Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus

Toolbox

Datasheet

Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Closteroviridae
  •         Genus: Crinivirus
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a crinivirus that is non-circulative, semi-persistently transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. It multiplies in cucurbitaceous plant species but not inside its insect vector...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus; symptoms on infected honeydew melon plants. The disease progresses from initial mottling of leaves, to leaves that are completely yellow, with veins sometimes remaining green. The oldest leaves develop symptoms first, thus these show the pronounced yellow colouration. USA.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus; symptoms on infected honeydew melon plants. The disease progresses from initial mottling of leaves, to leaves that are completely yellow, with veins sometimes remaining green. The oldest leaves develop symptoms first, thus these show the pronounced yellow colouration. USA.
Copyright©Mike Matheron/University of Arizona/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus; symptoms on infected honeydew melon plants. The disease progresses from initial mottling of leaves, to leaves that are completely yellow, with veins sometimes remaining green. The oldest leaves develop symptoms first, thus these show the pronounced yellow colouration. USA.
SymptomsCucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus; symptoms on infected honeydew melon plants. The disease progresses from initial mottling of leaves, to leaves that are completely yellow, with veins sometimes remaining green. The oldest leaves develop symptoms first, thus these show the pronounced yellow colouration. USA.©Mike Matheron/University of Arizona/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus

English acronym

  • CYSDV

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a crinivirus that is non-circulative, semi-persistently transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. It multiplies in cucurbitaceous plant species but not inside its insect vector. The main pathways of CYSDV introduction and long-distance spread are through infected plants for planting. Short-distance spread is predominantly through viruliferous (infected) adults of B. tabaci. CYSDV is considered an 'emerging virus' and is increasingly recorded from a number of European, American and Asiatic countries. Infected cucurbit crops display yellowing symptoms on the leaves and this damage leads to an approximate yield reduction of 30-50 % in Spain and Lebanon (Célix et al., 1996; Hourani and Abou-Jawdah, 2003). In Arizona, the outbreak of CYSDV in 2006 caused an estimated 60% reduction in marketable melon yield and a subsequent US$ 18 million loss (McGinley, 2008; James, 2011). CYSDV was added to the EPPO A2 List in 2004.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Closteroviridae
  •                 Genus: Crinivirus
  •                     Species: Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a species of the Crinivirus genus, one of three genera of the Closteroviridae family (Martelli et al., 2005). CYSDV isolates can be divided into two distinct groups. One group contains contains the so-called Western isolates from Spain, Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, North America and Central America. The other group are the Eastern isolates from Saudi Arabia and Sudan (Rubio et al., 2001; Yakoubi et al., 2007; Mohammed et al., 2014). Nucleotide identity between isolates of the same group is greater than 99%, whereas identity between groups is about 90% (Rubio et al., 1999).

Description

Top of page

Flexuous, filamentous virus particles typical of the Closteroviridae have been found in infected plants. The length distribution of CYSDV particles has shown two peaks at 825-850 nm and 875-900 nm (Célix et al., 1996). Using an improved method for particle measurement, Liu et al. (2000) have recorded lengths of 800-850 nm for CYSDV. Its bipartite positive sense single-stranded RNA genome has been completely sequenced; RNA-1 contains 9126 nucleotides and RNA-2 7281 nucleotides (Livieratos and Coutts, 2002; Aguilar et al., 2003; Coutts and Livieratos, 2003). The coat protein gene contains 756 nucleotides and encodes the coat protein of 28.5 kDa (Livieratos et al., 1999). CYSDV was first classified as a species in the Closterovirus genus with bipartite genomes exemplified by Lettuce infectious yellows virus (Célix et al., 1996), as then named. These have now been transferred to a new genus Crinivirus.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent
MoroccoPresent, Localized
SudanPresent
TunisiaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JordanPresent
LebanonPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
SyriaPresent
TurkeyPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresent

Europe

BelgiumAbsent
CyprusPresent
FranceAbsent, Eradicated
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent, Few occurrences
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
PortugalPresent, Localized
SpainPresent, Localized
-Canary IslandsPresent

North America

MexicoPresent, Localized
PanamaAbsent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TexasPresent, Localized

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

CYSDV is one of the most widely distributed viruses in cucurbit production regions. The virus was first described in the United Arab Emirates (Hassan and Duffus, 1991) but is now common throughout many tropical and subtropical production areas, including the Middle East and Mediterranean basin, as well as China and North and Central America (Célix at al., 1996; Wisler et al., 1998Abou-Jawdah et al., 2000; Desbiez et al., 2000; Kao et al., 2000; Louro et al., 2000Kuo et al., 2007Yakoubi et al., 2007Polston et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010). The virus is predominantly introduced accidentally through infected cucurbit material for planting. Local spread can happen through its insect vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Cucurbits are important crops in the field, under glass, and in plastic greenhouses in the European and Mediterranean region, and CYSDV causes a serious disease notably on cucumbers and melons in Spain, Portugal, Turkey and the Middle East. Within the EU, 1,76 million t of melon were harvested during 2017, led by Spain and Italy, with 656,000 and 606,000 t, respectively. Cucumber and gherkin production in the EU is more significant and in 2017, 2.82 million t were harvested. Spain, Poland and the Netherlands were the biggest producers, harvesting 635,000, 544,000 and 400,000 t, respectively, according to FAO. Economic losses from CYSDV that could be expected in glasshouse-grown cucurbits, especially cucumber, in northern Europe are difficult to predict, but are likely to be substantial. Spread of the pest is likely to be much facilitated by the presence of its vector Bemisia tabaci in glasshouses in many countries of the European and Mediterranean region. Control of CYSDV is difficult due to the ability of the vector B. tabaci rapidly to become resistant to insecticides. A breakdown of efficacy of insecticides could result in serious problems. There is a strong probability that CYSDV will become a serious problem in other Mediterranean countries and in northern Europe, if introduced.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The natural hosts of CYSDV are restricted to the Cucurbitaceae: watermelon, melon, cucumber and courgette. Wintermantel et al. (2009) also identified natural infections in snap bean, alfalfa and London rocket (Sisymbrium irio). In addition, the following experimental host plants have been identified: Cucurbita maxima and Lactuca sativa. For further details, see Célix et al. (1996), Wisler et al. (1998), Berdiales et al. (1999), Abou-Jawdah et al. (2000), Desbiez et al. (2000), Kao et al. (2000) and Louro et al. (2000).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
    Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
    Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
    Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
    Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeMain
    Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
    Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeMain
    Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
    Cucurbita foetidissimaCucurbitaceaeOther
      Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
      Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
        Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
        Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeOther
          Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeUnknown
          Malva neglecta (common mallow)MalvaceaeUnknown
          Malvella leprosaMalvaceaeUnknown
          Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeOther
          Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
          Physalis wrightiiSolanaceaeUnknown
          Sisymbrium irioBrassicaceaeOther
          Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade)SolanaceaeUnknown
          Sonchus (Sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown

          Symptoms

          Top of page

          Cucumbers and melons infected by CYSDV show severe yellowing symptoms that start as an interveinal mottle on the older leaves and intensify as leaves age (Abou-Jawdah et al., 2000). Chlorotic mottling, yellowing and stunting occur on cucumber (Louro et al., 2000) and yellowing and severe stunting on melon (Kao et al., 2000). No description of symptoms on courgette has been provided by the authors reporting the natural infection (Berdiales et al., 1999). Symptoms on cucurbit crops are said to be indistinguishable from those caused by Beet pseudoyellows virus (BPYV; Wisler et al., 1998).

          In experimental transmission experiments, chlorotic spots along the leaf veins of the melon cv. 'Piel de Sapo' were noticed after 14-20 days. Sometimes, initial symptoms also consisted of prominent yellowing sectors of a leaf. Symptoms evolved later to complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, except the veins, and rolling and brittleness of the leaves (Célix et al., 1996).

          List of Symptoms/Signs

          Top of page
          SignLife StagesType
          Leaves / abnormal patterns
          Leaves / yellowed or dead
          Whole plant / discoloration
          Whole plant / dwarfing

          Biology and Ecology

          Top of page

          The life cycle of CYSDV is strongly dependent on its vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. In Portugal, the first symptoms of CYSDV in a field plot of cucumber were associated with heavy infestations of B. tabaci (Louro et al., 2000). High populations were also associated with symptoms on melon in the USA (Kao et al., 2000). The spread of the virus may be related to the increase in distribution of the polyphagous B. tabaci MEAM1 (B biotype) (Bellows et al., 1994). This moves readily from one host species to the next and is estimated to have a host range of around 600 species. Transmission of CYSDV by MEAM1 is greater than by biotype A (Wisler et al., 1998). However, MED (biotype Q) transmits as efficiently as MEAM1 (Berdiales et al., 1999).

          Within the European and Mediterranean region, B. tabaci has been reported from most of the countries and in the cases where species identification was conducted, the two major invasive B. tabaci cryptic species, MEAM1 and MED, were almost exclusively found. In northern Europe, B. tabaci occurrence is in protected crop production systems only whereas in southern Europe it is present in greenhouses and in open fields. Except in the Mediterranean coastal region (Cyprus, Greece, Malta, Italy, south of France, certain parts of Spain and Portugal), B. tabaci occurrence is restricted to greenhouses (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2013). In some European countries, MED predominates and MEAM1 is almost absent, like in Spain (Simón et al., 2007), the mainland of Greece (Orfanidou et al., 2019) and France where MEAM1 has only been reported once occurring in a botanical garden in Nice (Dalmon et al., 2008). In contrast, MEAM1 is reported from Cyprus as the only species present (Orfanidou et al., 2019) while MED and MEAM1 have been found in determined Greek islands, such as Rhodes and Samos (Orfanidou et al., 2019), and in the warmer areas of Italy, including the southern regions (Sardinia and Sicily) and the north-western coast (Liguria) (Parrella et al., 2012).

          Acquisition periods of 18 h or more and inoculation periods of 24 h or more are necessary for transmission rates of CYSDV of over 80% in tests using melon. However, transmission was noted after acquisition and transmission periods of 2 h (Célix et al., 1996). CYSDV persists for at least 9 days in the vector with a 72.2-h half-life. This is the longest retention time of all whitefly-transmitted viruses of the Closteroviridae (Wisler et al., 1998).

          Climate

          Top of page
          ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
          B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
          C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

          Means of Movement and Dispersal

          Top of page

          The main pathways of CYSDV dispersal are through infected plants for planting, and through adults of the vector, B. tabaci, associated with plant materials. As the virus is vector-transmitted, virulifeous (infected) adults of B. tabaci constitute the main pathway of local and natural dispersal. Adults of B. tabaci do not fly very efficiently but, once airborne, can be transported long distances in air currents. Although viruliferous (infected) adult whiteflies could exist on traded plant materials, the survival of the vector is not very likely. However, international introduction is probably through traded infected cucurbitaceous plant material for planting. There is not known to be a significant movement of cucurbit plants for planting from areas where the disease occurs.

          CYSDV is not known to be seedborne.

          Pathway Causes

          Top of page
          CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Crop production Yes Yes
          Horticulture Yes Yes
          Nursery trade Yes

          Pathway Vectors

          Top of page
          VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Host and vector organisms Yes Yes

          Plant Trade

          Top of page
          Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
          Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
          Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
          Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
          Bark
          Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
          Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
          Fruits (inc. pods)
          Roots
          Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
          True seeds (inc. grain)
          Wood

          Wood Packaging

          Top of page
          Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
          Loose wood packing material
          Processed or treated wood
          Solid wood packing material with bark
          Solid wood packing material without bark

          Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

          Top of page
          VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
          Bemisia tabaciEFSA Panel on Plant Health (2013)Insect

          Impact Summary

          Top of page
          CategoryImpact
          Economic/livelihood Negative

          Economic Impact

          Top of page

          Since the early 1990s, CYSDV has been associated with yellowing diseases transmitted by whiteflies in cucumbers and melons grown in 16,000 ha of polyethylene-covered glasshouses in south-east Spain. Yellowing symptoms on the leaves of cucurbits infected with CYSDV are often confused with nutrient deficiency symptoms. However, damage leads to an approximate yield reduction of 30-50% in Spain and Lebanon (Célix et al., 1996; Hourani and Abou-Jawdah, 2003). In Arizona, USA, an outbreak of CYSDV in 2006 caused an estimated 60% reduction in marketable melon yield and a subsequent US$ 18 million loss (McGinley, 2008; James, 2011).

          Risk and Impact Factors

          Top of page
          Invasiveness
          • Invasive in its native range
          • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
          • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
          • Reproduces asexually
          Impact outcomes
          • Host damage
          • Increases vulnerability to invasions
          • Monoculture formation
          • Negatively impacts agriculture
          Impact mechanisms
          • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
          • Pathogenic
          Likelihood of entry/control
          • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
          • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
          • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
          • Difficult/costly to control

          Uses List

          Top of page

          General

          • Research model

          Diagnosis

          Top of page

          CYSDV in infected tissue can be identified by conventional and real-time RT-PCR detection assay (Célix et al., 1996; Berdiales et al., 1999; Gil-Salas et al., 2012) and by dot-blot hybridization analysis using CYSDV-specific probes (Tian et al., 1996; Rubio et al., 1999; Ruiz et al., 2002). Antiserum has been produced and used in both immunoblot and indirect ELISA assays (Livieratos et al., 1999; Desbiez et al., 2003; Cotillon et al., 2005).

          Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

          Top of page

          Symptoms on cucurbit crops are very similar to those of Beet pseudoyellows virus (BPYV; Wisler et al., 1998).

          Prevention and Control

          Top of page

          Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

          Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

          The control of CYSDV is dependent on the control of its vector Bemisia tabaci, and elimination of sources of infection. In particular, cucurbit seedlings for planting should come from disease-free stocks. Roguing infected cucurbit plants and removing overwintering crops early in the spring prior to the emergence of adult whiteflies may prove useful. To be effective, this sort of control measure should be applied over a whole area and preferably where there is no continuous production in glasshouses, which are often the sites of whitefly activity and active virus spread throughout the year. Weeds in and surrounding glasshouses should also be destroyed as they could act as hosts for B. tabaci. In Israel, covering the soil with a mulch of sawdust, fresh wheat straw or yellow polyethylene sheets has markedly reduced populations of B. tabaci. Whiteflies are attracted to the yellow colour and are killed by the heat. Interplanting with a species that is a good host for the vector, but not the virus may reduce virus incidence. In Lebanon and in Spain, insect-proof nets and sticky yellow traps are used for control (Abou-Jawdah et al., 2000; Janssen et al., 2009). Growing plants under physical barriers, such as low mesh tunnels and shade-cloth, may also have a positive effect.

          Chemical Control

          Chemical control of populations of B. tabaci to levels that result in a significant drop in disease incidence has proved difficult. In general, chemical control of the vectors of Closteroviridae has not been effective in preventing the spread of the diseases they cause (Berdiales et al., 1999). Some of the difficulties are the wide host range of the vector, the presence of the whitefly on the undersides of leaves, the extreme motility of adults and the ability of B. tabaci to develop resistance to most classes of existing insecticides. Many conventional insecticides such as organophosphorus compounds, carbamates and pyrethroids have effectively reduced whitefly populations, but provided only partial virus control even when sprayed as frequently as 2-3 times a week (Nakhla and Maxwell, 1998). Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide that can be applied to soil and foliage, is used to control whiteflies, but resistance has been reported (Elbert and Nauen, 2000). Insects resistant to buprofezin were also detected (Anon., 1996).

          Biological Control

          The predator Amblyseius swirskii, the parasite Encarsia formosa and the fungus Verticillium lecanii can be used as biological agents against B. tabaci, but are unlikely to affect virus transmission. A. swirskii does not prevent the primary infection from whitefly-transmitted Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in courgette but it can reduce the reproduction of the vector and secondary viral spread within crops so this could apply to other whitefly-transmitted viruses such as CYSDV (Tellez et al., 2017).

          Phytosanitary Measures

          CYSDV was added to the EPPO A2 action list in 2004, and endangered EPPO member countries are thus recommended to regulate it as a quarantine pest. There are, as yet, no specific measures against CYSDV in Europe, and in particular there are no restrictions on the movement of cucurbit seedlings from areas where the disease occurs. There is a potential danger that infected seedlings could move from countries where CYSDV occurs to other parts of the region, thus spreading the virus. Possible measures would be the same as those proposed for Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV; OEPP/EPPO, 2005a).

          Host-Plant Resistance

          Several commercial cucumber varieties show intermediate resistance to CYSDV, and can provide efficient virus control especially when combined with the use of insect-proof nets (Janssen et al., 2003). To date there are no commercial resistant melon varieties available, but preliminary attempts have been made to obtain select resistant genotypes (Sese et al., 1999; Marco et al., 2003).

          References

          Top of page

          Abou-Jawdah Y, Sobh H, Fayad A, Lecoq H, DelTcolle B, Trad-FerrT J, 2000. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus - a new threat to cucurbits in Lebanon. Journal of Plant Pathology, 82(1):55-60; 23 ref

          Aguilar JM, Franco M, Marco CF, Berdiales B, Rodriguez-Cerezo E, Truniger V, Aranda MA, 2003. Further variability within the genus Crinivirus, as revealed by determination of the complete RNA genome sequence of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus. Journal of General Virology, 84(9): 2555-2564

          Anon, 1996. Meeting the Threat of the Tobacco Whitefly (Bemisia Tabaci) to UK Horticulture. Final Project Report 1996. Rothamsted, UK: IACR, Rothamsted

          Bellows TS Jr, Perring TM, Gill RJ, Headrick DH, 1994. Description of a species of Bemisia (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87(2):195-206

          Berdiales B, Bernal JJ, Sßez E, Woudt B, Beitia F, Rodrfguez-Cerezo E, 1999. Occurrence of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and beet pseudo-yellows virus in cucurbit crops in Spain and transmission of CYSDV by two biotypes of Bemisia tabaci. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105(2):211-215; 20 ref

          Boubourakas, I. N., Avgelis, A. D., Kyriakopoulou, P. E., Katis, N. I., 2006. Occurrence of yellowing viruses (Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus) affecting cucurbits in Greece. Plant Pathology, 55(2), 276-283. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01341.x

          Brown, J. K., Guerrero, J. C., Matheron, M., Olsen, M., Idris, A. M., 2007. Widespread outbreak of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon, squash, and watermelon crops in the Sonoran desert of Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. Plant Disease, 91(6), 773. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-6-0773A

          CABI/EPPO, 2004. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 910. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

          Célix A, López-Sesé A, Almarza N, Gómez-Guillamón ML, Rodríguez-Cerezo E, 1996. Characterization of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, a Bemisia tabaci-transmitted Closterovirus. Phytopathology, 86(12):1370-1376; 27 ref

          Cotillon AC, Desbiez C, Bouyer S, Wipf-Scheibel C, Gros C, Delecolle B, Lecoq H, 2005. Production of a polyclonal antiserum against the coat protein of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder crinivirus expressed in Escherichia coli. Bulletin OEPP, 35(1): 99-103

          Coutts RHA, Livieratos IC, 2003. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus RNA1. Archives of Virology, 148(10): 2055-2062

          Dalmon A, Halkett F, Granier M, Peterschmitt M, 2008. Limited but persistent genetic differentiation among biotype Q of Bemisia tabaci, the only biotype detected in protected crops in Southern France. Journal of Insect Science, 8(1), 15-16.

          Decoin M, 2003. Tomatoes and cucumbers watch out there are five new viruses about!. Phytoma, No.558:27-29

          Desbiez C, Lecoq H, Aboulama S, Peterschmitt M, 2000. First report of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in Morocco. Plant Disease, 84(5):596; 4 ref

          Desbiez C, Lecoq H, Girard M, Cotillon AC, Schoen L, 2003. First report of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in commercial cucumber greenhouses in France. Plant Disease, 87(5):600; 2 ref

          EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory. EFSA Journal, 11(4). 3162. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/3162.pdf

          Elbert A, Nauen R, 2000. Resistance of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) to insecticides in southern Spain with special reference to neonicotinoids. Pest Management Science, 56(1):60-64; 26 ref

          El-Zammar S, Abou-Jawdah Y, Sobh H, 2001. Management of virus diseases of squash in Lebanon. Journal of Plant Pathology, 83(1):21-25; 24 ref

          EPPO, 2005. Cucumber vein yellowing ipomovirus. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 35(3):419-421. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp

          EPPO, 2005. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder crinivirus. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 35(3):442-444. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp

          Gadhave, K. R., Dutta, B., Coolong, T., Sparks, A. N., Adkins, S., Srinivasan, R., 2018. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in cucurbits in Georgia, United States. Plant Health Progress, (No.February), PHP-03-17-0016-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum2.aspx?id=11002

          Gil-Salas, F. M., Peters, J., Boonham, N., Cuadrado, I. M., Janssen, D., 2012. Co-infection with Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus leading to synergism in cucumber. Plant Pathology, 61(3), 468-478. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02545.x

          Hassan AA, Duffus JE, 1991. A review of a yellowing stunting disorder of cucurbits in the United Arab Emirates. Emirates Journal of Agricultural Science, 2:1-16

          Hourani H, Abou-Jawdah Y, 2003. Immunodiagnosis of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus using polyclonal antibodies developed against recombinant coat protein. Journal of Plant Pathology, 85:197-204

          James LA, 2011. Arizona Department of Agriculture. Specialty Crop Block Grant Program. Agreement No. 12-25-G-0604 final performance report. Arizona, USA: Arizona Department of Agriculture.http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5088979

          Janssen D, Ruiz L, Cano M, Belmonte A, Martin G, Segundo E, Cuadrado IM, 2003. Physical and genetic control of Bemisia tabaci-transmitted Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus in cucumber. In: IOBC/WPRS Bulletin,26. 101-106.

          Janssen, D., García, M. C., Belmonte, A., Pascual, F., García, T., Bretones, G., Gil, F. M., Cuadrado, I. M., 2009. Integrated pest control using indoor screenhouses within plastic greenhouses. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 49, 79-84. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2009_49_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

          Kao J, Jia L, Tian T, Rubio L, Falk BW, 2000. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (genus Crinivirus) in North America. Plant Disease, 84(1):101; 2 ref

          Keshavarz T, Izadpanah K, 2005. Etiology of cucurbit yellows in the Boushehr Province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 41(2):En107-121, pe291-292

          Kuo YW, Rojas MR, Gilbertson RL, Wintermantel WM, 2007. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in California and Arizona, in association with Cucurbit leaf crumple virus and Squash leaf curl virus. Plant Disease, 91(3):330. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

          Liu HY, Wisler GC, Duffus JE, 2000. Particle lengths of whitefly-transmitted criniviruses. Plant Disease, 84(7):803-805; 20 ref

          Liu LZ, Chen YY, Zhu WM, 2010. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus on melon in China. Plant Disease, 94(4):485. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

          Livieratos IC, Avgelis AD, Coutts RHA, 1999. Molecular characterization of the cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus coat protein gene. Phytopathology, 89(11):1050-1055; 38 ref

          Livieratos IC, Coutts RHA, 2002. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus RNA 2. Virus Genes, 24(3):225-230; 42 ref

          Louro D, Vicente M, Vaira AM, Accotto GP, 2000. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (genus Crinivirus) associated with the yellowing disease of cucurbit crops in Portugal. Plant Disease, 84(10):1156; 2 ref

          Louro, D., Vicente, M., Vaira, A. M., Accotto, G. P., 2000. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (genus Crinivirus) associated with the yellowing disease of cucurbit crops in Portugal. Plant Disease, 84(10), 1156. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.10.1156A

          Manglli, A., Murenu, M., Sitzia, M., Tomassoli, L., 2016. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus infecting cucurbits in Italy. New Disease Reports, 34, 23. doi: 10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.034.023

          Marco CF, Aguilar JM, Abad J, Gomez-Guillamon ML, Aranda MA, 2003. Melon resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus is characterized by reduced virus accumulation. Phytopathology, 93(7): 844-852

          Marco CF, Aranda MA, 2005. Genetic diversity of a natural population of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus. Journal of General Virology, 86(3): 815-822

          Martelli GP, Agranovsky AA, Bar-Joseph M, Boscia D, Candresse T, Coutts RHA, Dolja VV, Falk BW, Gonsalves D, Hu JS, et al., 2005. Family Closteroviridae. In: Virus Taxonomy, Eighth Report Of The ICTV, [ed. by Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Ma J]. Elsevier/Academic Press. 1077-1087.

          McGinley S, 2008. Fighting a melon virus in Yuma County: a cooperative program with growers. In: Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report . 10-11.

          Medina V, Rodrigo G, Tian TY, Juarez M, Dolja VV, Achon MA, Falk BW, 2003. Comparative cytopathology of Crinivirus infections in different plant hosts. Annals of Applied Biology, 143(1): 99-110

          Mohammed, H. S., Zicca, S., Manglli, A., Mohamed, M. E., El-Siddig, M. A., Tomassoli, L., El-Hussein, A. A., 2014. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of common pumpkin viruses in Sudan. Journal of Plant Pathology, 96(1), 77-84. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2990

          Nakhla MK, Maxwell DP, 1998. Epidemiology and management of tomato yellow leaf curl disease. In: Hadidi A, Khetarpal RK, Koganezawa H, eds. Plant Virus Disease Control. St Paul, USA: APS Press, 565-583

          Orfanidou, C. G., Papayiannis, L. C., Pappi, P. G., Katis, N. I., Maliogka, V. I., 2019. Criniviruses associated with cucurbit yellows disease in Greece and Cyprus: an ever-changing scene. Plant Pathology, 68(4), 764-774. doi: 10.1111/ppa.12986

          Papayiannis LC, Ioannou N, Boubourakas IN, Dovas CI, Katis NI, Falk BW, 2005. Incidence of viruses infecting cucurbits in Cyprus. Journal of Phytopathology, 153(9):530-535. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jph

          Parrella, G., Scassillo, L., Giorgini, M., 2012. Evidence for a new genetic variant in the Bemisia tabaci species complex and the prevalence of the biotype Q in southern Italy. Journal of Pest Science, 85(2), 227-238. doi: 10.1007/s10340-012-0417-2

          Polston JE, Hladky LL, Akad F, Wintermantel WM, 2008. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in cucurbits in Florida. Plant Disease, 92(8):1251. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

          Rubio L, Soong J, Kao J, Falk BW, 1999. Geographic distribution and molecular variation of isolates of three whitefly-borne closteroviruses of cucurbits: lettuce infectious yellows virus, cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, and beet pseudo-yellows virus. Phytopathology, 89(8):707-711; 28 ref

          Rubio, L., Abou-Jawdah, Y., Lin HanXin, Falk, B. W., 2001. Geographically distant isolates of the crinivirus Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus show very low genetic diversity in the coat protein gene. Journal of General Virology, 82(4), 929-933.

          Ruiz L, Janssen D, Velasco L, Segundo E, Cuadrado IM, 2002. Quantitation of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) using digoxigenin-labelled hybridisation probes. Journal of Virological Methods, 101(1/2):95-103; 20 ref

          Sese AIL, Sanchez F, Gomez-Guillam=n ML, 1999. Evaluation of melon F hybrids resistant to cucurbit yellowing stunting disorder virus (CYSDV). Acta Horticulturae, No. 492:341-347; 21 ref

          Simón, B., Cenis, J. L., Rúa, P. de la, 2007. Distribution patterns of the Q and B biotypes of Bemisia tabaci in the Mediterranean Basin based on microsatellite variation. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 124(3), 327-336. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2007.00586.x

          Smith IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref

          Tellez, M. del M., Simon, A., Rodriguez, E., Janssen, D., 2017. Control of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in zucchini using the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii. Biological Control, 114, 106-113. doi: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2017.08.008

          Tian T, Klaassen VA, Soong J, Wisler G, Duffus JE, Falk BW, 1996. Generation of cDNAs specific to lettuce infectious yellows closterovirus and other whitefly-transmitted viruses by RT-PCR and degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the closterovirus gene encoding the heat shock protein 70 homolog. Phytopathology, 86:1167-1173

          Webster CG, Kousik CS, Roberts PD, Rosskopf EN, Turechek WW, Adkins S, 2011. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus detected in pigweed in Florida. Plant Disease, 95(3):360. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

          Wintermantel, W. M., Hladky, L. L., Cortez, A. A., Natwick, E. T., 2009. A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops. Plant Disease, 93(7), 685-690. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-93-7-0685

          Wisler GC, Duffus JE, Liu HY, Li RH, 1998. Ecology and epidemiology of whitefly-transmitted closteroviruses. Plant Disease, 82(3):270-280; 86 ref

          Yakoubi S, Desbiez C, Fakhfakh H, Wipf-Scheibel C, Marrakchi M, Lecoq H, 2007. Occurrence of Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 89(3):417-420. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

          Distribution References

          Abou-Jawdah Y, Sobh H, Fayad A, Lecoq H, Delécolle B, Trad-Ferré J, 2000. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus - a new threat to cucurbits in Lebanon. Journal of Plant Pathology. 82 (1), 55-60.

          Adkins S, Webster C G, Baker C A, Weaver R, Rosskopf E N, Turechek W W, 2009. Detection of three whitefly-transmitted viruses infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida. Plant Health Progress. PHP-2009-1118-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=8592&photo=4703

          Al-Saleh M A, Al-Shahwan I M, Amer M A, Shakeel M T, Abdalla O A, Orfanidou C G, Katis N I, 2015. First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus in cucumber in Saudi Arabia. Plant Disease. 99 (5), 734. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-14-1101-PDN

          Al-Saleh M A, Al-Shahwan I M, Amer M A, Shakeel M T, Kamran A, Xanthis C K, Orfanidou C G, Katis N I, 2015a. First report of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in cucurbit crops in Saudi Arabia. Plant Disease. 99 (6), 894. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

          Bananej K, Orfanidou C G, Maliogka V I, Katis N I, 2018. First report of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus in zucchini in Iran. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 2047-2048. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-18-0389-PDN

          Batuman O, Natwick E T, Wintermantel W M, Tian T, McCreight J D, Hladky L L, Gilbertson R L, 2015. First report of an ipomovirus infecting cucurbits in the Imperial Valley of California. Plant Disease. 99 (7), 1042. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1248-PDN

          Berdiales B, Bernal J J, Sáez E, Woudt B, Beitia F, Rodríguez-Cerezo E, 1999. Occurrence of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and beet pseudo-yellows virus in cucurbit crops in Spain and transmission of CYSDV by two biotypes of Bemisia tabaci. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 105 (2), 211-215. DOI:10.1023/A:1008713629768

          Boubourakas I N, Avgelis A D, Kyriakopoulou P E, Katis N I, 2006. Occurrence of yellowing viruses (Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus) affecting cucurbits in Greece. Plant Pathology. 55 (2), 276-283. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01341.x

          Brown J K, Guerrero J C, Matheron M, Olsen M, Idris A M, 2007. Widespread outbreak of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon, squash, and watermelon crops in the Sonoran desert of Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. Plant Disease. 91 (6), 773. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-6-0773A

          CABI, EPPO, 2004. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 910. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500910

          Célix A, López-Sesé A, Almarza N, Gómez-Guillamón M L, Rodríguez-Cerezo E, 1996. Characterization of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, a Bemisia tabaci-transmitted Closterovirus. Phytopathology. 86 (12), 1370-1376.

          Choi S K, Choi G S, 2016. First report of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Cucumis melo in Korea. Plant Disease. 100 (1), 234. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-15-0627-PDN

          Decoin M, 2003. Tomatoes and cucumbers watch out there are five new viruses about! (A propos de cinq organismes "à lutte obligatoire": tomates et concombres, gare aux nouveaux virus.). Phytoma. 27-29.

          Desbiez C, Lecoq H, Aboulama S, Peterschmitt M, 2000. First report of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in Morocco. Plant Disease. 84 (5), 596. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.5.596C

          Desbiez C, Lecoq H, Girard M, Cotillon A C, Schoen L, 2003. First report of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in commercial cucumber greenhouses in France. Plant Disease. 87 (5), 600. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.5.600C

          El-Zammar S, Abou-Jawdah Y, Sobh H, 2001. Management of virus diseases of squash in Lebanon. Journal of Plant Pathology. 83 (1), 21-25.

          EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

          Gadhave K R, Dutta B, Coolong T, Sparks A N, Adkins S, Srinivasan R, 2018. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in cucurbits in Georgia, United States. Plant Health Progress. PHP-03-17-0016-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum2.aspx?id=11002

          Hassan AA, Duffus JE, 1991. A review of a yellowing stunting disorder of cucurbits in the United Arab Emirates. In: Emirates Journal of Agricultural Science, 2 1-16.

          Hourani H, Abou-Jawdah Y, 2003. Immunodiagnosis of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus using polyclonal antibodies developed against recombinant coat protein. Journal of Plant Pathology. 85 (3), 197-204.

          Kao J, Jia L, Tian T, Rubio L, Falk B W, 2000. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (genus Crinivirus) in North America. Plant Disease. 84 (1), 101. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.1.101C

          Keshavarz T, Izadpanah K, 2005. Etiology of cucurbit yellows in the Boushehr Province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 41 (2), En107-121, pe291-292.

          Kuo Y W, Rojas M R, Gilbertson R L, Wintermantel W M, 2007. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in California and Arizona, in association with Cucurbit leaf crumple virus and Squash leaf curl virus. Plant Disease. 91 (3), 330. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-3-0330B

          Liu L Z, Chen Y Y, Zhu W M, 2010. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus on melon in China. Plant Disease. 94 (4), 485. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-4-0485A

          Louro D, Quinot A, Neto E, Fernandes J E, Marian D, Vecchiati M, Caciagli P, Vaira A M, 2004. Occurrence of cucumber vein yellowing virus in cucurbitaceous species in southern Portugal. Plant Pathology. 53 (2), 241. DOI:10.1111/j.0032-0862.2004.00996.x

          Louro D, Vicente M, Vaira A M, Accotto G P, 2000. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (genus Crinivirus) associated with the yellowing disease of cucurbit crops in Portugal. Plant Disease. 84 (10), 1156. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.10.1156A

          Manglli A, Murenu M, Sitzia M, Tomassoli L, 2016. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus infecting cucurbits in Italy. New Disease Reports. 23. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.034.023

          Mohammed H S, Zicca S, Manglli A, Mohamed M E, El-Siddig M A, Tomassoli L, El-Hussein A A, 2014. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of common pumpkin viruses in Sudan. Journal of Plant Pathology. 96 (1), 77-84. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2990

          Orfanidou C G, Maliogka V I, Katis N I, Kontosfyris G, Smith T, Caglayan K, 2017. First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus in cucumber in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (2), 533. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3892/2536

          Orfanidou C G, Papayiannis L C, Pappi P G, Katis N I, Maliogka V I, 2019. Criniviruses associated with cucurbit yellows disease in Greece and Cyprus: an ever-changing scene. Plant Pathology. 68 (4), 764-774. DOI:10.1111/ppa.12986

          Orfanidou C, Maliogka V I, Katis N I, 2014. First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus in cucumber, melon, and watermelon in Greece. Plant Disease. 98 (10), 1446-1447. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-14-0311-PDN

          Papayiannis L C, Ioannou N, Boubourakas I N, Dovas C I, Katis N I, Falk B W, 2005. Incidence of viruses infecting cucurbits in Cyprus. Journal of Phytopathology. 153 (9), 530-535. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jph DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2005.01015.x

          Polston J E, Hladky L L, Akad F, Wintermantel W M, 2008. First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in cucurbits in Florida. Plant Disease. 92 (8), 1251. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-8-1251B

          Rubio L, Soong J, Kao J, Falk B W, 1999. Geographic distribution and molecular variation of isolates of three whitefly-borne closteroviruses of cucurbits: lettuce infectious yellows virus, cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, and beet pseudo-yellows virus. Phytopathology. 89 (8), 707-711. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.1999.89.8.707

          Webster C G, Kousik C S, Roberts P D, Rosskopf E N, Turechek W W, Adkins S, 2011. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus detected in pigweed in Florida. Plant Disease. 95 (3), 360. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-10-0813

          Wintermantel W M, Hladky L L, Cortez A A, Natwick E T, 2009. A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops. Plant Disease. 93 (7), 685-690. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-7-0685

          Wisler G C, Duffus J E, Liu H Y, Li R H, 1998. Ecology and epidemiology of whitefly-transmitted closteroviruses. Plant Disease. 82 (3), 270-280. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.3.270

          Yakoubi S, Desbiez C, Fakhfakh H, Wipf-Scheibel C, Marrakchi M, Lecoq H, 2007. Occurrence of Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology. 89 (3), 417-420. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

          Contributors

          Top of page

          29/08/20 Updated by:

          Dirk Janssen, Instituto de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera (IFAPA), Seville, Spain 

          Distribution Maps

          Top of page
          You can pan and zoom the map
          Save map
          Select a dataset
          Map Legends
          • CABI Summary Records
          Map Filters
          Extent
          Invasive
          Origin
          Third party data sources: