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Datasheet

Catharanthus roseus
(Madagascar periwinkle)

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Datasheet

Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Catharanthus roseus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Madagascar periwinkle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. roseus has been widely commercialized as an ornamental plant. Endangered in the wild, it is a fast-growing plant that is easy to cultivate. It is grown in gardens and parks worldwide and it has escaped from...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit.
Copyright©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit.
HabitCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit.©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit.
Copyright©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit.
HabitCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit.©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, on S63 Road, Pafuri area, Kruger NP, Sout Africa. December 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, on S63 Road, Pafuri area, Kruger NP, Sout Africa. December 2013.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, on S63 Road, Pafuri area, Kruger NP, Sout Africa. December 2013.
HabitCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, on S63 Road, Pafuri area, Kruger NP, Sout Africa. December 2013.©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flower and foliage. Raigarh, Maharashtra, India. April 2007.
TitleFlower
CaptionCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flower and foliage. Raigarh, Maharashtra, India. April 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flower and foliage. Raigarh, Maharashtra, India. April 2007.
FlowerCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flower and foliage. Raigarh, Maharashtra, India. April 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit. Oakwood Lakes, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit. Oakwood Lakes, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit. Oakwood Lakes, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
HabitCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit. Oakwood Lakes, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, white morph. Mozambique. August 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, white morph. Mozambique. August 2014.
Copyright©Ton Rulkens/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, white morph. Mozambique. August 2014.
HabitCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, white morph. Mozambique. August 2014.©Ton Rulkens/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, in its natural environment. Ihorombe, Isalo National Park, Madagascar.
TitleHabit
CaptionCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, in its natural environment. Ihorombe, Isalo National Park, Madagascar.
Copyright©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, in its natural environment. Ihorombe, Isalo National Park, Madagascar.
HabitCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle); flowering habit, in its natural environment. Ihorombe, Isalo National Park, Madagascar.©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

Preferred Common Name

  • Madagascar periwinkle

Other Scientific Names

  • Ammocallis rosea (L.) Small
  • Catharanthus roseus var. albus G. Don
  • Catharanthus roseus var. roseus
  • Hottonia littoralis Lour.
  • Lachnea rosea (L.) Rchb.
  • Lochnera rosea (L.) Rchb.
  • Lochnera rosea var. alba (G. Don) Hubbard
  • Lochnera rosea var. flava Tsiang
  • Pervinca rosea (L.) Gaterau
  • Pervinca rosea (L.) Moench
  • Vinca gulielmi-waldemarii Klotzsch
  • Vinca rosea L.
  • Vinca rosea var. alba (G. Don) Sweet
  • Vinca rosea var. albiflora (G. Don) Sweet
  • Vinca rosea var. albiflora Bertol.

International Common Names

  • English: bright-eyes; Cape periwinkle; old-maid; old-maid-flower; periwinkle; pink periwinkle; rose periwinkle; rosy periwinkle; white flower
  • Spanish: adorna patio; cangrejera; catalana; coneja; flor boba; flor de todo el año; jazmín de la mar; rosa catalana
  • French: fleurs des meres; fleurs des roches; pervenche; pervenche de Madagascar; pervenche du pays
  • Chinese: chang chun hua
  • Portuguese: avadeira; boa-noite; boa-tarde; lavadeira; pervinca-rosa; vinca-de-gato; vinca-de-madagascar; vinca-rosea

Local Common Names

  • Australia: pink periwinkle
  • Bahamas: old maid; red periwinkle
  • Cuba: vicaria
  • Dominican Republic: buenas tardes; cangrejera; libertine; mujer vegana; todo el año; vagabunda vegana
  • Germany: Immergrün, Madagaskar-
  • Haiti: pervenche blanche; pervenche rose; petit perbenche rose; san cesse; sans cesse blanche; sans cesse rose
  • Indonesia: bunga serdadu; kembang tembaga; tapak dara
  • Jamaica: ram-goat rose
  • Lesser Antilles: churchyard blosson; doctor dyette; every day flower; pervanche de Madagascar; twelve o'clock
  • Malaysia: kemunting china; rumput jalang; tahi ayam
  • Philippines: amnias; chichirica; kantotai
  • Puerto Rico: cangrejera; desbarata casamiento; flor de todo el año; jazmín del mar; playera
  • Sweden: Oegonklara
  • Thailand: nom in; phaengphuai bok; phakpot bok
  • USA: Madagascar periwinkle; rose periwinkle

EPPO code

  • CTURO (Catharanthus roseus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. roseus has been widely commercialized as an ornamental plant. Endangered in the wild, it is a fast-growing plant that is easy to cultivate. It is grown in gardens and parks worldwide and it has escaped from cultivation and naturalized near houses, in disturbed sites, and in natural habitats in seasonal dry and humid habitats. The species produces numerous small seeds that can be easily dispersed by ants, wind and water, but it can be also propagated vegetatively by cuttings (Sutarno and Rudjiman, 1999). C. roseus is listed as invasive in numerous countries in Asia, Africa, the Americas and Oceania. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Apocynaceae
  •                             Genus: Catharanthus
  •                                 Species: Catharanthus roseus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Apocynaceae includes about 415 genera and about 4555 species widely distributed around the world (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are characterized by the presence of “milky latex” and include trees, shrubs, and vines and rarely subshrubs and herbs (Jussieu, 2011). The genus Catharanthus comprises 8 species, all originating from Madagascar except for the species Catharanthus pusillus, which is restricted to India and Sri Lanka (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). The genus Catharanthus is closely related to the genus Vinca and the species C. roseus was formerly known as Vinca rosea. This species is a main source of vinca alkaloids, now sometimes called catharanthus alkaloids. The plant produces about 130 of these compounds, including vinblastine and vincristine, two drugs used to treat cancer (Sutarno and Rudjiman, 1999; PROTA, 2015). 

Description

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Perennial subshrub, woody at base, up to 1 m tall, usually with white latex and an unpleasant smell; roots up to 70 cm long; stems narrowly winged, green or red, shortly hairy to glabrous, often woody at base. Leaves decussately opposite, simple and entire; stipules 2–4 at each side of the leaf base; petiole 3–11 mm long, green or red; blade elliptical to obovate or narrowly obovate, 2.5–8.5 cm × 1–4 cm, base cuneate, apex obtuse or acute with a mucronate tip, herbaceous to thinly leathery, glossy green above and pale green below, sparsely shortly hairy to glabrous on both sides. Inflorescence terminal, but apparently lateral, 1–2-flowered. Flowers bisexual, 5-merous, regular, almost sessile; sepals slightly fused at base, (2–)3–5 mm long, erect, green; corolla tube cylindrical, 2–3 cm long, widening near the top at the insertion of the stamens, laxly shortly hairy to glabrous outside, with a ring of hairs in the throat and another lower down the tube, greenish, lobes broadly obovate, 1–2(–3) cm long, apex mucronate, glabrous, spreading, pink, rose-purple or white with a purple, red, pink, pale yellow or white centre; stamens inserted just below the corolla throat, included, filaments very short; ovary superior, consisting of 2 very narrowly oblong carpels, style slender, 15–23 mm long, with a cylindrical pistil head provided at base with a reflexed transparent frill and with rings of woolly hairs at base and apex, stigma glabrous. Fruit composed of 2 free cylindrical follicles 2–4.5 cm long, striate, laxly shortly hairy to glabrous, green, dehiscent, 10–20-seeded. Seeds oblong, 2–3 mm long, grooved at one side, black (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PROTA, 2015). 

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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C. roseus is native to Madagascar, where it is now endangered due to habitat destruction. It has been cultivated as an ornamental throughout tropical and subtropical regions and thus it has become naturalized in many regions in Asia, Africa, America, southern Europe and Oceania (see distribution table for details; Govaerts, 2015; PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
BotswanaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
CameroonPresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
DjiboutiPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
EritreaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EswatiniPresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
GabonPresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
GuineaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBioNET-EAFRINET (2015)
MadagascarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
MalawiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017); PROTA (2015)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
NamibiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
RéunionPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
RwandaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017)
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
SenegalPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
-Aldabra IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFoxcroft et al. (2003)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017); BioNET-EAFRINET (2015)
TogoPresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017); BioNET-EAFRINET (2015)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017); PROTA (2015)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
British Indian Ocean Territory
-Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedInvasiveWhistler (1996)
CambodiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeber et al. (2008)
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)Cultivated
-HunanPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-SichuanPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu (2001)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
-AssamPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
-SumatraPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveKato (2007)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
MaldivesPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
MyanmarPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
ThailandPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
VietnamPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)

Europe

GreecePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)Cultivated in Crete
ItalyPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
ArubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentIntroducedInvasiveBalick et al. (2000)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015)Guana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated and naturalized
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated and naturalized
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated and naturalized
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated and naturalized
PanamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated and naturalized
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015)St Croix, St John, St Thomas
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWhistler (1996)
AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2015)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2015)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2015)
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick (1997)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack (2013)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedHerrera et al. (2010)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith (1988)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2013)
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Imada (2004)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al. (1994)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveWebb et al. (1988)
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Space et al. (2004)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
PitcairnPresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedHancock and Henderson (1988)
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Wake IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
VanuatuPresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedPIER (2015)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedZuloaga et al. (2008)Cultivated and naturalized
BoliviaPresentIntroducedJørgensen et al. (2014)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-CearaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-GoiasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-ParaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-PiauiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedKoch et al. (2015)
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-SergipePresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedKoch et al. (2015)Cultivated and naturalized
ChilePresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveMeyer (2008)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveIdárraga-Piedrahita et al. (2011)
EcuadorPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French GuianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Naturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Naturalized
ParaguayPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2008)
PeruPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)Cultivated
SurinamePresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Naturalized
UruguayPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2008)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Naturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. roseus has been introduced into new habitats worldwide mostly to be used as an ornamental and a medicinal plant. It was brought into cultivation in the first half of the 18th century in Paris from seeds collected in Madagascar, and was later distributed from European botanical gardens to the tropics as an ornamental. In the West Indies, it appears in herbarium collections made in 1882 in the Virgin Islands, in 1885 in Puerto Rico, and in 1910 in the Dominican Republic (US National Herbarium). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. roseus is very high. Because this species has been widely introduced as ornamental and because it spreads by seeds and cuttings, there is a high probability for this species to escape from cultivation and become naturalized into natural areas, principally in areas near cultivation (Webb et al., 1988). 

Habitat

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C. roseus is commonly associated with coastal habitats and sandy locations along the coast, but is also found inland on riverbanks, savanna vegetation, dry waste places, roadsides, open forest and scrubland, usually on sandy soils, but sometimes also on rocky soils. It is a common garden plant and frequently escapes to near roadsides, disturbed sites, abandoned gardens, and farmland (Weeds of Australia, 2015; BioNET-EAFRINET, 2015; PROTA, 2015). In the Galápagos Islands, it grows in arid lowlands (McMullen, 1999).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. roseus is 2n = 16 (Chen et al., 2003). About 50 cultivars have been developed. Although hybrids are only occasionally found in nature, in cultivation many usually fertile hybrids can be made between the different Catharanthus species, which have the same chromosome numbers (PROTA, 2015).

Reproductive Biology

C. roseus is usually self-compatible, and intra-flower self-pollination is common, because the stigma may come into contact with the anthers, even after anthesis. The degree of outcrossing may vary with environmental conditions and the presence of seasonal pollinating butterflies. Self-incompatible strains of C. roseus exist and can be locally common (PROTA, 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

C. roseus is a fast-growing perennial plant that spreads principally by seed. Seed may remain dormant for several weeks after maturity. The optimum temperature for germination is 20–25°C, and the germination rate is in general over 95%. The seeds remain viable for 3–5 years (PROTA, 2015).

In warmer climates, C. roseus will flower and fruit the whole year round. Within 6–8 weeks after germination the first flowers will appear. In China, it has been recorded flowering in spring-autumn (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Environmental Requirements

C. roseus grows naturally on sandy locations in coastal areas, but occasionally grows in sites up to 1500 m altitude. It is very salt-tolerant and it can tolerate drought well, but not severe heat (PROTA, 2015). Full sun and well-drained soil are preferred.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1.1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 11 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8001400mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In Malaysia, C. roseus has been reported to be infected with “Malaysian periwinkle yellow”. Symptoms of this infection include excessive yellowing of foliage, bunchy top and stunted flowers and leaves, suggesting infection by a mycoplasma-like organism. Similar diseases have been reported from China, Taiwan, North America and Europe. Mycoplasma-like organisms can be transferred to C. roseus by parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta, and perhaps also by leafhoppers. In the USA, C. roseus plants cultivated as ornamentals have been reported susceptible to Phytophthora parasitica that causes root- and stem rot. When plants grow in glasshouses they are susceptible to red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) (PROTA, 2015). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. roseus spreads sexually by seed and vegetatively by greenwood or semi-ripe cuttings (PROTA, 2015). Seeds usually fall close to the mother plant, but they can also be dispersed longer distances by ants, wind and water (Sutarno and Rudjiman, 1999). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationOften commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
DisturbanceEscaped and naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Garden waste disposalOften commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes PIER, 2015
HorticultureOften commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Nursery tradeOften commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015

Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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C. roseus has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in natural areas where it grows creating monospecific stands and displacing native vegetation. It is regarded as an environmental weed and as an invasive plant species impacting principally coastal habitats and habitats on sandy soils (Sutarno and Rudjiman, 1999; PROTA, 2015). It is listed among the 100 most invasive plants in south-eastern Queensland (Weeds of Australia, 2015). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. roseus is widely cultivated as an ornamental, but it is also grown for medicinal purposes. The aerial parts of the plant are used for the extraction of the medicinal alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine. The alkaloids are prescribed in anticancer therapy, usually as part of complex chemotherapy protocols.

The dried root is an industrial source of ajmalicine, which increases the blood flow in the brain and peripheral parts of the body. Preparations of ajmalicine are used to treat the psychological and behavioural problems of senility, sensory problems (dizziness, tinnitus), cranial traumas and their neurological complications (Sutarno and Rudjiman, 1999; PROTA, 2015).

Economic Value

The world market consumed 5–10 kg of vincristine and vinblastine in the early 1990s, with a total value of US$25-50 million. In 2005 the market was estimated at US$150-300 million. In 1991 the world market consumed 3–5 t of ajmalicine, with a total value of US$4.5–7.5 million. Two anticancer medicines, Oncovin® and Velban®, derived from C. roseus, are sold for a total of US$100 million per year (PROTA, 2015).

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Genetic importance

  • Gene source
  • Test organisms (for pests and diseases)

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2015. East African Network for Taxonomy. Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated

Chen R, Song W, Li Xl, Li M, Liang Gl, Chen C, 2003. Chromosome Atlas of Major Economic Plants Genome in China, Vol. 3. Chromosome Atlas of Garden Flowering Plants in China. Beijing, China: Science Press

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Davidse G, Sousa MS, Knapp S, Chiang FC, 2009. Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae. Flora Mesoamericana, 4(1):1-855

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Foxcroft LC, Henderson L, Nichols GR, Martin BW, 2003. A revised list of alien plants for the Kruger National Park. Koedoe, 46(2):21-44

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp

Govaerts R, 2015. World Checklist of Apocynaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hancock IR, Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands ii + 203 pp

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp

Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia.) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp

Jussieu AL, 2011. Apocynaceae. Flora of China. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/42000278?projectid=8

Jørgensen PM, Nee MH, Beck SG, 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 127:1-1744

Kato H, 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University

Koch I, Rapini A, Simões AO, Kinoshita LS, Spina AP, Castello ACD, 2015. Apocynaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Apocyanaceae in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB80256

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

McMullen CK, 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Ithaca, New York, USA: Comstock Publisher Assoc., 370 pp

Meyer JY, 2008. Report of the expert mission to Rapa Nui, 2-11 June 2008. Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) (Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques)). Papeete, Tahiti: Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, 62 pp. http://www.li-an.fr/jyves/Meyer_2008_Rapport_Expertise_Rapa_Nui.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions, 17(1):149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html

Smith AC, 1988. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 4. 377 pp

Space JC, Imada CT, 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv. USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum, Honolulu

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. 80 pp. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.] http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Sutarno H, Rudjiman H, 1999. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Record from Proseabase. Proseabase [ed. by Padua, L. S. de \Bunyapraphatsara, N. \Lemmens, R. H. M. J.]. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation. http://www.proseanet.org

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. J.T. Swarbrick, Weed Science Consultancy, 131 pp

Thaman RR, Fosberg FR, Manner HI, Hassall DC, 1994. The flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin, 392:1-223

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp

Webb CJ, Sykes WR, Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR, 1365 pp

Weber E, Sun ShiGuo, Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions, 10(8):1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21

Weeds of Australia, 2015. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

Whistler WA, 1983. The flora and vegetation of Swains Island. Atoll Research Bulletin, 262:25 pp

Whistler WA, 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica (online), 49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) ([English title not available])., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 3348 pp

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85 1-246.

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2015. East African Network for Taxonomy. In: Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants, http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. [English title not available]. (Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica)., San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. unpaginated.

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Davidse G, Sousa MS, Knapp S, Chiang FC, 2009. (Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae). In: Flora Mesoamericana, 4 (1) 1-855.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Foxcroft L C, Henderson L, Nichols G R, Martin B W, 2003. A revised list of alien plants for the Kruger National Park. Koedoe. 46 (2), 21-44.

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Govaerts R, 2015. World Checklist of Apocynaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Hancock I R, Henderson C P, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. In: Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, Honiara, Solomon Islands: ii + 203 pp.

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses., Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden. 146 pp.

Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia). In: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, 2 Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. 939 pp.

Jørgensen PM, Nee MH, Beck SG, 2014. (Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia). In: Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 127 1-1744.

Kato H, 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium., Tokyo Metropolitan University.

Koch I, Rapini A, Simões AO, Kinoshita LS, Spina AP, Castello ACD, 2015. Apocyanaceae in the list of species of the flora of Brazil. (Apocynaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB80256

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. In: Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Meyer JY, 2008. Report of the expert mission to Rapa Nui, 2-11 June 2008. Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island). ((Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques)))., Papeete, Tahiti, Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche. 62 pp. http://www.li-an.fr/jyves/Meyer_2008_Rapport_Expertise_Rapa_Nui.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions. 17 (1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Smith A C, 1988. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 4: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 164-169. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 377 pp.

Space JC, Imada CT, 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. In: Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv, Honolulu, USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum.

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia., [ed. by Swarbrick JT]. Weed Science Consultancy. 131 pp.

Thaman RR, Fosberg FR, Manner HI, Hassall DC, 1994. The flora of Nauru. In: Atoll Research Bulletin, 392 1-223.

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1918 + [1] pp.

Webb C J, Sykes W R, Garnock-Jones P J, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR. 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml

Weber E, Sun ShiGuo, Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions. 10 (8), 1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21 DOI:10.1007/s10530-008-9216-3

Weeds of Australia, 2015. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition., http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

Whistler WA, 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory., Isle Botanica. 49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. In: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised), 384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. [English title not available]. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay))., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 3348 pp.

Contributors

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30/04/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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