Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cucurbita maxima
(giant pumpkin)

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Datasheet

Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cucurbita maxima
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant pumpkin
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); Large pumpkin with smartphone for scale. Surrey, England. September 2020.
TitleFruit
CaptionCucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); Large pumpkin with smartphone for scale. Surrey, England. September 2020.
Copyright©Dr Philip Taylor (CABI)
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); Large pumpkin with smartphone for scale. Surrey, England. September 2020.
FruitCucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); Large pumpkin with smartphone for scale. Surrey, England. September 2020.©Dr Philip Taylor (CABI)
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); 'Burgess' buttercup squash.
TitleFruits
CaptionCucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); 'Burgess' buttercup squash.
Copyright©Thomas A. Zitter
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); 'Burgess' buttercup squash.
FruitsCucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); 'Burgess' buttercup squash.©Thomas A. Zitter

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cucurbita maxima Duchesne ex Lam.

Preferred Common Name

  • giant pumpkin

Other Scientific Names

  • Cucurbita turbaniformis M. Roem.

International Common Names

  • English: autumn squash; banana squash; buttercup squash; calabaza; courge; Hubbard squash; pumpkin; squash banana; squash buttercup; turban squash; winter squash; winter squash
  • Spanish: calabaza amarilla; calabaza de Castilla; calabaza redonda; zapallo
  • French: courge commune; giraumon; pâtisson; potiron
  • Chinese: zhong guo
  • Portuguese: abóbora-moranga; cabaca

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kuerbis; Riesen- Kuerbis
  • Italy: zucca gigante
  • Netherlands: reuzenkalebas
  • Peru: loche
  • Russian Federation: tykva
  • Sweden: jaettepumpa

EPPO code

  • CUUMA (Cucurbita maxima)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Violales
  •                         Family: Cucurbitaceae
  •                             Genus: Cucurbita
  •                                 Species: Cucurbita maxima

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 240,000 MT (F)
Cabo VerdePresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 1,147 MT (Im)
CameroonPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 150,867 MT (Im)
Central African RepublicPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 31,000 MT
Côte d'IvoirePresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 20,560 MT (Im)
DjiboutiPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 16 MT (Im)
EgyptPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 633,557 MT
GhanaPresent
LibyaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 33,669 MT (Im)
MauritiusPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 19,191 MT
MoroccoPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 211,834 MT (Im)
MozambiquePresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 1,034 MT (Im)
NigerPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 49,262 MT
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 912 MT (Im)
RwandaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 234,671 MT (Im)
SenegalPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 6,000 MT (F)
South AfricaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 177,852 MT
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 47,607 MT (Im)

Asia

BahrainPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 599 MT (Im)
BangladeshPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 402,470 MT (Im)
BhutanPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 6,596 MT (Im)
BruneiPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 581 MT (Im)
ChinaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 6,978,170 MT (F)
IndiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 4,695,540 MT (Im)
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 428,197 MT
IraqPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 165,239 MT
IsraelPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 13,078 MT
JapanPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 222,833 MT (Im)
JordanPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 93,118 MT
KuwaitPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 12,496 MT (Im)
KyrgyzstanPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 2,000 MT (*)
LebanonPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 25,000 MT (F)
MalaysiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 21,200 MT
OmanPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 2,184 MT
PakistanPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 252,028 MT
PhilippinesPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 317,571 MT
QatarPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 370 MT
Saudi ArabiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 122,193 MT (Im)
Sri LankaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 127,890 MT
SyriaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 122,340 MT
ThailandPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 203,121 MT (Im)
TurkeyPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 410,804 MT
United Arab EmiratesPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 32,648 MT (Im)
YemenPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 10,695 MT (Im)
-SocotraPresentIntroduced2003

Europe

AlbaniaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 9,700 MT (F)
AustriaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 19,671 MT
BelgiumPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 47,527 MT
BulgariaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 817 MT
CyprusPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 3,893 MT
CzechiaPresent
DenmarkPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 3,280 MT
FinlandPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 1,798 MT
FrancePresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 124,557 MT
GermanyPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 88,156 MT
GreecePresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 74,177 MT (Im)
HungaryPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 20,192 MT
ItalyPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 538,534 MT
LatviaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 3,776 MT
LithuaniaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 1,394 MT
MaltaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 1,477 MT
NetherlandsPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 18,000 MT
PolandPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 60,687 MT
PortugalPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 13,039 MT (Im)
-AzoresPresentIntroduced1952
RomaniaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 98,847 MT
RussiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 1,175,890 MT
SlovakiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 20,986 MT (Im)
SpainPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 393,100 MT
SwedenPresentIntroduced2001
SwitzerlandPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 10,140 MT
UkrainePresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 626,900 MT
United KingdomPresentIntroduced1928

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 320 MT (Im)
BarbadosPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 166 MT
BelizePresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 221 MT (Im)
CanadaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 88,954 MT
-British ColumbiaPresent
Cayman IslandsPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 42 MT (Im)
CubaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 340,328 MT
DominicaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 849 MT (Im)
Dominican RepublicPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 38,294 MT
El SalvadorPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 7,555 MT (Im)
GrenadaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 364 MT (Im)
GuadeloupePresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 307 MT (Im)
HaitiPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 580 MT (Im)
HondurasPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 3,588 MT (Im)
JamaicaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 49,432 MT
MexicoPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 525,445 MT
Puerto RicoPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 11,624 MT (Im)
Saint LuciaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 277 MT (Im)
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 0 MT (F)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 559 MT (Im)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 1,812 MT (Im)
United StatesPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 823,260 MT
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-OregonPresent
-TexasPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 102,934 MT
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 0 MT (A)
FijiPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 1,646 MT (Im)
French PolynesiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 113 MT (Im)
New ZealandPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 140,742 MT (Im)
Papua New GuineaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 127 MT (Im)
Solomon IslandsPresent
Timor-LestePresent
TongaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 18,693 MT (Im)

South America

ArgentinaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 337,566 MT (Im)
BrazilPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 141,415 MT (Im)
ColombiaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 67,729 MT (Im)
EcuadorPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 4,520 MT (Im)
GuyanaPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 5,454 MT (Im)
ParaguayPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 7,164 MT (Im)
PeruPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 198,998 MT
UruguayPresentPumpkins, squash and gourds production (2011) 15,151 MT (Im)

References

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Anon, 2007. New York agricultural statistics, 2005-2006 annual bulletin. Albany, USA: Albany, New York Dept. Ag. Markets, 25.

Bailey LH; Bailey EZ, 1976. Hortus Third. New York, USA: MacMillan Publishing Co., 342-343.

Brown JK; Idris AM; Alteri C; Stenger DC, 2002. Emergence of a new cucurbit-infecting begomovirus species capable of forming viable reassortants with related viruses in the Squash leaf curl virus cluster. Phytopathology, 92(7):734-742; 45 ref.

Brown JK; Idris AM; Olsen MW; Miller ME; Isakeit T; Anciso J, 2000. Cucurbit leaf curl virus, a new whitefly transmitted geminivirus in Arizona, Texas, and Mexico. Plant Disease, 84(7):809; 3 ref.

Bruton BD; Mitchell F; Fletcher J; Pair SD; Wayadande A; Melcher U; Bextine B; Popham TW, 2003. Serratia marsescens, a phloem-colonizing, squash bug-transmitted bacterium: causal agent of cucurbit yellow vine disease. Plant Disease, 87:937-944.

BTlanger RR; Bushnell WR; Dik AJ; Carver TLW, 2002. The powdery mildews: a comprehensive treatise. The powdery mildews: a comprehensive treatise, viii + 292 pp.; many ref.

Decoteau DR, 2000. Vegetable crops. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall.

Elzebroek, T.; Wind, K., 2008. Guide to cultivated plants., Guide to cultivated plants:vii-xi + 516 pp.

FAO, 2013. FAOSTAT database. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://faostat3.fao.org/home/index.html [2011 data taken in 2013.]

Ferriol M; Pico B; Nuez F, 2004. Morphological and molecular diversity of a collection of Cucurbita maxima landraces. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 129:60-69.

Hausbeck MK; Gevens AJ; Cortright B, 2006. Integrating cultural and chemical strategies to control Phytophthora capsici and limit its spread. In: Holmes GJ, ed. Proc. Cucurbitaceae 2006. Raleigh, NC, USA: Universal Press, 427-435.

Hollomon DW; Wheeler IE, 2002. Controlling powdery mildews with chemistry. In: Bélanger RR, Bushnell WR, Dik AJ, Carver TLW, eds. The Powdery Mildews, a Comprehensive Treatise. St Paul, MN, USA: APS Press (American Phytopathological Society), 249-255.

Hurd PD Jr; Linsley EG; Whitaker TW, 1971. Squash and gourd bees (Peponapis, Xenoglossa) and the origin of the cultivated Cucurbita. Evolution, 25:218-234.

Langevin D, 1993. How-to-grow world class giant pumpkins. Norton, MA, USA: Annedawn Pub.

Latin RX, 1996. Bacterial wilt. In: Zitter TA, Hopkins DL, Thomas DE, eds. Compendium of cucurbit diseases. St Paul, MN, USA: APS Press (American Phytopathological Society), 36.

Lecoq H; Bourdin D; Wipf-Scheibel C; Bon M; Lot H; Lemaire O; Herrbach E, 1992. A new yellowing disease of cucurbits caused by a luteovirus, cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus. Plant Pathology, 41(6):749-761

Mackiewicz Dde; Gildow FE; Blua M; Fleischer SJ; Lukezic FL, 1998. Herbaceous weeds are not ecologically important reservoirs of Erwinia tracheiphila. Plant Disease, 82(5):521-529; 36 ref.

Masierowska ML; Wien H, 2000. Flowering, pollination and fruit set of two pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) cultivars under field conditions. Apiacta, 35:97-105.

Maynard DN; Hochmuth GJ, 1997. Knott's handbook for vegetable growers. Knott's handbook for vegetable growers., Ed. 4:xii + 582 pp.; [many fig.]; many ref.

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McGrath MT, 2006. Occurrence of fungicide resistance in Podosphaera xanthii and impact on controlling cucurbit powdery mildew in New York. In: Holmes GJ, ed. Proc. Cucurbitaceae 2006. Raleigh, NC, USA: Universal Press, 473-482.

Mt Pleasant J, 2006. The science behind the three sisters mound system: An agronomic assessment of an indigenous agricultural system in the North East. In: Staller J, Tykot R, Benz B, eds. Histories of Maize. Academic Press, 529-537.

Ozdemir Z; Zitter TA, 2006. Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae) as a factor in cucurbit production and evaluation of seed treatments for control in naturally infested seed. In: Holmes GJ, ed. Proc. Cucurbitaceae 2006. Raleigh, NC, USA: Universal Press, 498-506.

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Provvidenti R, 1982. Sources of resistance and tolerance to viruses in accessions of Cucurbita maxima. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rep., 5:46-47.

Provvidenti R, 1996. Aster yellows. In: Zitter TA, Hopkins DL, Thomas DE, eds. Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases. St Paul, MN, USA: APS Press (American Phytopathological Society), 37.

Provvidenti R; Haudenshield JS, 1996. Squash mosaic. In: Zitter TA, Hopkins DL, Thomas DE, eds. Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases. St Paul, MN, USA; APS Press (American Phytopathological Society), 41-42.

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Badii K B, Billah M K, Afreh-Nuamah K, Obeng-Ofori D, 2015. Species composition and host range of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 35 (3), 137-151. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

Basu M, Patro B, 2007. New records of host plants and natural enemies of Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Homoptera) from Orissa, India. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 4 (2), 74-80.

Bellis G A, Brito A A, Jesus H de, Quintao V, Sarmento J C, Bere A, Rodrigues J, Hancock D L, 2017. A preliminary account of the fruit fly fauna of Timor-Leste (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). Zootaxa. 4362 (3), 421-432. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4362.3.6

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Esquivel-Fariña A, Camelo-García V M, Rezende J A M, Kitajima E W, González-Segnana L R, 2020. First detection of papaya ringspot virus-type W and zucchini yellow mosaic virus infecting Cucurbita maxima in Paraguay. Journal of Plant Pathology. 102 (1), 231-231. DOI:10.1007/s42161-019-00367-7

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Gracia O, 2000. First report of zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Argentina. Plant Disease. 84 (3), 371-371. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.3.371B

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Prabhakar C S, Pankaj Sood, Mehta P K, 2012. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) diversity in cucurbit fields and surrounding forest areas of Himachal Pradesh, a north-western Himalayan state of India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (10), 1210-1217. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20 DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.660612

Quénéhervé P, Godefroid M, Mège P, Marie-Luce S, 2011. Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing plants in Martinique Island, French West Indies. Nematropica. 41 (2), 191-199. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/76630/74240

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Rivedal H M, Stone A G, Johnson K B, 2018. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing fruit rot of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima) in Oregon. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2659-2660. DOI:10.1094/pdis-06-18-0922-pdn

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Romo J P, Osorio J G M, Yepes M S, 2012. Identification of new hosts for Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) race 2 from Colombia. Revista de Protección Vegetal. 27 (3), 151-161. http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-27522012000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

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Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

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