Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cupressus arizonica
(Arizona cypress)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cupressus arizonica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Arizona cypress
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •         Class: Pinopsida
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. arizonica is an evergreen coniferous tree adapted to dry environments that reproduces by seed. C. arizonica is reported as invasive in Haleakala National Park, Hawaii (

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. arizonica var. arizonica, Arizona, USA.
TitleNatural stand
CaptionC. arizonica var. arizonica, Arizona, USA.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. arizonica, Arizona, USA.
Natural standC. arizonica var. arizonica, Arizona, USA.P. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. glabra, Arizona, USA.
TitleNatural stand
CaptionC. arizonica var. glabra, Arizona, USA.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. glabra, Arizona, USA.
Natural standC. arizonica var. glabra, Arizona, USA.P. Raddi-Panconesi
Placerville Arboretum, California, USA.
TitleC. arizonica var. glabra
CaptionPlacerville Arboretum, California, USA.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
Placerville Arboretum, California, USA.
C. arizonica var. glabraPlacerville Arboretum, California, USA.P. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. arizonica, Arizona, USA.
TitleNatural stand
CaptionC. arizonica var. arizonica, Arizona, USA.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. arizonica, Arizona, USA.
Natural standC. arizonica var. arizonica, Arizona, USA.P. Raddi-Panconesi
Natural regeneration in natural stand of C. arizonica var. arizonica, Sycamore Creek, Arizona, USA.
TitleNatural regeneration
CaptionNatural regeneration in natural stand of C. arizonica var. arizonica, Sycamore Creek, Arizona, USA.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Natural regeneration in natural stand of C. arizonica var. arizonica, Sycamore Creek, Arizona, USA.
Natural regenerationNatural regeneration in natural stand of C. arizonica var. arizonica, Sycamore Creek, Arizona, USA.P. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Bark of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
TitleBark
CaptionBark of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Bark of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
BarkBark of C. arizonica var. arizonica.P. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Bark of C. arizonica var. glabra.
TitleBark
CaptionBark of C. arizonica var. glabra.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Bark of C. arizonica var. glabra.
BarkBark of C. arizonica var. glabra.P. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
C. arizonica var. arizonica.
TitleMicrosporophylls
CaptionC. arizonica var. arizonica.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
C. arizonica var. arizonica.
MicrosporophyllsC. arizonica var. arizonica.P. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Extreme close-up of microsporophylls of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
TitleMicrosporophylls
CaptionExtreme close-up of microsporophylls of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
Extreme close-up of microsporophylls of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
MicrosporophyllsExtreme close-up of microsporophylls of C. arizonica var. arizonica.P. Raddi-Panconesi
SEM of microsporophylls of C. arizonica var. glabra.
TitleMicrosporophylls
CaptionSEM of microsporophylls of C. arizonica var. glabra.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
SEM of microsporophylls of C. arizonica var. glabra.
MicrosporophyllsSEM of microsporophylls of C. arizonica var. glabra.P. Raddi-Panconesi
SEM of microsporophylls with pollen sacs of C. arizonica var. glabra.
TitleMicrosporophylls
CaptionSEM of microsporophylls with pollen sacs of C. arizonica var. glabra.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
SEM of microsporophylls with pollen sacs of C. arizonica var. glabra.
MicrosporophyllsSEM of microsporophylls with pollen sacs of C. arizonica var. glabra.P. Raddi-Panconesi
Ripe cones of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
TitleRipe cones
CaptionRipe cones of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
Ripe cones of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
Ripe conesRipe cones of C. arizonica var. arizonica.P. Raddi-Panconesi
Seeds of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
TitleSeeds
CaptionSeeds of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Seeds of C. arizonica var. arizonica.
SeedsSeeds of C. arizonica var. arizonica.P. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
TitleCross section of trunk
Caption
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Cross section of trunkP. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Tree infected with Seiridium cardinale. C. arizonica var. arizonica is more susceptible to infection than C. arizonica var. glabra.
TitleCypress canker disease
CaptionTree infected with Seiridium cardinale. C. arizonica var. arizonica is more susceptible to infection than C. arizonica var. glabra.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
Tree infected with Seiridium cardinale. C. arizonica var. arizonica is more susceptible to infection than C. arizonica var. glabra.
Cypress canker diseaseTree infected with Seiridium cardinale. C. arizonica var. arizonica is more susceptible to infection than C. arizonica var. glabra.P. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. glabra with resin flow caused by Seiridium cardinale infection.
TitleBark and trunk canker damage
CaptionC. arizonica var. glabra with resin flow caused by Seiridium cardinale infection.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. glabra with resin flow caused by Seiridium cardinale infection.
Bark and trunk canker damageC. arizonica var. glabra with resin flow caused by Seiridium cardinale infection.P. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. glabra with canker (caused by Seiridium cardinale) symptoms.
TitleCanker symptoms
CaptionC. arizonica var. glabra with canker (caused by Seiridium cardinale) symptoms.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. glabra with canker (caused by Seiridium cardinale) symptoms.
Canker symptomsC. arizonica var. glabra with canker (caused by Seiridium cardinale) symptoms.P. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. glabra clone 'Pegaso' patented for canker resistance.
TitleCanker resistant strain
CaptionC. arizonica var. glabra clone 'Pegaso' patented for canker resistance.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
C. arizonica var. glabra clone 'Pegaso' patented for canker resistance.
Canker resistant strainC. arizonica var. glabra clone 'Pegaso' patented for canker resistance.P. Raddi-Panconesi
Crown of C. arizonica var. glabra attacked by the aphid Cinara cupressi. Both C. arizonica var. glabra and C. arizonica var. arizonica are susceptible to attacks by Cinara cupressi.
TitleAphid infested crown
CaptionCrown of C. arizonica var. glabra attacked by the aphid Cinara cupressi. Both C. arizonica var. glabra and C. arizonica var. arizonica are susceptible to attacks by Cinara cupressi.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
Crown of C. arizonica var. glabra attacked by the aphid Cinara cupressi. Both C. arizonica var. glabra and C. arizonica var. arizonica are susceptible to attacks by Cinara cupressi.
Aphid infested crownCrown of C. arizonica var. glabra attacked by the aphid Cinara cupressi. Both C. arizonica var. glabra and C. arizonica var. arizonica are susceptible to attacks by Cinara cupressi.P. Raddi-Panconesi
Cinara cupressi aphid colony on C. arizonica var. glabra.
TitleAphids
CaptionCinara cupressi aphid colony on C. arizonica var. glabra.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Cinara cupressi aphid colony on C. arizonica var. glabra.
AphidsCinara cupressi aphid colony on C. arizonica var. glabra.P. Raddi-Panconesi/ECOMED
Mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) on C. arizonica var. glabra in a natural stand, Arizona, USA.
TitleParasitic mistletoe
CaptionMistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) on C. arizonica var. glabra in a natural stand, Arizona, USA.
CopyrightP. Raddi-Panconesi
Mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) on C. arizonica var. glabra in a natural stand, Arizona, USA.
Parasitic mistletoeMistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) on C. arizonica var. glabra in a natural stand, Arizona, USA.P. Raddi-Panconesi

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cupressus arizonica Greene

Preferred Common Name

  • Arizona cypress

Variety

  • Cupressus arizonica var. bonita Lemmon
  • Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Sudw.) Little
  • Cupressus arizonica var. nevadensis
  • Cupressus arizonica var. stephensonii (C. B. Wolf) Little
  • Cupressus macnabiana var. nevadensis (Abrams) Abrams

Other Scientific Names

  • Callitropsis arizonica (Greene) D.P.Little
  • Cupressus glabra Sudw.
  • Cupressus nevadensis Abrams
  • Cupressus stephensonii C. B. Wolf
  • Hesperocyparis arizonica (Greene) Bartel
  • Hesperocyparis revealiana (Silba) Silba
  • Neocupressus arizonica (Greene) de Laub.

International Common Names

  • English: rough-barked Arizona cypress; silver cypress; smooth cypress
  • Spanish: cedro blanco; cedro de la sierra; ciprés de Arizona; ciprés fibrosa; ciprés plateado; pinobete; sabino; táscate
  • French: cyprés de l'Arizona
  • Chinese: lu gan bai

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Zypresse, Glattrindige Arizona-; Zypresse, Rauhrindige Arizona-; Zypresse, Stephensons
  • Italy: cipresso Arizonica; cipresso glabra
  • Netherlands: amerikaanse cypress
  • USA: Cuyamaca cypress; Piute cypress; San Pedro Martir cypress

EPPO code

  • CVBAR (Cupressus arizonica)
  • CVBGB (Cupressus arizonica var. glabra)
  • CVBST (Cupressus stephensonii)

Trade name

  • cypress wood

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

C. arizonica is an evergreen coniferous tree adapted to dry environments that reproduces by seed. C. arizonica is reported as invasive in Haleakala National Park, Hawaii (Swearingen and Bargeron, 2016). A risk assessment carried out for Hawaii gave it a high risk score of 15 (PIER, 2017). Occasionally naturalizes in New South Wales, Australia (Miles, 2007). Naturalized in one location in India (Biodiversity India, 2017). Escaped from cultivation in Sierras Chicas, Córdoba, Argentina (Flora Argentina, 2017) and in southern Europe (Sanz Elorza et al., 2004; Flora Italiana, 2017). There is little information available on this species’ impacts, but it can grow in dense stands (Sullivan, 1993) and its pollen causes allergies (PollenLibrary.com, 2017).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •                 Class: Pinopsida
  •                     Family: Cupressaceae
  •                         Genus: Cupressus
  •                             Species: Cupressus arizonica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Cupressus arizonica is sometimes listed as Hesperocyparis arizonica: a 2013 revision to the Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) of the US Forest Service (Sullivan, 1993) changed the name to Hesperocyparis, although The Plant List (2013) still has C. arizonica as the accepted name.

There are several recognized varieties of C. arizonica including C. arizonica var. glabra, var. montana, var. nevadensis and var. stephensonii (The Plant List, 2013). Some taxonomists list C. glabra or H. glabra and the other varieties as separate species (Adams and Bartel, 2009; Dirr, 2009; USDA-NRCS, 2017; Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2017). Cupresssusarizonica var. nevadensis is endemic to southern California and is considered an endangered taxon (Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2017). C. arizonica var. montana occurs on the Baja Peninsula and in Mexico. C. arizonica var. stephensonii occurs from central California south into the Baja Peninsula. C. arizonica var. glabra occurs from California to western Texas (SEINet, 2017).

Well-defined qualitative and quantitative morphological characters, such as colour of foliage, size of tree parts and bark, would not by themselves justify the constitution of five separate species, as was suggested by Wolf (1948) and by Gellini and Grossoni (1979), but the amount of trait variability certainly seems large enough to classify these four taxa above as varieties of C. arizonica, as indicated by Little (1970) and Allemand (1979). The common name Arizona cypress reflects the native range in southwestern USA and northwest Mexico.

Description

Top of page

C. arizonica is a medium sized evergreen tree growing 5-25 m tall. It has a conical crown when young, becoming broadly columnar with age. The reddish-brown to gray bark peels in thin strips or plates becoming furrowed with age. C. arizonica var. glabra has smooth bark. Scale-like needles are dusty green to gray green, sometimes silvery, and are arranged opposite in pairs tightly clasping cord-like or four sided twigs. Cones are reddish brown to gray, somewhat round with 6-8 shield-shaped woody scales, 10-25 mm wide (USDA-NRCS, 2006; SEINet, 2017). Seeds are light tan to dark brown, 4-8 mm long (SEINet, 2017).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

C. arizonica is native to the southwestern United States (USDA-NRCS, 2006) and northern Mexico (Sullivan, 1993; SEINet, 2017). Introduced to Argentina, Hawaii and other Pacific Islands, Puerto Rico, China, Australia and New Caledonia as an ornamental plant (Flora Argentina, 2017; PIER, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017). It is also planted in Spain, Italy, southern France and the Crimea (Laurent, 1911; Sanz Elorza et al., 2004; Marco et al., 2010; Flora Italiana, 2017).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-GuangxiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-JiangsuPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-JiangxiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
IndiaRestricted distributionIntroducedBiodiversity India, 2017Maharashtra
-MaharashtraLocalisedIntroducedBiodiversity India, 2017
PakistanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Flora of Pakistan, 2017
TurkeyPresent Planted

Africa

KenyaPresent Planted
South AfricaPresent Planted

North America

MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Sullivan, 1993
USAPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-ArizonaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-CaliforniaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-GeorgiaPresent Planted
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Swearingen and Bargeron, 2016; PIER, 2017
-NevadaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-New MexicoPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-TexasPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-UtahPresentNative Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedFlora Argentina, 2017

Europe

AustriaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Monumental Trees, 2017
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresent Planted
CroatiaPresent Planted
FrancePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Marco et al., 2010
GreecePresent Planted
ItalyLocalisedIntroducedFlora Italiana, 2017
PortugalPresent Planted
SerbiaPresent Planted
SlovakiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Monumental Trees, 2017
SpainPresentIntroducedSanz Elorza et al., 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2017
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2017
Cook IslandsPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2017Ma’uke
French PolynesiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2017Mangareva, Gambier, Tahiti
New CaledoniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2017Île Grande Terre

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

C. arizonica has been widely introduced as an ornamental plant in temperate and tropical, dry climates around the world and has sometimes naturalized from plantings (Miles, 2007, Swearingen and Bargeron, 2016; Flora Argentina, 2017; Biodiversity India, 2017). Seeds were available as early as 1914 in seed catalogs (Thorburn’s Seeds, 1914) and plants were offered for sale as early as 1907 (Biltmore Nursery, 1907). Seeds were sent to Europe by the Arnold Arboretum in 1882 (Sargent, 1896). At least one tree was growing in a botanic garden in Naples, Italy by 1918 (Anon, 1921) and had been introduced to the Crimea, Russia through an acclimatization society by 1911 (Laurent, 1911).

C. arizonica has replaced C. sempervirens in areas where low winter and spring temperatures do not permit C. sempervirens cultivation, on account of its high tolerance to frost and drought, its good soil adaptability, and its rapid juvenile growth. C. arizonica is planted as a timber tree in Italy and other parts of southern Europe (Tutin, 1993). It is planted in at least 96 botanical gardens around the world (BGCI, 2017).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Europe USA 1882 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Sargent (1892)
Russian Federation USA Pre-1911 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Laurent (1911)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

C. arizonica is available in the nursery and seed trade (Dirr, 2009; Sheffield’s Seed Company, 2017). 

Habitat

Top of page

In its native range, C. arizonica is found on “dry, sterile rocky mountain slopes and canyon walls” (USDA-NRCS, 2006). Found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, ponderosa pine, western hardwoods, and chaparral (Sullivan, 1993; PIER, 2017) It is a common but scattered component of canyon riparian associations, but is also found in mixed stands at higher elevations (Sullivan, 1993).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Principal habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural
Deserts Principal habitat Natural
Arid regions Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

There is genetic variation among the varieties of C. arizonica and considerable variation within populations of C. arizonica (Rehfeldt, 1997). The species has been sequenced by BOLD Systems (BOLDS, 2017).

Reproductive Biology

Plants reproduce exclusively by seed. Each cone contains 48-112 seeds. Cones mature in autumn of the second season. Cones persist on the tree until they are opened by fire or desiccation. Seeds remain viable in the closed cones but germinate once released and exposed to moisture. Seeds require bare soil to germinate (Sullivan, 1993; USDA-NRCS, 2006). Plants are propagated by seed or grafting (Gilman and Watson, 1993). Seeds require cold moist stratification for at least 1 month (Dirr, 2009).

Physiology and Phenology

Cones emerge in spring and pollen is shed October to March (Sullivan, 1993; SEINet, 2017). Trees can withstand cold to -17.7°C (Earle, 2017).

Longevity

Trees may begin to reproduce by age 14 (Sullivan, 1993) and can live to be over 500 years old (Parker, 1980).

Population Size and Structure

Can form solid stands that exclude understory species in its native range (Sullivan, 1993). Stands may often begin as even-aged pioneer stands, but become more mixed and open with age (Parker, 1980).

Associations

Seeds are eaten by rodents (Sullivan, 1993), including the Chiricahua fox squirrel, Sciurus nayaritensis chiricahuae (Koprowski and Corse, 2001). Plant communities in which C. arizonica is commonly found are listed by Sullivan (1993).

Environmental Requirements

C. arizonica has a wide range of tolerance for soil types from acidic to alkaline, but prefers well-drained soils (PFAF, 2017). Plants usually grow in full sun, but saplings can tolerate shade (Parker, 1980). Requires a minimum of 250-300 mm of rain annually, but in its native range normally occurs where the mean annual precipitation is around 400-600 mm and bimodally distributed (Sullivan, 1993). Will grow more quickly in better soils and with more rainfall (USDA-NRCS, 2006). Hardy in zones 7-9 (Dirr, 2009). Grows at elevations of 1000-1500 m in the United States and to 2200 m in Mexico (Earle, 2017).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
40 40 0 2400

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -18
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 20
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 24 34
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -5 24

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall300600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cinara cupressi sensu lato Parasite Whole plant not specific
Heterobasidion annosum Pathogen Roots/Stems not specific
Megastigmus wachtli Parasite Seeds to genus
Phoradendron juniperinum Parasite Whole plant not specific
Pseudococcyx tessulatana Parasite Seeds to genus
Seiridium cardinale Pathogen Whole plant not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Juniper blight (Diaporthe juniperivora or Kabatina juniperi) can be a problem in cool, humid areas (Gilman and Watson, 1993). Seeds are consumed by rodents (Sullivan, 1993). Cypress canker, Seiridium cardinale, can attack this species (CABI, 2016). Several insects feed on seeds and other plant parts (Bouaziz and Roques, 2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

Seeds are dispersed by gravity and sometimes by water (Bartel et al., 2003).

Intentional Introduction

C. arizonica is available in the seed trade (Sheffield’s Seed Company, 2017) and nursery trade (Dirr, 2009). C. arizonica is planted as a timber tree in Italy and other parts of southern Europe (Tutin, 1993).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acclimatization societies Yes Laurent, 1911
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Laurent, 1911; Anon, 1921; BCGI, 2017
Breeding and propagationGrown as an ornamental Yes Yes Dirr, 2009
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Sanz Elorza, 2004; Flora Argentina, 2017; Flora Italiana, 2017
Forestry Yes Tutin, 1993
Horticulture Yes Yes Dirr, 2009
Internet sales Yes Yes Sheffield’s Seed Company, 2017
Landscape improvement Yes Yes Dirr, 2009
Nursery trade Yes Yes Dirr, 2009
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Dirr, 2009

Environmental Impact

Top of page

In its native range, trees can grow in dense stands with few understory species (Sullivan, 1993).

Social Impact

Top of page

Pollen of this species is considered a severe allergen (PollenLibrary.com, 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value

Used for fence posts, Christmas trees, ornamental trees, and windbreaks (USDA-NRCS, 2006). Widely grown as an ornamental tree. Most horticultural selections come from C. arizonica var. glabra (Dirr, 2009).

C. arizonica is planted as a timber tree in Italy and other parts of southern Europe (Tutin, 1993). The wood can be used to make sashes, doors and blinds (Sullivan, 1993). Stands in the United States are not generally large enough or accessible enough to be commercially viable (Sullivan, 1993). Historically trees were used to build cabins, fence posts, and corral poles (Sudworth, 1910).

Social Benefit

Used medicinally by some Native Americans (SEINet, 2017).

Environmental Services

C. arizonica is sometimes planted for erosion control (Sullivan, 1993).

Uses List

Top of page

Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Materials

  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Wood Products

Top of page

Containers

  • Boxes

Roundwood

  • Piles
  • Posts
  • Roundwood structures
  • Stakes

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences
  • Gates

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

There are 17-19 Cupressus species (Schulz et al., 2005; The Plant List, 2013). C. arizonica has monomorphic scale leaves covered with white resin, branchlets arranged 3-dimensionally instead of in one plane, a point (umbo) in the centre of the female cone scales, and thin rather than thick seeds (Schulz et al., 2005).

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, No. 98. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington DC

Adams RP, Bartel JA, 2009. Geographic variation in Hesperocyparis (Cupressus) arizonica and H. glabra: RAPDS analysis. Phytologia, 91(1), 244-250.

Allemand P, 1979. Relations phylogeniques dans le genre Cupressus (Cupressaceae). In: Grasso V, Raddi P, eds. Il Cipresso: malattie e difesa. L'artigiano, Firenze, 51-67

Andreoli C, Xenopulos S, 1990. Use of cypress. In: Progress in EEC research on cypress diseases. EUR 12493, Eu, 14-25

Anon, 1921. Revue bibliographique. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France. 21:354. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/29643370#page/3/mode/1up

Anon, 1984. Cypress canker (Coryneum [Seiridium] cardinale). [Maladie du cypres (Coryneum cardinale).] Report, Commission of the European Communities, No. EUR 9200 EN-FR-IT, vii + 72 pp

Askew GR, Schoenike RE, 1982. Identification of characteristic traits of two varieties of Arizona cypress. Silvae Genetica, 31(5-6):158-160; 11 ref

Bartel, J. A., Adams, R. P., James, S. A., Mumba, L. E., Pandey, R. N., 2003. Variation among Cupressus species from the western hemisphere based on random amplified polymorphic DNAs. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 31(7), 693-702. doi: 10.1016/S0305-1978(02)00229-6

BGCI, 2017. Cupressus arizonica plant search. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. https://www.bgci.org/plant_details.php?plantID=46567

Biltmore Nursery, 1907. Bitmore Nursery, Biltmore, NC, USA. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/179218#page/3/mode/1up

Biodiversity India, 2017. Cupressus arizonica. India biodiversity portal. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/229354

Birot Y, 1986. Cyprès. In: Amélioration génétique des arbres forestiers. R. F. F. XXXVIII, No sp. 1986: 146-148

BOLDS, 2017. Hespercyparis arizonica. Kingdoms of Life being barcoded. Barcode of Life Systems. http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxid=423523

Bonnet-Masimbert M, 1971. Induction of early flowering in Cupressus arizonica and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana: action of gibberellic acid and other growth substances. Silvae Genet. 20 (3):82-90

Bouaziz, K., Roques, A., 2006. Biology of the chalcid wasp, Megastimus wachtli, and its relationship to colonization of cypress seeds by the tortricid moth, Pseudococcyx tessulatana, in Algeria. Journal of Insect Science (Tucson), 6, 6.48. http://www.insectscience.org/6.48/ doi: 10.1673/031.006.4801

CABI, 2016. Seiridium cardinale (cypress canker). Invasive Species Compendium. http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/49497

Ciuti E, Biagioni R, 1991. Il cipresso nell'economia vivaistica pistoiese. In: Panconesi A (ed). Il Cipresso, Firenze, 207-220

Dirr M, 2009. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, Champaign, IL, USA: Stipes Publishing.

Ducrey M, Brofas G, Andreoli C, Raddi P, 1999. Genus Cupressus. In: Tessier du Cros E (ed). Cypress. A Practical Handbook. Studio Leonardo, Firenze, 9-26

Earle CJ, 2017. Cupressus arizonica. The gymnosperm database. http://www.conifers.org/cu/Cupressus_arizonica.php

Farjon A, 2005. A monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Farjon A, 2010. A handbook of the World's conifers [ed. by Farjon, A.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 1150 pp

Flora Argentina, 2017. Flora Argentina – Plantas Vasculares de la Republica Argentina. http://www.floraargentina.edu.ar/

Flora Italiana, 2017. Cupressus arizonica. http://luirig.altervista.org/flora/taxa/index1.php?scientific-name=cupressus+arizonica

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2017. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Gellini R, Grossoni P, 1979. Aspetti botanici del genere Cupressus (Cupressaceae). In: Grasso V, Raddi P (eds). Il Cipresso: malattie e difesa. L'artigiano, Firenze, 27-43

Gilman EF, Watson DG, 1993. Cupressus arizonica var. arizonica, Arizona cypress. Fact Sheet ST-222. US Forest Service. http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/trees/CUPARIA.pdf

Goggans JF, Jones L, Lynch KD, 1974. Germination rate of Arizona Cypress improved by better cone collection techniques and seed pregermination treatments. Tree Planters' Notes, 25(1):3-4

Goggans JF, Meier RJ, 1973. Heritabilities of growth and crown characteristics of Arizona Cypress. Silvae Genetica, 22(5-6):162-164; 1 ref

Goggans JF, Posey EC, 1968. Variation in seeds and ovulate cones of some species and varieties of Cupressus. Circ. Ala. Agric. Exp. Sta. No. 160, pp. 23

Grasso V, Raddi P, eds, 1979. Cypress: diseases and protection. Il Cipresso: malattie e difesa. European Economic Community, Agrimed. Florence Italy, 255 pp

Guido M, Battisti A, Roques A, 1995. A contribution to the study of cone and seed pests of the evergreen cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) in Italy. Redia, 78(2):211-227; 17 ref

Hepting GH, 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United States. USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 386. Washington, DC, USA: USDA-Forest Service

Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2017. World checklist of selected plant families. Royal Botanic Gardens. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.do

Koprowski JL, Corse MC, 2001. Food habits of the Chiricahua fox squirrel (Sciurus nayaritensis chiricahuae). The Southwestern Naturalist, 46(1), 62-65.

Laurent E, 1911. Essais d’ acclimitation de végétaux en Crimée. Bulletin de al Société de Acclimitation de France 17:616. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34242574#page/715/mode/1up

Little EL Jr, 1950. Southwestern trees: a guide to the native species of New Mexico and Arizona. Agric. Handb. U.S. Dep. Agric. 1950. No. 9 pp. 109. 31 refs

Little EL Jr, 1970. Names of New World Cypresses (Cupressus). Phytologia 20(7):429-445

Marco, A., Lavergne, S., Dutoit, T., Bertaudiere-Montes, V., 2010. From the backyard to the backcountry: how ecological and biological traits explain the escape of garden plants into Mediterranean old fields. Biological Invasions, 12(4), 761-779. http://www.springerlink.com/content/81t2pp4u33281n2t/?p=a795139087354c21bc3345374acacf86&pi=8 doi: 10.1007/s10530-009-9479-3

Miles J, 2007. Grow me instead – A guide for gardeners on the NSW South Coast. Excell Publishing, Australia. 52 pp

Monumental Trees, 2017. Cupressus arizonica in Europe. https://www.monumentaltrees.com/en/europe-cupressusarizonica/

Panconesi A, 1991. II Cipresso, Regione Toscana, Firenze

Panconesi A, Raddi P, Andreoli C, Ramos P, Xenopoulos S, Caetano F, Pinto GanhaoJ, 1999. Diseases. In: Tessier du Cros E, (ed). Cypress. A Practical Handbook, Studio Leonardo, Firenze, 55-73

Parker AJ, 1980. The successional status of Cupressus arizonica. The Great Basin Naturalist, 40(3), 254-264.

PFAF, 2017. Cupressus arizonica. Plants for a Future. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cupressus+arizonica

Pharis RP, Ruddat MD, Glenn JL, Morf W, 1969. A quantitative requirement for long day in the induction of staminate strobili by gibberellin in the conifer Cupressus arizonica. Can. J. Botany, 48:653-658

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. HEAR, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PollenLibrary.com, 2017. Cupressus arizonica. http://www.pollenlibrary.com/Specie/Cupressus+arizonica/

Ponchet J, 1990. Progress in EEC research on cypress diseases. Report EUR 12493 EU

Posey CE, Goggans JF, 1967. Observations on species of Cypress indigenous to the United States. Circ. Ala. Agric. Exp. Sta. No. 153, 1967. pp. 19

Raddi P, 1979. Variabilità della resistenza al cancro nell'ambito del cipresso comune (Cupressus sempervirens) e di altre specie. In: Grasso V, Raddi P (eds). Il Cipresso: malattie e difesa. L'artigiano, Firenze, 183-193

Raddi P, Moricca S, Gellini R, Di Lonardo V, 1992. Effects of natural and induced pollution on the leaf wax structure of three cypress species. Eur. J. For. Path., 22:107-114

Raddi P, Panconesia, 1998. Cupressus arizonica Greene, 1982. In: Schütt S, Lang R, eds. Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse. Landsberg am Lech, Germany: Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft

Rehfelt GE, 1997. Quantitative analyses of the genetic structure of closely related conifers with disparate distributions and demographics: the Cupressus arizonica (Cupressaceae) complex. American Journal of Botany, 84(2), 190-200.

Roques A, Battisti A, 1999. Insects pests of cypress. In: Tessier du Cros E (ed). Cypress. A Practical Handbook. Studio Leonardo, Firenze, 74-95

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2017. Threatened conifers of the world. http://threatenedconifers.rbge.org.uk/taxa/details/cupressus-arizonica-var.-nevadensis

Sales Luis J, Do Loreto Monteiro M, Dreyfus P, Raddi P, Brofas G, Boskos L, 1999. Growth and yield of Cupressus stands. In: Tessier du Cros E (ed). Cypress. A Practical Handbook. Studio Leonardo, Firenze, 97-108

Sanz Elorza M, Dana Sánchez ED, Sobrino Vesperinas E, 2004. Atlas de las plantas alóctonas invasoras en España. TRAGSA, Madrid, Spain. http://www.mapama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/inventarios-nacionales/c4_sinopsis_tcm7-21524.pdf

Sargent CS, 1896. The silva of North America, Boston, USA: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.

Schoenike RE, 1978. Assessment of gene resources in Cupressus arizonica in the United States. Third World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding. Session 1. Exploration, utilization and conservation of gene resources, 61-74; 14 ref

Schoenike RE, Hord RH, Bullock RE, Woody KD, 1974. Effects of variety and seed source on survival of Arizona Cypress planted in South Carolina. Tree Planters' Notes-1975, 26(1):16-18, 26; 1 ref

Schulz, C., Knopf, P., Stützel, T., 2005. Identification key to the Cypress family (Cupressaceae). Feddes Repertorium, 116(1/2), 96-146. doi: 10.1002/fedr.200411062

SEINet, 2017. Cupressus arizonica. http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=cupressus+arizonica&formsubmit=Search+Terms

Sheffield’s Seed Company, 2017. Cupressus arizonica. https://sheffields.com/seeds/Cupressus/arizonica

Southwest Desert Flora, 2017. Cupressus arizonica, Arizona cypress. http://southwestdesertflora.com/WebsiteFolders/All_Species/Cupressaceae/Cupressus%20arizonica,%20Arizona%20Cypress.html

Sudworth GB, 1910. A new cypress for Arizona. American Forestry, 10, 88-90. http://www.cupressus.net/CUglabraSudworth.html

Sullivan J, 1993. Cupressus arizonica. In: Fischer WC, compiler. The Fire Effects Information System [Data base]. Missoula, MT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory. Magnetic tape reels; 9 track; 1600 bpi, ASCII with Common LISP present. http://www.fire.org/feis/plants/tree/

Swearingen J, Bargeron C, 2016. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/

Tessier du Cros E, 1999. Cypress. A practical handbook, 1999. Firenze, Italy; Studio Leonardo

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Thibaut B, Carvalho A, Paraskevopoulou K, Zanuttini R, Chanson B, Gérard J, 1999. Wood quality and uses. In: Tessier du Cros E (ed). Cypress. A Practical Handbook. Studio Leonardo, Firenze, 109-126

Thorburn’s Seeds, 1914. Seed catalog. J. Thorburn and Co., New York, NY, USA. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/48590341#page/3/mode/1up

Tutin TG, 1993. Flora Europaea: Psilotaceae to Platanaceae, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.693 pp.

USDA-NRCS, 2006. Plant Fact Sheet Arizona Cypress. USDA NRCS Plant Materials Center, USA. https://plants.usda.gov/factsheet/pdf/fs_cuar.pdf

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wolf CB, 1948. Taxonomic and distribution studies of the New World Cypress in the New World cypresses. El Aliso, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1-248

Wolf CB, Wagener WE, 1948. The New World Cypresses. pp. xiii + 444. Many refs. in text. [Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Anaheim, Calif.]

Contributors

Top of page

05/05/2017 Updated by:

Sylvan Kaufman, Sylvan Green Earth Consulting, Santa Fe, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map