Invasive Species Compendium

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Clusia rosea

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Clusia rosea

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clusia rosea
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. rosea is a terrestrial or epiphytic tree or shrub native to Mexico, Florida and much of Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America. It has been introduced to Guam and Hawaii and is listed as o...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); spreading into abandoned pineapple fields. Kahana West Maui, Maui.  April 12, 2011
TitleHabit
CaptionClusia rosea (autograph tree); spreading into abandoned pineapple fields. Kahana West Maui, Maui. April 12, 2011
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); spreading into abandoned pineapple fields. Kahana West Maui, Maui.  April 12, 2011
HabitClusia rosea (autograph tree); spreading into abandoned pineapple fields. Kahana West Maui, Maui. April 12, 2011©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); Habit in Sabal palmetto. John Prince Park, Lake Worth, Florida, USA.  September 25, 2009
TitleHabit
CaptionClusia rosea (autograph tree); Habit in Sabal palmetto. John Prince Park, Lake Worth, Florida, USA. September 25, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); Habit in Sabal palmetto. John Prince Park, Lake Worth, Florida, USA.  September 25, 2009
HabitClusia rosea (autograph tree); Habit in Sabal palmetto. John Prince Park, Lake Worth, Florida, USA. September 25, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); aerial roots. Hilo, Hawaii.  December 05, 2001
TitleAerial roots
CaptionClusia rosea (autograph tree); aerial roots. Hilo, Hawaii. December 05, 2001
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); aerial roots. Hilo, Hawaii.  December 05, 2001
Aerial rootsClusia rosea (autograph tree); aerial roots. Hilo, Hawaii. December 05, 2001©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); flower. Kahului, Maui. October 25, 2001
TitleFlower
CaptionClusia rosea (autograph tree); flower. Kahului, Maui. October 25, 2001
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); flower. Kahului, Maui. October 25, 2001
FlowerClusia rosea (autograph tree); flower. Kahului, Maui. October 25, 2001©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); leaves and fruit. Lahaina Aquatic Center, Maui.  February 21, 2007
TitleLeaves and fruit
CaptionClusia rosea (autograph tree); leaves and fruit. Lahaina Aquatic Center, Maui. February 21, 2007
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); leaves and fruit. Lahaina Aquatic Center, Maui.  February 21, 2007
Leaves and fruitClusia rosea (autograph tree); leaves and fruit. Lahaina Aquatic Center, Maui. February 21, 2007©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); fruit and leaves. Kahului, Maui. October 25, 2001
TitleFruit and leaves
CaptionClusia rosea (autograph tree); fruit and leaves. Kahului, Maui. October 25, 2001
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); fruit and leaves. Kahului, Maui. October 25, 2001
Fruit and leavesClusia rosea (autograph tree); fruit and leaves. Kahului, Maui. October 25, 2001©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); pulpy, red seeds. Kahului Airport, Maui.  September 22, 2006
TitleSeeds
CaptionClusia rosea (autograph tree); pulpy, red seeds. Kahului Airport, Maui. September 22, 2006
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); pulpy, red seeds. Kahului Airport, Maui.  September 22, 2006
SeedsClusia rosea (autograph tree); pulpy, red seeds. Kahului Airport, Maui. September 22, 2006©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); distinctive spent seed capsule. Pali o Waipio, Maui.  November 08, 2012
TitleSpent seed capsule
CaptionClusia rosea (autograph tree); distinctive spent seed capsule. Pali o Waipio, Maui. November 08, 2012
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); distinctive spent seed capsule. Pali o Waipio, Maui.  November 08, 2012
Spent seed capsuleClusia rosea (autograph tree); distinctive spent seed capsule. Pali o Waipio, Maui. November 08, 2012©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); epiphytic growth of seedlings. Kapalua, Maui. June 20, 2002
TitleSeedlings
CaptionClusia rosea (autograph tree); epiphytic growth of seedlings. Kapalua, Maui. June 20, 2002
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clusia rosea (autograph tree); epiphytic growth of seedlings. Kapalua, Maui. June 20, 2002
SeedlingsClusia rosea (autograph tree); epiphytic growth of seedlings. Kapalua, Maui. June 20, 2002©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clusia rosea Jacq.

Other Scientific Names

  • Clusia major Carl von Linnaeus
  • Clusia retusa Poir
  • Clusia rosea var. colombiana Cuatrec.

International Common Names

  • English: autograph tree; balsam-apple
  • Spanish: copey rosado (Spain)

Local Common Names

  • Caribbean: copey; cupey
  • Germany: Balsamapfel; rosafarbener balsamapfel
  • Puerto Rico: cupey
  • Sweden: Narrfikkus
  • USA: florida clusia

EPPO code

  • CUFRO (Clusia rosea)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. rosea is a terrestrial or epiphytic tree or shrub native to Mexico, Florida and much of Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America. It has been introduced to Guam and Hawaii and is listed as one of Hawaii's most invasive horticultural plants, and is also reported in Brazil and Singapore. Although there is little evidence available for this listing, it is a strangler plant, beginning its life on another host plant and ultimately killing the host. Plants are similar to strangler figs (Ficus spp.) and Schefflera spp. in that the seeds are bird dispersed and can germinate in the crotch of other trees, sending down aerial roots, before replacing the host tree (Neal, 1965).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Theales
  •                         Family: Clusiaceae
  •                             Genus: Clusia
  •                                 Species: Clusia rosea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Clusia comprises of about 145 species mostly from subtropical and tropical regions of the New World, Madagascar, and New Caledonia (Wagner et al., 1999).

The tree is named in honour of the Dutch botanist Clusius (1526-1609) (Wagner et al., 1999).

Description

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The following description is extracted from Wagner et al. (1999).

Terrestrial or epiphytic trees or shrubs 7-20 m tall, bark smooth. Leaves thick and coriaceous, obovate, 8-16 cm long, 3.5-14 cm wide, lateral veins arising at a 45 degree angle or less from midrib, petioles 1-2 cm long with a margined pit on upper side near base. Flowers 1-3 in axillary or pseudoterminal cymes, bracteoles 2-4; sepals 4-6, 1-2 cm long, persistent; petals 6-8, white or pink, broadly obovate to suborbicular, 3-4 cm long; staminate flowers with stamens in several whorls, connate at base into a ring, inner stamens connate into a solid resinous mass; pistillate flowers with staminodes connate into a cup, ovary globose, stigmas 6-9, sessile. Capsules greenish brown, somewhat fleshy, globose, 5-8 cm in diameter. Seeds with a dark red, thin, fleshy aril.

Distribution

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The natural range of C. rosea centres on the Caribbean and neighbouring countries (USDA-ARS, 2012), and includes the Florida Keys, the islands of Andros, New Providence, Inagua and East Caicos in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, St. Thomas, St. John and Tortola in the US Virgin Islands, Anguilla and St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles (Britton and Millspaugh, 1920Little and Wadsworth 1964; Little, 1979; Howard, 1989). In the past it was observed in St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands, but was not reported there by Little and Wadsworth (1964). Howard (1989), however considered that reports of C. rosea growing in Central and South America were other species of the genus Clusia, but this is not accepted here.

The species is known to be naturalized on Kauai, Oahu and Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1999) and was recently documented as naturalized on Maui (Wagner et al., 1999). On Maui, C. rosea is densely distributed in lowland urban areas of Kahului, Lahaina, Kihei, Makawao, Haiku, and Hana (Oppenheimer and Bartlett, 2000).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al., 2009

North America

BermudaPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998; USDA-ARS, 2012Southern Mexico, Chiapas
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaLocalisedNativeRiffle, 1998Florida Keys
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Riffle, 1998; Wagner et al., 1999; Oppenheimer and Bartlett, 2000Naturalized on Kauai, Oahu, Hawaii and Maui. Observed at low elevations. On Maui, it is densely distributed in lowland urban areas of Kahului, Lahaina, Kihei, Makawao, Haiku, and Hana

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentNative Not invasive Francis, 1993; Riffle, 1998
Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
ArubaPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998; USDA-ARS, 2012
BahamasPresentNative Not invasive Francis, 1993; Riffle, 1998; USDA-ARS, 2012Andros, New Providence, Inagua and Caicos
BarbadosPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
BelizePresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
British Virgin IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
Cayman IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
Costa RicaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
CubaPresentNative Not invasive Francis, 1993; Riffle, 1998
CuraçaoPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
DominicaPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
Dominican RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Francis, 1993; Riffle, 1998
GrenadaPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
GuadeloupePresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
GuatemalaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
HaitiPresentNative Not invasive Francis, 1993; Riffle, 1998
JamaicaPresentNative Not invasive Francis, 1993; Riffle, 1998
MartiniquePresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
MontserratPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
Netherlands AntillesPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998; USDA-ARS, 2012
NicaraguaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
PanamaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
Puerto RicoWidespreadNative Not invasive Francis, 1993; Riffle, 1998
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
Saint LuciaPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Riffle, 1998
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Francis, 1993; Riffle, 1998St. Thomas, St. John y Tortola

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-BahiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012; PIER, 2013Los Rios (but identity of single specimen is tentative)
French GuianaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
GuyanaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
SurinamePresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

Oceania

GuamPresentIntroducedRaulerson, 2006
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedVander Velde, 2003; PIER, 2013Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll, Ratak Chain

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. rosea has been and is still widely planted in Hawaii and is known to spread from initial plantings. These trees are extremely hardy and grow well in both wet and dry sites.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii   Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Oppenheimer and Bartlett (2000); Wagner et al. (1999)

Risk of Introduction

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C. rosea is far from eradication on Maui and is an extremely popular and widely planted species in Hawaii. Perhaps most susceptible to invasion are natural areas near urban locations.

Habitat

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The species usually begins life on another plant. After the roots reach the ground, it begins to strangle its host and eventually replaces it, like some species of Ficus (Neal, 1965). C. rosea has been observed thriving in a range of habitats from dry lava landscapes to wet steep slopes. It is mostly observed at low elevations. In Hawaii, it occupies dry and moist forests and open, disturbed areas at elevations below 1000 m (Wagner et al., 1999). On Maui, C. rosea is densely distributed in lowland urban areas of Kahului, Lahaina, Kihei, Makawao, Haiku, and Hana. It is commonly planted in parking lots of shopping centres, schools, condominiums and residential areas (Wagner et al., 1999; Oppenheimer and Bartlett, 2000).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Buildings Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Land caves Present, no further details Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Genetic variation in this species is evident by differences in leaf shape and stem form. A variegated variety, 'aureo-variegata', is cultivated as an ornamental (Graf, 1959). 

Reproductive Biology

C. rosea is apomictic; it produces only pistillate flowers, which need no pollination for fruit and seed development (Howard, 1989; Maguire, 1976). It can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, or air layers (Brickell and Zuk, 1997). Fruiting trees produce seeds in large numbers. Seeds are very small, with one seed collection in Puerto Rico averaging 84,000 seeds per kg. The seeds can be dispersed by gravity or after being eaten by birds (Francis, 1993).

According to Armstrong (1999), Dr. Erwin Ting of the University of California at Riverside found that Clusia plants exhibit Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic mechanism which aids in conserving moisture, also used by cacti and other succulents. In Clusia, CAM is useful during the epiphytic seedling stage until aerial roots are able to reach the ground and draw up nutrients and moisture.

Physiology and Phenology

Flowering occurs only in dominant or co-dominant trees. Although flowering and fruiting are synchronized within individual trees, scattered trees can be found flowering at any time of the year (Little, 1979). The large and showy flower petals are white, tinged with pink. The fruits, reputed to be poisonous to humans (Roig y Mesa, 1945), are eaten by bats (Little, 1979).

Associations

In Cuba, on a dry limestone plateau, the plant was seen growing in association with Dendrocereus nudiflorus, Guaiacum sanctum, Lysiloma latisiliqua and Phyllostylon brasiliensis (Marie-Victorin, 1942). When growing on cliff faces on moist limestone hills, C. rosea has been observed competing with Ficus citrifolia, Ficus crassinervia and Ficus stahlii (Chinea, 1980). A swampy forest coastal type in Puerto Rico, which showed some evidence of past cutting, was dominated by C. rosea (81% of the total basal area) and also contained significant basal areas of Syzygium jambos and Ocotea leucoxylon (Figueroa et al., 1984).

C. rosea,Schefflera actinophylla and species of Ficus are often found germinating in the crotch of the same tree. 

Environmental Requirements

Growing well in full sun to dappled shade, C. rosea tolerates many different soil types but grows most rapidly in moist soils. It is fairly tolerant of light open sands and salt spray, making it ideal for seaside locations (Gilman and Watson, 2003). C. rosea is typically observed at low elevations and is able to tolerate a variety of climates, thriving in a range of habitats from dry lava landscapes to wet steep slopes. In Puerto Rico, it typically grows in forests receiving 750-3000 mm of annual precipitation whereas in Haiti, the average annual precipitation is 600-1250 mm. In areas of less precipitation, the species tends to grow near streams, intermittent streams, and moist coves. A dry season of two or three months occurs in most of its native range. Mean annual temperatures near sea level range from about 24.5°C in the Florida Keys, USA, to about 27°C in St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles (Steinhauser, 1979). Frost does not occur in the native range of this species.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6003000mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cryptotermes brevis Herbivore not specific
Nasutitermes costalis Herbivore not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Two species of termite, Cryptotermes brevis and Nasutitermes costalis are known to feed on the branches of C. rosea. The species is also susceptible to root rot and leaf spot (Brickell and Zuk, 1997).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Seeds are naturally dispersed by gravity (Francis, 1993).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

In Hawaii, C. rosea is spread by birds, which eat the seeds (Francis, 1993). Bats are also a potential vector as they eat the fruits (Little, 1979).

Intentional Introduction

Plants are mainly dispersed long distances by humans who use the tree in landscaping. In Hawaii, the plant was previously cultivated as an ornamental but it is mostly spread by birds now, becoming naturalized in disturbed areas (Wagner et al., 1999).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

The species is listed as one of Hawaii’s most invasive horticultural plants but little is known about its effects on ecosystem processes.

Impact on Biodiversity

C. rosea is a strangler species; damaging the host plant and eventually replacing it. Although its impacts on native species are not well known, it is tolerant to a range of conditions, grows rapidly and competes with other species for light (Neal, 1965). 

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Pritchardia napaliensisCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Schiedea kauaiensis (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Infrastructure damage
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In Hawaii, there is a variegated dwarf species, Clusia guttifera, known as 'nana' or dwarf pitch apple. This small-leafed similar species is becoming increasingly popular in landscaping (Dehgan, 1998).

Plants are similar to strangler figs (Ficus spp.) and Schefflera spp. in that the prolific seeds are bird dispersed and can germinate in the crotch of other trees, sending aerial roots, and eventually killing the host tree (Neal, 1965).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

The threat posed by this species could be reduced by discouraging future plantings, especially near natural areas. Furthermore, plants that appear in nature reserves could be controlled. However, further investigation into control methodology is needed for epiphytic invaders such as C. rosea (Starr et al., 2003).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Control may be complicated for trees growing as epiphytes in desirable trees. It may be possible to pull out small seedlings (Starr et al., 2003).

Chemical Control

Larger trees will probably require chemical control, such as cut stump or basal bark methods. Foliar applications of glyphosate seem to have little effect on C. rosea (Starr et al., 2003).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Little is known about its invasiveness and no justification is given for its listing as one of 'Hawaii's Most Invasive Horticultural Plants'. Furthermore, there is no information about possible species threatened by this plant.

In general, there has also been little research into control methods for epiphytic invaders, such as C. rosea.

References

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Armstrong WP, 1999. Wayne's Word: An online textbook of Natural History., USA: Wayne's Word. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/

Balakrishna M, Bhattacharjee SK, 1991. Studies on propagation of ornamental trees, through stem cuttings. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 48(1):87-94; 14 ref.

Brickell C, Zuk JD, 1997. The American Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. New York, USA: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 1104 pp.

Britton NL, Millspaugh CF, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

Chinea JD, 1980. MS thesis. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornel University, 70 pp.

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp.

Daehler CC, Baker RF, 2006. New records of naturalized and naturalizing plants around Lyon Arboretum, Manoa Valley, O'ahu. Part 1: Articles. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004-2005, Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 87:3-18.

Dehgan B, 1998. Landscape Plants for Subtropical Climates. Florida, USA: Universit Press of Florida, 640 pp.

Figueroa JC, Totti LLugo AE, Woodbury RO, 1984. Structure and composition of moist coastal forest in Dorado, Puerto Rico. Los Angeles, USA: USDA.

Francis JK, 1993. Clusia rosea Jacq. Cupey, SO-ITF-SM-69. Los Angeles, USA: USDA, 143-147 pp.

Gilman EF, Watson DG, 2003. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Florida, USA: University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

Graf AB, 1959. Exotica 2. Rutherford, New Jersey, USA: Roehrs Company, 1149 pp.

Howard RA, 1989. Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands. Volume 5. Jamaica Plain, MA, USA: Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, 604 pp.

Little EL Jr, 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 541; Washington, DC: USA.

Little EL, Jr, Wadsworth FH, 1964. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agriculture Handbook U.S. Department of Agriculture No. 249. Washington DC, USA: USDA.

Maguire B, 1976. Apomixis in the genus Clusia (Clusiaceae). - A preliminary report. Taxon, 25(2/3):241-244.

Marie-Victorin F, Leon F, 1942. Itineraires botaniques dans l'ile de Cuba (Itineraires botaniques dans l'ile de Cuba). Montreal, Canada: Institut Botanique de L' Universite de Montreal, 227 pp.

Neal MC, 1965. In Gardens of Hawai'i, 40. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Oppenheimer HL, Bartlett RT, 2000. New Plant Records from Maui, O'ahu, and Hawai'i Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 64:1-10.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37. 1-69.

Riffle RL, 1998. The tropical look: an encyclopaedia of landscape plants for worldwide use. London, UK: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 428 pp.

Roig y Mesa JT, 1945. Plantas medicinales, aromaticas o venenosas de Cuba (Plantas medicinales, aromaticas o venenosas de Cuba). Havana, Cuba: Ministerio de Agricultura, Servicio de Publicidad y Divulgacion, 872 pp.

Starr F, Starr K, Loope LI, 2003. Clusia rosea, Autograph tree, Clusiaceae. Maui, Hawaii, USA: United States Geological Survey--Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station.

Steinhauser F, 1979. Climatic atlas of North and Central America, 31 maps. Budapest, Hungary: World Meteorological Organization, UNESCO Cartographia.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia napaliensis (loulu palm). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 10 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Vander Velde N, 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Washington DC, USA: National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 141 pp.

Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Wysong M, Hughes G, Wood KR, 2007. New Hawaiian plant records for the island of Moloka'i. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Part 2: Notes, Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 96:1-8.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
ITIS Reporthttp://www.itis.gov

Contributors

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03/01/2013 Original text by:

Eduardo Ventosa, Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico

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