Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Cucumis sativus



Cucumis sativus (cucumber)


  • Last modified
  • 17 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cucumis sativus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cucumber
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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C. sativus fruit.
CaptionC. sativus fruit.
Copyright©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
C. sativus fruit.
CucumbersC. sativus fruit.©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cucumis sativus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • cucumber

International Common Names

  • English: gherkin
  • Spanish: cohombro; pepino
  • French: concombre; cornichon
  • Portuguese: pepininho

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gurke
  • India: khira
  • Italy: cetriolo
  • Netherlands: augurk; komkommer
  • Sweden: gurka

EPPO code

  • CUMSA (Cucumis sativus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Violales
  •                         Family: Cucurbitaceae
  •                             Genus: Cucumis
  •                                 Species: Cucumis sativus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


AlgeriaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 90,000 MT (F)
Cabo VerdePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 1,200 MT (F)
CameroonPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 130,000 MT (F)
Côte d'IvoirePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 19,735 MT (F)
DjiboutiPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 7 MT (F)
EgyptPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 595,732 MT
EthiopiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 700 MT (F)
GhanaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 100 MT (F)
KenyaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 450 MT (F)
MadagascarPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 950 MT (F)
MauritiusPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 8,683 MT
MoroccoPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 88,715 MT
NigerPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 2,063 MT
South AfricaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 18,231 MT
SudanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 140,000 MT (F)
TunisiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 37,000 MT (F)
ZimbabwePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 450 MT (F)


ArmeniaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 81,819 MT
AzerbaijanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 185,565 MT
BahrainPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 1,485 MT (F)
BangladeshPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 36,740 MT
BruneiPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 1,960 MT (F)
ChinaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 2,824,7373 MT (F)
IndiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 120,000 MT (F)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 499,740 MT
IraqPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 422,000 MT (F)
IsraelPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 110,718 MT
JapanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 639,800 MT (F)
JordanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 125,925 MT
KazakhstanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 268,010 MT
KuwaitPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 35,000 MT (F)
KyrgyzstanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 60,000 MT (*)
LebanonPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 142,600 MT (F)
MalaysiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 57,550 MT
MongoliaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 2,845 MT
OmanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 2,354 MT (F)
PakistanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 7,501 MT
PhilippinesPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 11,432 MT
QatarPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 740 MT (F)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 259,977 MT (F)
SingaporePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 0 MT (F)
South KoreaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 383,921 MT
Sri LankaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 31,060 MT
SyriaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 146,528 MT (F)
TajikistanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 23,000 MT (*)
ThailandPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 222,000 MT (F)
TurkeyPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 1,678,770 MT
TurkmenistanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 26,000 MT (*)
United Arab EmiratesPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 17,200 MT (F)
UzbekistanPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 318,000 MT (*)
YemenPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 13,100 MT (F)


AlbaniaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 52,720 MT
AustriaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 36,741 MT
BelarusPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 304,982 MT
BelgiumPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 25,000 MT (F)
BulgariaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 62,618 MT
CroatiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 17,700 MT (*)
CyprusPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 16,119 MT
CzechiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 29,088 MT
DenmarkPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 19,000 MT (F)
EstoniaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 5,300 MT (*)
FinlandPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 39,958 MT
FrancePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 116,626 MT
GermanyPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 236,625 MT
GreecePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 124,300 MT
HungaryPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 55,400 MT
IcelandPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 1,343 MT
IrelandPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 1,550 MT (F)
ItalyPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 71,525 MT
LatviaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 801 MT
LithuaniaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 2,500 MT (F)
MaltaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 800 MT (F)
MoldovaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 22,813 MT
NetherlandsPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 428,000 MT
NorwayPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 13,892 MT
PolandPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 501,571 MT
PortugalPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 9,000 MT (F)
RomaniaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 173,643 MT
RussiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 100,0000 MT (*)
SerbiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 61,898 MT
SlovakiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 27,355 MT
SloveniaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 2,581 MT
SpainPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 530,000 MT (F)
SwedenPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 20,500 MT
SwitzerlandPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 8,434 MT (F)
UkrainePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 751,500 MT
United KingdomPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 48,925 MT

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 225 MT (F)
BarbadosPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 1,500 MT (F)
BelizePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 156 MT
CanadaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 212,371 MT
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 139,290 MT
DominicaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 1,770 MT (F)
Dominican RepublicPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 5,666 MT
El SalvadorPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 14,813 MT
GrenadaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 120 MT (F)
GuadeloupePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 3,000 MT (F)
HondurasPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 75,000 MT (F)
JamaicaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 11,217 MT
MartiniquePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 4,000 MT (F)
MexicoPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 475,376 MT
MontserratPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 80 MT (F)
PanamaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 2,693 MT
Puerto RicoPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 550 MT (F)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 100 MT
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 2,050 MT (F)
United StatesPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 963,000 MT


American SamoaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 450 MT (F)
AustraliaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 41,931 MT (F)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 400 MT (A)
FijiPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 1,200 MT (F)
French PolynesiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 850 MT (F)
GuamPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 400 MT (F)
New ZealandPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 0 MT (F)
Solomon IslandsPresent

South America

BoliviaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 2,087 MT (F)
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 30,000 MT (F)
ColombiaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 6,500 MT (F)
EcuadorPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 3,200 MT (F)
French GuianaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 3,700 MT (F)
GuyanaPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 5,300 MT (F)
PeruPresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 26,144 MT (F)
SurinamePresentCucumbers and gherkins production (2008) 627 MT


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Distribution References

Abbas G, Arif M J, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Aslam, Shafqat Saeed, 2010. Host plants distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 421-425.

Abdel-Khalek A A, 2005. Population dynamics of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) infesting cucumber plant in newly reclaimed land. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo). 50 (2), 719-728.

Abdel-Salam A M M, Rezk A A, Dawoud R A, 2019. Biochemical, serological, molecular and natural host studies on Tomato Chlorosis Virus in Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 22 (2), 83-94.

Abkhoo J, 2015. Powdery mildews causing fungi in Iran. Mycopath. 13 (1), 51-55.

Abou-Jawdah Y, Sobh H, Fayad A, Lecoq H, Delécolle B, Trad-Ferré J, 2000. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus - a new threat to cucurbits in Lebanon. Journal of Plant Pathology. 82 (1), 55-60.

Abrahamian P E, Sobh H, Abou-Jawdah Y, 2012. First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus on cucumber in Lebanon. Plant Disease. 96 (11), 1704-1705. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-12-0486-PDN

Abrahamian P E, Sobh H, Seblani R, Samsatly J, Jawhari M, Abou-Jawdah Y, 2013. First report of Cucumber vein yellowing virus on cucumber in Lebanon. Plant Disease. 97 (11), 1516-1517. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-13-0471-PDN

Ahmad A, Akram W, Shahzadi I, Wang Rui, Hu Du, Li GuiHua, Yasin N A, Ahmed S, Wu TingQuan, 2020. First report of Fusarium nelsonii causing early-stage fruit blight of cucumber in Guangzhou, China. Plant Disease. 104 (5), 1542-1542. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2511-PDN

Al-Ali E, Al-Hashash H, Heji A B, Al-Aqeel H, 2016. First report of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infecting cucumber in Kuwait. Plant Disease. 100 (3), 656. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-15-0830-PDN

Alaserhat İ, Canbay A, Özdemir I, 2021. Aphid species, their natural enemies in vegetables from erzincan, Turkey: first record of the parasitoid wasp Aphelinus Mali (haldeman) parasitizing Lipaphis erysimi (kaltenbach). Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi. 27 (1), 16-25. DOI:10.15832/ankutbd.574812

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Ali-Shtayeh M S, Jamous R M, Husein E Y, Alkhader M Y, 2010. First report of Squash leaf curl virus in squash (Cucurbita pepo), melon (Cucumis melo), and cucumber (Cucumis sativa) in the Northern West Bank of the Palestinian Authority. Plant Disease. 94 (5), 640. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-5-0640B

Al-Musa A, Anfoka G, Misbeh S, Abhary M, Ahmad F H, 2008. Detection and molecular characterization of Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) in Jordan. Journal of Phytopathology. 156 (5), 311-316. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2007.01389.x

Al-Sadi A M, Al-Ghaithi A G, Deadman M L, Al-Said F A, 2010. Spatial analysis of phylogenetic and phenotypic diversity in Pythium populations from a single greenhouse. Acta Horticulturae. 449-456.

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Al-Saleh M A, Al-Shahwan I M, Amer M A, Shakeel M T, Abdalla O A, Orfanidou C G, Katis N I, 2015. First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus in cucumber in Saudi Arabia. Plant Disease. 99 (5), 734. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-14-1101-PDN

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Aydınlı G, Mennan S, Devran Z, Širca S, Urek G, 2013. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ethiopica on tomato and cucumber in Turkey. Plant Disease. 97 (9), 1262. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-13-0019-PDN

Back C G, Park M J, You Y H, Yi P H, Han K S, Park J H, Kim H G, Lee Y S, 2016. First report of bacterial black spot disease in cucumber caused by Acidovorax konjaci in Korea. Plant Disease. 100 (7), 1492. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-15-1007-PDN

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Bagherabadi S, Zafari D, Soleimani M J, 2015. Genetic diversity of Alternaria alternata isolates causing potato brown leaf spot, using ISSR markers in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. 6 (7), 286.

Bananej K, Desbiez C, Girard M, Wipf-Scheibel C, Vahdat I, Kheyr-Pour A, Ahoonmanesh A, Lecoq H, 2006. First report of Cucumber vein yellowing virus on cucumber, melon, and watermelon in Iran. Plant Disease. 90 (8), 1113. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-1113C

Bananej K, Menzel W, Kianfar N, Vahdat A, Winter S, 2013. First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus infecting cucumber, melon, and squash in Iran. Plant Disease. 97 (7), 1005. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-13-0125-PDN

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Chao ChiaHung, Chen TsungChi, Kang YaChi, Li JuTing, Huang LiHsin, Yeh ShyiDong, 2010. Characterization of Melon yellow spot virus infecting cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 19 (1), 41-52.

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Chu Dong, Li XianChun, Zhang YouJun, 2012. Microsatellite analyses reveal the sources and genetic diversity of the first-introduced Q-biotype population and the well-established B-biotype populations of Bemisia tabaci in China. Acta Entomologica Sinica. 55 (12), 1376-1385.

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Davis R I, Tsatsia H, 2009. A survey for plant diseases caused by viruses and virus-like pathogens in the Solomon Islands. Australasian Plant Pathology. 38 (2), 193-201. DOI:10.1071/AP08083

Desbiez C, Lecoq H, Girard M, Cotillon A C, Schoen L, 2003. First report of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in commercial cucumber greenhouses in France. Plant Disease. 87 (5), 600. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.5.600C

Dutta N K, Alam S N, Uddin M K, Mahmudunnabi M, Khatun M F, 2012. Population abundance of red spider mite in different vegetables along with its spatial distribution and chemical control in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research. 37 (3), 399-404. DOI:10.3329/bjar.v37i3.12083

Egel D S, Guan W, Creswell T, Bonkowski J, 2020. First report of Macrophomina phaseolina causing charcoal rot of cucumber in Indiana. Plant Disease. 104 (7), 2030-2031. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2421-PDN

Ezzat S M, Ali Sh A M, Tahaa M, Mona E F S A, 2020. Survey and population density of certain insect-pests infesting cucumber plant in newly reclaimed sandy area of El-Salhia district, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Annals of Agri Bio Research. 25 (1), 119-123.

Fernández-Pavía S P, Rodríguez-Alvarado G, López-Ordaz A, Fernández-Pavía Y L, 2006. First report of Phytophthora capsici causing wilt on hydropronically grown cucumber in Mexico. Plant Disease. 90 (12), 1552. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-1552C

Fu X Y, Zhang R Y, Tan Z Q, Liu T, Peng Z Q, 2019. First report of bacterial leaf spot of cucumber caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in China. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 147-148. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-18-0267-PDN

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