countries of Africa and to other cassava-growing regions of Asia and the Americas where CBSD has not yet been reported.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The following plant species have been used as experimental hosts for CBSV: Nicotiana tabacum, N. rustica, N. glutinosa, N. debneyi, N. benthamiana, Datura stramonium, Petunia hybrida, Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor.N. benthamiana shows a differential reaction to the virus species. Necrotic lesions are a response to infection with CBSV isolates which eventually results in plant deterioration and death whereas UCBSV isolates cause chlorotic mottle and leaf curl symptoms (Winter et al., 2010).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Manihot glaziovii (ceara rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page

The name brown streak was given to the disease from the brown lesions which sometimes appear on young green stems. These were the first symptoms of the disease to be recognised; however stem lesions are not the most characteristic symptom of infection and occur only infrequently.

Unlike symptoms induced by the majority of plant viruses, those of CBSD in cassava normally affect mature or nearly mature leaves but not expanding, immature leaves. They consist of a characteristic yellow or necrotic vein banding which may enlarge and coalesce to form comparatively large, yellow patches. Tuberous root symptoms may also be present: these consist of dark-brown necrotic areas within the tuber and reduction in root size; lesions in roots can result in post-harvest spoilage of the crop. Leaf and/or stem symptoms can occur without the development of tuber symptoms; thus, of plants with above-ground symptoms surveyed in southern Tanzania, 21% failed to develop root necrosis (Hillocks et al., 1996).

The symptoms of the disease vary greatly with variety and environmental conditions, making diagnosis difficult, particularly when plants are infected both with CBSD and cassava mosaic disease.

The virus species UCBSV and CBSV cannot be differentiated according to symptoms induced in cassava. However several cassava cultivars are not susceptible to UCBSV (Winter et al., 2010).  

 

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Stems / discoloration of bark
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

CBSVs are disseminated widely in infected cuttings. Natural spread of CBSD also occurs. Thus, seedling progenies sometimes become infected in circumstances which preclude infection by seed transmission, and West African varieties and other introductions from areas where CBSD does not occur have also become infected when grown in infected localities in Malawi, Tanzania and Kenya. There is also published evidence on rates of spread which are variable from site to site and between seasons.

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is confirmed as the vector of the virus (Maruthi et al., 2005; Mware et al., 2009). 

There is little epidemiological information on the rates and pattern of spread of CBSD or on the role of wild or weed hosts of infection.

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page There is no evidence of transmission in or on true seed.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

Top of page
VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Bemisia tabaciEFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2013. Insect

Impact

Top of page

CBSD was formerly of limited importance in Africa as a whole because of its restricted distribution along lowland coastal areas of Kenya and Tanzania and in parts of Malawi (Legg and Raya, 1998; Hillocks et al., 2001Gondwe et al., 2003; Shaba et al., 2003). However, the disease was later found to be prevalent in northern Mozambique (Hillocks et al., 2002). Since 2004 it has been causing increasingly severe problems in Uganda and the Lake Victoria zone of Tanzania. It has also been detected recently in Rwanda, Burundi and parts of DRC.

There is only limited evidence as to the effects of CBSD on vegetative growth and on the yield of tuberous roots (Bock, 1994; Hillocks et al., 2001). Varieties differ greatly in their sensitivity and response to infection. The growth and yield of sensitive varieties are severely affected as there is extensive dieback of the stems, and the tuberous roots develop extensive necrosis and rot to such an extent that they are virtually worthless. Thus, field trials have shown that CBSV can decrease root yields of the most sensitive varieties by 70% and induce necrosis of roots which renders them unsalable (Hillocks et al., 2001).Tolerant varieties are much less severely affected and there is little effect on root yield or quality; cv. Nachinyaya, a local cultivar in coastal areas of southern Tanzania has a form of tolerance in which leaf symptoms are produced but the development of root necrosis is so delayed that the full potential yield is obtainable (Hillocks et al., 2001).

The results of three surveys conducted in Malawi during 2001-2002 showed that CBSD was widely distributed and the severity was high in low-lying areas, particularly along the shores of Lake Malawi, with farmers estimating losses as high as 60%. In a study of the economic impact of CBSD on small-scale farmers in Malawi, Gondwe et al. (2003) reported yield losses of 18-25%.

Diagnosis

Top of page

Antisera are available for the serological diagnosis of UCBSV and CBSV (www.dsmz.de) and can be used for virus detection in cassava. Reverse transcription-PCR protocols have been developed that can detect virus in young symptomless leaves of infected cassava (Abarshiet al., 2010; Adams et al., 2012). However, sequence variability of the viruses can interfere with virus detection and caution on the use of molecular tests also has to be exercised.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

CBSV and UCBSV are distinct virus species of the genus Ipomovirus family Potyviridae. The genome organisation is similar to the Bemisia tabaci-transmitted Cucumber vein yellowing virus (Lecoq et al., 2000; Janssenet al., 2007) and Squash vein yellowing virus (Adkinset al., 2008). The diverging genome organisation and genetic relatedness shows only a limited relationship with Sweet potato mild mottle virus.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Introduction

CBSD has until recently received such limited research attention that current control recommendations are largely based on general pathological principles and experience rather than on extensive research (Hillocks, 1997).

Phytosanitation

Cassava is usually propagated vegetatively from hardwood stem cuttings, and CBSD is perpetuated and disseminated in this way. There is a considerable traffic in plant material within and sometimes between countries and inevitably CBSVs are disseminated in this way. Until recently, selected 'virus-free' planting material was seldom available, until the Gates-funded Great Lakes Cassava Initiative in the six countries of Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda and eastern parts of DRC, except when produced specially for official introductions using meristem-tip therapy and/or heat therapy in order to meet quarantine requirements. It is important that such requirements are strictly enforced because of the present limited distribution of CBSD in parts of eastern, central and southern Africa.

A basic approach to control should be the use of virus-free planting material (Thresh et al., 1994). With CBSD there are difficulties in selecting virus-free material because the symptoms of infection can be vague and indistinct. However, effective means of detection are now available and being utilized. Furthermore, it is likely that considerable improvement could be made in the present unsatisfactory situation by selecting cuttings for propagation only from plants that have been inspected during growth and also at harvest and found to be free of leaf, stem and root symptoms. Foundation stocks could be established in this way for subsequent multiplication and distribution to farmers. There are also advantages in farmers selecting propagating material only from unaffected plants at the time they collect cuttings. Unfortunately, however, farmers are not familiar with the whole range of CBSD symptoms, and cuttings may be collected at times when the source plants are almost leafless or severely affected by the cassava green mite (Mononychellus tanajoa), cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti), leaf spot or bacterial blight. Further studies are required on the most effective means of selection and on the ways in which simple procedures can be introduced to farmers.

Host-Plant Resistance

The differences between varieties in their sensitivity to infection have long been exploited by farmers in coastal Tanzania and elsewhere who tend to discard those severely affected by CBSD and retain those that grow and yield satisfactorily even when infected. There is certainly a high turnover in cassava varieties as recorded in many parts of Africa and influenced by various pests and diseases (Nweke et al., 1994).

Early experience in Tanzania showed the scope for breeding resistant or tolerant varieties. Moreover, in crop improvement programmes there is a need to evaluate the response of introduced genotypes before they are released for use by farmers in areas where CBSD is prevalent.

Integrated Pest Management

There is a general acceptance of the need to develop overall IPM programmes for the whole range of cassava pests and diseases (Thresh et al., 1994). However, little progress has been made in developing such programmes, even though there are likely to be important interactions between CBSD and other diseases, and also with cassava mealybug and green mite.

References

Top of page

Abarshi MM, Mohammed IU, Jeremiah SC, Legg JP, Kumar PL, Hillocks RJ, Maruthi MN, 2012. Multiplex RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of both RNA and DNA viruses infecting cassava and the common occurrence of mixed infections by two cassava brown streak viruses in East Africa. Journal of Virological Methods, 179(1):176-184. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01660934

Abarshi MM, Mohammed IU, Wasswa P, Hillocks RJ, Holt J, Legg JP, Seal SE, Maruthi MN, 2010. Optimization of diagnostic RT-PCR protocols and sampling procedures for the reliable and cost-effective detection of Cassava brown streak virus. Journal of Virological Methods, 163(2):353-359. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01660934

Adams IP, Abidrabo P, Miano DW, Alicai T, Kinyua ZM, Clarke J, Macarthur R, Weekes R, Laurenson L, Hany U, Peters D, Potts M, Glover R, Boonham N, Smith J, 2013. High throughput real-time RT-PCR assays for specific detection of cassava brown streak disease causal viruses, and their application to testing of planting material. Plant Pathology, 62(1):233-242. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02622.x/abstract

Adkins S, Webb SE, Achor D, Kousik CS, Roberts PD, Baker CA, 2008. Squash vein yellowing virus, a novel ipomovirus, isolated from squash and watermelon in Florida. In: Journal of Insect Science, 8. 3

Alicai T, Omongo CA, Maruthi MN, Hillocks RJ, Baguma Y, Kawuki R, Bua A, Otim-Nape GW, Colvin J, 2007. Re-emergence of cassava brown streak disease in Uganda. Plant Disease, 91(1):24-29. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Bigirimana S, Barumbanze P, Ndayihanzamaso P, Shirima R, Legg JP, 2011. First report of cassava brown streak disease and associated Ugandan cassava brown streak virus in Burundi. New Disease Reports, 24:Article 26. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=024026

Bock KR, 1994. Studies on cassava brown streak virus disease in Kenya. Tropical Science, 34(1):134-145

CABI/EPPO, 2007. Cassava brown steak virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 300 (Edition 3)

CABI/EPPO, 2013. Cassava brown streak virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 300 (Edition 4)

CABI/EPPO, 2013. Ugandan cassava brown streak virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1151 (Edition 1)

Colinet D, Kummert J, Lepoivre P, 1996. Molecular evidence that the whitefly-transmitted sweetpotato mild mottle virus belongs to a distinct genus of the Potyviridae. Archives of Virology, 141(1):125-135; 34 ref

EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory. EFSA Journal, 11(4). 3162. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/3162.pdf

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

FAO, 2011. Cassava virus on verge of epidemic in East Africa: Experts urge funding, swift action to protect staple food crop. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/94313/icode/

Gondwe FMT, Mahungu NM, Hillocks RJ, Raya MD, Moyo CC, Soko MM, Chipungu FP, Benesi IRM, 2003. Economic losses experienced by small-scale farmers in Malawi due to cassava brown streak virus disease. Cassava brown streak virus disease: past, present and future: Proceedings of an International Workshop, Mombasa, 27-30 October 2002. Aylesford, UK: Natural Resources International Ltd., 28-38.http://www.cpp.uk.com

Harrison BD, Swanson MM, Robinson DJ, 1995. Cassava viruses in the Old World. Proceedings, 2nd International Scientific Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology Network, Bogor Indonesia, 22-26 August 1994. Volume 2, Working Document 150. Colombia: CIAT, 463-472

Hillocks RJ, 1997. Cassava virus diseases and their control with special reference to southern Tanzania. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 2(3):125-138; 63 ref

Hillocks RJ, 2003. Cassava brown streak virus disease: summary of present knowledge on distribution, spread, effect on yield and methods of control. Cassava brown streak virus disease: past, present and future: Proceedings of an International Workshop, Mombasa, 27-30 October 2002. Aylesford, UK: Natural Resources International Ltd., 23-27. http://www.cpp.uk.com

Hillocks RJ, Raya M, Thresh JM, 1996. The association between root necrosis and above-ground symptoms of brown streak virus infection of cassava in southern Tanzania. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(4):285-289; 5 ref

Hillocks RJ, Raya MD, Mtunda K, Kiozia H, 2001. Effects of brown streak virus disease on yield and quality of cassava in Tanzania. Journal of Phytopathology, 149(7/8):389-394; 10 ref

Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Tomas J, Botao M, Macia R, Zavier R, 2002. Cassava brown streak disease in northern Mozambique. International Journal of Pest Management, 48(3):179-182

Janssen D, Velasco L, Martín G, Segundo E, Cuadrado IM, 2007. Low genetic diversity among Cucumber vein yellowing virus isolates from Spain. Virus Genes, 34(3):367-371. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103010

Lecoq H, Desbiez C, DelTcolle B, Cohen S, Mansour A, 2000. Cytological and molecular evidence that the whitefly-transmitted cucumber vein yellowing virus is a tentative member of the family Potyviridae. Journal of General Virology, 81(9):2289-2293; 21 ref

Legg JP, 2003. Cassava brown streak virus characterization and diagnostics. Cassava brown streak virus disease: past, present and future: Proceedings of an International Workshop, Mombasa, 27-30 October-2002. Aylesford, UK: Natural Resources International Ltd., 41-45. http://www.cpp.uk.com

Legg JP, Jeremiah SC, Obiero HM, Maruthi MN, Ndyetabula I, Okao-Okuja G, Bouwmeester H, Bigirimana S, Tata-Hangy W, Gashaka G, Mkamilo G, Alicai T, Kumar PL, 2011. Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa. Virus Research [Plant viruses and virus vectors: exploiting agricultural and natural ecosystems. Proceedings of an International Conference on "Plant Viruses and Virus Vectors: Exploiting Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems", Cornell University, New York, USA, 20-24 June 2010.], 159(2):161-170. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702

Legg JP, Raya D, 1998. Survey of cassava virus diseases in Tanzania. International Journal of Pest Management, 44:17-23

Lennon AM, Aiton MM, Harrison BD, 1985. Cassava viruses from Africa. Report of the Scottish Crop Research Institute for 1984. Dundee, UK: SCRI, p.168

Lister RM, 1959. Mechanical transmission of cassava brown streak virus. Nature (London), 183:1588-1589

Maruthi MN, Hillocks RJ, Mtunda K, Raya MD, Muhanna M, Kiozia H, Rekha AR, Colvin J, Thresh JM, 2005. Transmission of Cassava brown streak virus by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Journal of Phytopathology, 153(5):307-312. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jph

Monger WA, Alicai T, Ndunguru J, Kinyua ZM, Potts M, Reeder RH, Miano DW, Adams IP, Boonham N, Glover RH, Smith J, 2010. The complete genome sequence of the Tanzanian strain of Cassava brown streak virus and comparison with the Ugandan strain sequence. Archives of Virology, 155(3):429-433. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/m87j0vh7200574hh/?p=aa6b69968b064d0880d0d0eed6746f44&pi=18

Monger WA, Seal S, Cotton S, Foster GD, 2001. Identification of different isolates of Cassava brown streak virus and development of a diagnostic test. Plant Pathology, 50(6):768-775; 16 ref

Monger WA, Seal S, Isaac AM, Foster GD, 2001. Molecular characterization of the Cassava brown streak virus coat protein. Plant Pathology, 50(4):527-534; 25 ref

Moreno I, Gruissem W, Vanderschuren H, 2011. Reference genes for reliable potyvirus quantitation in cassava and analysis of Cassava brown streak virus load in host varieties. Journal of Virological Methods, 177(1):49-54. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01660934

Mulenga, R. M., Boykin, L. M., Chikoti, P. C., Sichilima, S., Ng'uni, D., Alabi, O. J., 2018. Cassava brown streak disease and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus reported for the first time in Zambia. Plant Disease, 102(7), 1410-1418. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1707-RE

Mulimbi W, Phemba X, Assumani B, Kasereka P, Muyisa S, Ugentho H, Reeder R, Legg JP, Laurenson L, Weekes R, Thom FEF, 2012. First report of Ugandan cassava brown streak virus on cassava in Democratic Republic of Congo. New Disease Reports, 26:11. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=026011

Munga T, Thresh JM, 2002. Incidence of cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus disease in coastal Kenya. Roots, 8:12-14

Mware BO, Ateka EM, Songa JM, Narla RD, Olubayo F, Amata R, 2009. Transmission and distribution of cassava brown streak virus disease in cassava growing areas of Kenya. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 16:864-870. http://www.biosciences.elewa.org/JABS/2009/16/9.pdf

Nichols RFJ, 1950. The brown streak disease of cassava: distribution, climatic effects and diagnostic symptoms. East African Agricultural Journal, 15:154-160

NICHOLS RFW, 1947. Breeding cassava for virus resistance. East African Agricultural Journal, 12:184-94

Nweke FI, Dixon AGO, Asiedu R, Folayan SA, 1994. Cassava - varietal needs of farmers and the potential for production growth in Africa. COSCA Working Paper No. 10. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA

Roux-Cuvelier M, Teyssedre D, Chesneau T, Jeffray C, Massé D, Jade K, Karime ALA, Hostachy B, Reynaud B, Legg JP, Lett JM, 2014. First report of cassava brown streak disease and associated Ugandan cassava brown streak virus in Mayotte Island. New Disease Reports, 30:28. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030028

Rwegasira GM, Rey CME, 2012. Relationship between symptoms expression and virus detection in Cassava brown virus streak-infected plants. Journal of Agricultural Science (Toronto), 4(7):246-253. http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jas/article/view/14443/12054

Shaba ER, Chipungu F, Mazuma EDL, 2003. Cassava brown streak virus disease in Malawi. Cassava brown streak virus disease: past, present and future: Proceedings of an International Workshop, Mombasa, 27-30 October 2002. Aylesford, UK: Natural Resources International Ltd., 18-19. http://www.cpp.uk.com

STOREY HH, 1936, January. Virus Diseases of East African Plants: IV. A Survey of the Viruses attacking Gramineae. East African Agricultural Journal, 1(4):333-337 pp

Thresh JM, Fargette D, Otim-Nape W, 1994. The viruses and virus diseases of cassava. African Crop Science Journal, 2:449-458

Thresh JM, Hillocks RJ, 2003. Cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak diseases in Nampula and Zambesia provinces of Mozambique. Roots, 8:10-15

Winter S, Koerbler M, Stein B, Pietruszka A, Paape M, Butgereitt A, 2010. Analysis of cassava brown streak viruses reveals the presence of distinct virus species causing cassava brown streak disease in East Africa. Journal of General Virology, 91(5):1365-1372. http://vir.sgmjournals.org

Contributors

Top of page

22/01/13 Review by:

Stephan Winter, Plant Virus Department, DSMZ, Messeweg 11/12, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany

21/12/11 Review by:

Mike Thresh, Consultant, UK

 

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map