Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Vectors and Intermediate Hosts
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a crinivirus that is non-circulative, semi-persistently transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. It multiplies in cucurbitaceous plant species but not inside its insect vector. The main pathways of CYSDV introduction and long-distance spread are through infected plants for planting. Short-distance spread is predominantly through viruliferous (infected) adults of B. tabaci. CYSDV is considered an 'emerging virus' and is increasingly recorded from a number of European, American and Asiatic countries. Infected cucurbit crops display yellowing symptoms on the leaves and this damage leads to an approximate yield reduction of 30-50 % in Spain and Lebanon (Célix et al., 1996; Hourani and Abou-Jawdah, 2003). In Arizona, the outbreak of CYSDV in 2006 caused an estimated 60% reduction in marketable melon yield and a subsequent US$ 18 million loss (McGinley, 2008; James, 2011). CYSDV was added to the EPPO A2 List in 2004.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Family: Closteroviridae
- Genus: Crinivirus
- Species: Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a species of the Crinivirus genus, one of three genera of the Closteroviridae family (Martelli et al., 2005). CYSDV isolates can be divided into two distinct groups. One group contains contains the so-called Western isolates from Spain, Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, North America and Central America. The other group are the Eastern isolates from Saudi Arabia and Sudan (Rubio et al., 2001; Yakoubi et al., 2007; Mohammed et al., 2014). Nucleotide identity between isolates of the same group is greater than 99%, whereas identity between groups is about 90% (Rubio et al., 1999).
DescriptionTop of page
Flexuous, filamentous virus particles typical of the Closteroviridae have been found in infected plants. The length distribution of CYSDV particles has shown two peaks at 825-850 nm and 875-900 nm (Célix et al., 1996). Using an improved method for particle measurement, Liu et al. (2000) have recorded lengths of 800-850 nm for CYSDV. Its bipartite positive sense single-stranded RNA genome has been completely sequenced; RNA-1 contains 9126 nucleotides and RNA-2 7281 nucleotides (Livieratos and Coutts, 2002; Aguilar et al., 2003; Coutts and Livieratos, 2003). The coat protein gene contains 756 nucleotides and encodes the coat protein of 28.5 kDa (Livieratos et al., 1999). CYSDV was first classified as a species in the Closterovirus genus with bipartite genomes exemplified by Lettuce infectious yellows virus (Célix et al., 1996), as then named. These have now been transferred to a new genus Crinivirus.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|United Arab Emirates||Present|
|-Sardinia||Present, Few occurrences|
|Netherlands||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|United States||Present, Localized|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
CYSDV is one of the most widely distributed viruses in cucurbit production regions. The virus was first described in the United Arab Emirates (Hassan and Duffus, 1991) but is now common throughout many tropical and subtropical production areas, including the Middle East and Mediterranean basin, as well as China and North and Central America (Célix at al., 1996; Wisler et al., 1998; Abou-Jawdah et al., 2000; Desbiez et al., 2000; Kao et al., 2000; Louro et al., 2000; Kuo et al., 2007; Yakoubi et al., 2007; Polston et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010). The virus is predominantly introduced accidentally through infected cucurbit material for planting. Local spread can happen through its insect vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Cucurbits are important crops in the field, under glass, and in plastic greenhouses in the European and Mediterranean region, and CYSDV causes a serious disease notably on cucumbers and melons in Spain, Portugal, Turkey and the Middle East. Within the EU, 1,76 million t of melon were harvested during 2017, led by Spain and Italy, with 656,000 and 606,000 t, respectively. Cucumber and gherkin production in the EU is more significant and in 2017, 2.82 million t were harvested. Spain, Poland and the Netherlands were the biggest producers, harvesting 635,000, 544,000 and 400,000 t, respectively, according to FAO. Economic losses from CYSDV that could be expected in glasshouse-grown cucurbits, especially cucumber, in northern Europe are difficult to predict, but are likely to be substantial. Spread of the pest is likely to be much facilitated by the presence of its vector Bemisia tabaci in glasshouses in many countries of the European and Mediterranean region. Control of CYSDV is difficult due to the ability of the vector B. tabaci rapidly to become resistant to insecticides. A breakdown of efficacy of insecticides could result in serious problems. There is a strong probability that CYSDV will become a serious problem in other Mediterranean countries and in northern Europe, if introduced.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
The natural hosts of CYSDV are restricted to the Cucurbitaceae: watermelon, melon, cucumber and courgette. Wintermantel et al. (2009) also identified natural infections in snap bean, alfalfa and London rocket (Sisymbrium irio). In addition, the following experimental host plants have been identified: Cucurbita maxima and Lactuca sativa. For further details, see Célix et al. (1996), Wisler et al. (1998), Berdiales et al. (1999), Abou-Jawdah et al. (2000), Desbiez et al. (2000), Kao et al. (2000) and Louro et al. (2000).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
Cucumbers and melons infected by CYSDV show severe yellowing symptoms that start as an interveinal mottle on the older leaves and intensify as leaves age (Abou-Jawdah et al., 2000). Chlorotic mottling, yellowing and stunting occur on cucumber (Louro et al., 2000) and yellowing and severe stunting on melon (Kao et al., 2000). No description of symptoms on courgette has been provided by the authors reporting the natural infection (Berdiales et al., 1999). Symptoms on cucurbit crops are said to be indistinguishable from those caused by Beet pseudoyellows virus (BPYV; Wisler et al., 1998).
In experimental transmission experiments, chlorotic spots along the leaf veins of the melon cv. 'Piel de Sapo' were noticed after 14-20 days. Sometimes, initial symptoms also consisted of prominent yellowing sectors of a leaf. Symptoms evolved later to complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, except the veins, and rolling and brittleness of the leaves (Célix et al., 1996).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal patterns|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Whole plant / discoloration|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The life cycle of CYSDV is strongly dependent on its vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. In Portugal, the first symptoms of CYSDV in a field plot of cucumber were associated with heavy infestations of B. tabaci (Louro et al., 2000). High populations were also associated with symptoms on melon in the USA (Kao et al., 2000). The spread of the virus may be related to the increase in distribution of the polyphagous B. tabaci MEAM1 (B biotype) (Bellows et al., 1994). This moves readily from one host species to the next and is estimated to have a host range of around 600 species. Transmission of CYSDV by MEAM1 is greater than by biotype A (Wisler et al., 1998). However, MED (biotype Q) transmits as efficiently as MEAM1 (Berdiales et al., 1999).
Within the European and Mediterranean region, B. tabaci has been reported from most of the countries and in the cases where species identification was conducted, the two major invasive B. tabaci cryptic species, MEAM1 and MED, were almost exclusively found. In northern Europe, B. tabaci occurrence is in protected crop production systems only whereas in southern Europe it is present in greenhouses and in open fields. Except in the Mediterranean coastal region (Cyprus, Greece, Malta, Italy, south of France, certain parts of Spain and Portugal), B. tabaci occurrence is restricted to greenhouses (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2013). In some European countries, MED predominates and MEAM1 is almost absent, like in Spain (Simón et al., 2007), the mainland of Greece (Orfanidou et al., 2019) and France where MEAM1 has only been reported once occurring in a botanical garden in Nice (Dalmon et al., 2008). In contrast, MEAM1 is reported from Cyprus as the only species present (Orfanidou et al., 2019) while MED and MEAM1 have been found in determined Greek islands, such as Rhodes and Samos (Orfanidou et al., 2019), and in the warmer areas of Italy, including the southern regions (Sardinia and Sicily) and the north-western coast (Liguria) (Parrella et al., 2012).
Acquisition periods of 18 h or more and inoculation periods of 24 h or more are necessary for transmission rates of CYSDV of over 80% in tests using melon. However, transmission was noted after acquisition and transmission periods of 2 h (Célix et al., 1996). CYSDV persists for at least 9 days in the vector with a 72.2-h half-life. This is the longest retention time of all whitefly-transmitted viruses of the Closteroviridae (Wisler et al., 1998).
ClimateTop of page
|B - Dry (arid and semi-arid)||Tolerated||< 860mm precipitation annually|
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Tolerated||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The main pathways of CYSDV dispersal are through infected plants for planting, and through adults of the vector, B. tabaci, associated with plant materials. As the virus is vector-transmitted, virulifeous (infected) adults of B. tabaci constitute the main pathway of local and natural dispersal. Adults of B. tabaci do not fly very efficiently but, once airborne, can be transported long distances in air currents. Although viruliferous (infected) adult whiteflies could exist on traded plant materials, the survival of the vector is not very likely. However, international introduction is probably through traded infected cucurbitaceous plant material for planting. There is not known to be a significant movement of cucurbit plants for planting from areas where the disease occurs.
CYSDV is not known to be seedborne.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Leaves||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
Since the early 1990s, CYSDV has been associated with yellowing diseases transmitted by whiteflies in cucumbers and melons grown in 16,000 ha of polyethylene-covered glasshouses in south-east Spain. Yellowing symptoms on the leaves of cucurbits infected with CYSDV are often confused with nutrient deficiency symptoms. However, damage leads to an approximate yield reduction of 30-50% in Spain and Lebanon (Célix et al., 1996; Hourani and Abou-Jawdah, 2003). In Arizona, USA, an outbreak of CYSDV in 2006 caused an estimated 60% reduction in marketable melon yield and a subsequent US$ 18 million loss (McGinley, 2008; James, 2011).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Reproduces asexually
- Host damage
- Increases vulnerability to invasions
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
Uses ListTop of page
- Research model
DiagnosisTop of page
CYSDV in infected tissue can be identified by conventional and real-time RT-PCR detection assay (Célix et al., 1996; Berdiales et al., 1999; Gil-Salas et al., 2012) and by dot-blot hybridization analysis using CYSDV-specific probes (Tian et al., 1996; Rubio et al., 1999; Ruiz et al., 2002). Antiserum has been produced and used in both immunoblot and indirect ELISA assays (Livieratos et al., 1999; Desbiez et al., 2003; Cotillon et al., 2005).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Symptoms on cucurbit crops are very similar to those of Beet pseudoyellows virus (BPYV; Wisler et al., 1998).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
The control of CYSDV is dependent on the control of its vector Bemisia tabaci, and elimination of sources of infection. In particular, cucurbit seedlings for planting should come from disease-free stocks. Roguing infected cucurbit plants and removing overwintering crops early in the spring prior to the emergence of adult whiteflies may prove useful. To be effective, this sort of control measure should be applied over a whole area and preferably where there is no continuous production in glasshouses, which are often the sites of whitefly activity and active virus spread throughout the year. Weeds in and surrounding glasshouses should also be destroyed as they could act as hosts for B. tabaci. In Israel, covering the soil with a mulch of sawdust, fresh wheat straw or yellow polyethylene sheets has markedly reduced populations of B. tabaci. Whiteflies are attracted to the yellow colour and are killed by the heat. Interplanting with a species that is a good host for the vector, but not the virus may reduce virus incidence. In Lebanon and in Spain, insect-proof nets and sticky yellow traps are used for control (Abou-Jawdah et al., 2000; Janssen et al., 2009). Growing plants under physical barriers, such as low mesh tunnels and shade-cloth, may also have a positive effect.
Chemical control of populations of B. tabaci to levels that result in a significant drop in disease incidence has proved difficult. In general, chemical control of the vectors of Closteroviridae has not been effective in preventing the spread of the diseases they cause (Berdiales et al., 1999). Some of the difficulties are the wide host range of the vector, the presence of the whitefly on the undersides of leaves, the extreme motility of adults and the ability of B. tabaci to develop resistance to most classes of existing insecticides. Many conventional insecticides such as organophosphorus compounds, carbamates and pyrethroids have effectively reduced whitefly populations, but provided only partial virus control even when sprayed as frequently as 2-3 times a week (Nakhla and Maxwell, 1998). Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide that can be applied to soil and foliage, is used to control whiteflies, but resistance has been reported (Elbert and Nauen, 2000). Insects resistant to buprofezin were also detected (Anon., 1996).
The predator Amblyseius swirskii, the parasite Encarsia formosa and the fungus Verticillium lecanii can be used as biological agents against B. tabaci, but are unlikely to affect virus transmission. A. swirskii does not prevent the primary infection from whitefly-transmitted Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in courgette but it can reduce the reproduction of the vector and secondary viral spread within crops so this could apply to other whitefly-transmitted viruses such as CYSDV (Tellez et al., 2017).
CYSDV was added to the EPPO A2 action list in 2004, and endangered EPPO member countries are thus recommended to regulate it as a quarantine pest. There are, as yet, no specific measures against CYSDV in Europe, and in particular there are no restrictions on the movement of cucurbit seedlings from areas where the disease occurs. There is a potential danger that infected seedlings could move from countries where CYSDV occurs to other parts of the region, thus spreading the virus. Possible measures would be the same as those proposed for Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV; OEPP/EPPO, 2005a).
Several commercial cucumber varieties show intermediate resistance to CYSDV, and can provide efficient virus control especially when combined with the use of insect-proof nets (Janssen et al., 2003). To date there are no commercial resistant melon varieties available, but preliminary attempts have been made to obtain select resistant genotypes (Sese et al., 1999; Marco et al., 2003).
ReferencesTop of page
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29/08/20 Updated by:
Dirk Janssen, Instituto de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera (IFAPA), Seville, Spain
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