Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Ctenopharyngodon idella
(grass carp)

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Datasheet

Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 04 October 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ctenopharyngodon idella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • grass carp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ctenopharyngodon idella, the grass carp, is a freshwater cyprinid fish native to rivers of China and the Russian Far East. It is widely cultured for food in China, and has been introduced widely around the world (and become establish...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A grass carp after 12 months in a growout pond.
TitleGrass carp
CaptionA grass carp after 12 months in a growout pond.
CopyrightLe Quang Hung
A grass carp after 12 months in a growout pond.
Grass carpA grass carp after 12 months in a growout pond.Le Quang Hung
The swollen abdomen of a female grass carp.
TitleFemale
CaptionThe swollen abdomen of a female grass carp.
CopyrightLe Quang Hung
The swollen abdomen of a female grass carp.
FemaleThe swollen abdomen of a female grass carp.Le Quang Hung
Checking the fins of a male grass carp for signs of maturity.
TitleMale
CaptionChecking the fins of a male grass carp for signs of maturity.
CopyrightLe Quang Hung
Checking the fins of a male grass carp for signs of maturity.
MaleChecking the fins of a male grass carp for signs of maturity.Le Quang Hung
A grass carp pond. Vietnam.
TitleA grass carp pond
CaptionA grass carp pond. Vietnam.
CopyrightLe Quang Hung
A grass carp pond. Vietnam.
A grass carp pondA grass carp pond. Vietnam.Le Quang Hung
Grass carp cage culture layout in Ea Soup reservoir, Vietnam.
TitleCage culture in reservoirs
CaptionGrass carp cage culture layout in Ea Soup reservoir, Vietnam.
CopyrightHa Phuong Truong
Grass carp cage culture layout in Ea Soup reservoir, Vietnam.
Cage culture in reservoirsGrass carp cage culture layout in Ea Soup reservoir, Vietnam.Ha Phuong Truong
Incubating grass carp eggs. Vietnam.
TitleIncubating eggs
CaptionIncubating grass carp eggs. Vietnam.
CopyrightLe Quang Hung
Incubating grass carp eggs. Vietnam.
Incubating eggsIncubating grass carp eggs. Vietnam.Le Quang Hung
Typical small pond with a feeding ring for grass carp. Greater Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
TitleSmall pond with feeding ring
CaptionTypical small pond with a feeding ring for grass carp. Greater Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
Copyright©Luke A. Colavito
Typical small pond with a feeding ring for grass carp. Greater Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
Small pond with feeding ringTypical small pond with a feeding ring for grass carp. Greater Mymensingh, Bangladesh.©Luke A. Colavito

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)

Preferred Common Name

  • grass carp

Other Scientific Names

  • Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844)
  • Ctenopharyngodon laticeps Steindechner, 1866
  • Leuciscus idella Valenciennes, 1844
  • Leuciscus idellus Valenciennes, 1844
  • Leuciscus tschiliensis Basilewsky, 1855
  • Pristiodon siemionovii Dybovskii, 1877
  • Sarcocheilichthys teretiusculus Kner, 1867

International Common Names

  • English: carp, grass; gardd carp; white amur
  • Spanish: carpa forrajera; carpa herbivora
  • French: amour blanc; carpe amour; carpe de roseau; carpe herbivore
  • Russian: belyi amur
  • Chinese: chow hu; huan; huan-yu; hwan yu; ts'ao-ju; waan ue; wuan yu

Local Common Names

  • Albania: amuri i bardhe
  • Austria: Graskarpfen
  • Bulgaria: byal amur
  • Cambodia: trey srokchen
  • Canada: carpe de roseau
  • China/Hong Kong: waan ju; waan ue
  • Czech Republic: amur bílý; bílý amur
  • Denmark: græskarpe; graeskarpe
  • Ecuador: carpa forrajera
  • Finland: ruohokarppi
  • Germany: Amurkarpfen; Graskarpfen
  • Greece: chortofagos kyprinos
  • Hungary: amur
  • India: hulla; hullagende; hullu; hullugende
  • Iran: amoor
  • Italy: amur; carpa erbivora
  • Japan: sôgyo
  • Laos: pa kin gnia
  • Malaysia: chow hu; kap makan rumput; kap rumput; tongsan
  • Mexico: carpa herbivora
  • Netherlands: Chinese graskarper; graskarper
  • Norway: graskarpe
  • Poland: amur bialy; bialy amur; crap-de-iarba
  • Portugal: carpa-do-limo
  • Romania: cosas; crap alb chinezese; crap de iarba
  • Slovakia: amur biely
  • South Africa: graskarp
  • Sweden: gräskarp
  • Thailand: pla chao hea; pla chao heu; pla kin ya; pla van hea; pla van heu
  • Ukraine: belyi amur
  • Vietnam: cá châm treng; cha cham

EPPO code

  • CTEPID (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ctenopharyngodon idella, the grass carp, is a freshwater cyprinid fish native to rivers of China and the Russian Far East. It is widely cultured for food in China, and has been introduced widely around the world (and become established in some countries) for aquaculture and for biological control of aquatic vegetation; however, it can also drastically reduce or totally remove vegetation from aquatic systems. This, along with the ability to carry parasites such as the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi), make it a potentially dangerous invasive species; on the other hand in many countries it has not become established because of its strict requirements for breeding – it needs flowing water and a warm climate.

The rapid spread of the species is attributed to:

  • widely scattered research projects
  • stocking by different government agencies (federal, state and local)
  • transport and release (legal and illegal) by individuals and private groups
  • and more importantly, escapes from farm ponds and aquaculture facilities and escapes from stocked waterbodies to nearby waterbodies.

Although stocking of Ctenopharyngodon idella as a biological control against nuisance aquatic plants in ponds and lakes continues, the importation, stocking, sale and possession of the species are controlled in some US states by state code and permit programme (Ramussen, 2000a, b), and there has been a vigorous campaign against the spread of non-native, invasive fish species, including C. idella. In some countries (such as Canada and New Zealand) only sterile fish are released.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Ctenopharyngodon
  •                                 Species: Ctenopharyngodon idella

Description

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Ctenopharyngodon idella is a large, elongated fish with an almost cylindrical body, round abdomen and flat head (NACA, 1989). The mouth is sub-terminal to terminal (Anon., 1980; Shireman and Smith, 1983). The jaws have simple lips; the upper jaw slightly extends over the lower jaw. The fish has no barbels and the eyes are small. The snout is short and its length is less than or equal to the eye diameter (Froese and Pauly, 2019). The gill membrane is connected to the isthmus (Anon., 1980) and the gill rakers (15-19) are small, short, and widely set or scattered (NACA, 1989). The dorsal and anal fins are relatively short and the origin of the anal fin is behind the posterior edge of the dorsal fin (Shireman and Smith, 1983). The dorsal fin has three spines and 7-8 soft rays; the anal fin has three spines and 7-11 soft rays (Froese and Pauly, 2019). The pectoral fin has two spines and 14 soft rays; the ventral fin has one spine and eight soft rays (Anon., 1980). The caudal fin is deeply forked (Shireman and Smith, 1983) with 18 soft rays (Froese and Pauly, 2019). The scales are moderate-sized to big and those on the back and sides have dark edges. There are 39-45 scales in the lateral line which extends to the caudal peduncle, 6-7 scale rows above the lateral line and 9-11 scale rows below (Anon., 1980).

External sexual dimorphism is evident only at the onset of gonad maturity. The male has thick and long pectoral fins, extending freely like sharp knives, whereas the female has thin and short pectoral fins that spread out like fans (NACA, 1989). Mature male fish develop pearl organs on the pectoral fins, head and opercula during the spawning season, but the females do not.

Live Ctenopharyngodon idella appear grey on the dorsal surface, greenish yellow on the sides and yellowish white on the abdomen (NACA, 1989). The maximum recorded weight is 45 kg and the maximum reported age is 21 years (Froese and Pauly, 2019). Length at maturity is 58-79 cm; the maximum recorded length is 150 cm (Froese and Pauly, 2022)

Distribution

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Ctenopharyngodon idella is native to China and the Russian Far East (Froese and Pauly, 2022), mainly found in the Yangtze River (Changjiang River) and Pearl River (Zhujiang River) (NACA, 1989) and in other river systems in northern and western China (Ling, 1977). It has been introduced to about 80 countries worldwide, many of these introductions being secondary or tertiary introductions from countries other than China (FishBase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2019). The introductions were made mainly for aquaculture and/or aquatic weed control in both developing and developed countries. In western Europe and the USA, for example, the main interest in the species has been in using it as a biological weed control agent, for which purpose it has been introduced. In India, it is one of the species used in the so-called composite culture of Indian major carp and Chinese carp (Pillay, 1990). In some other countries, it was used primarily for research, but because of its fast growth and efficiency as a weed control agent, it eventually became an important aquaculture species. In Hungary and several other European countries, it has become a valuable species for sport fisheries (FishBase, 2004). It is a highly adaptable and tolerant species, which may explain its widespread and successful introductions, but in many countries, introduced grass carp do not reproduce or become established in confined bodies of water due to their strict requirements for reproduction – they need flowing water and a warm climate.

Apart from its native range, Ctenopharyngodon idella has been reported to have become established in large rivers in Japan (e.g., Tone River), the European and central Asian areas of the former USSR, parts of Europe (e.g. the Danube River and tributaries), Mexico (e.g. Rio Balsas system) and the USA (e.g. Mississippi and Missouri Rivers) (Shireman and Smith, 1983). In the USA, it has been recorded in 45 states and is known to have established populations in at least eight states in the Mississippi River Basin (Ramussen, 2000a; Nico and Fuller, 2005; Nico et al., 2010).  In Canada, there is considerable concern regarding potential ecological impacts if it is introduced (Jones et al. 2017; Hayder, 2019); see also Cudmore and Mandrak (2004). According to the Agriculture Research Division, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development (2014), natural spawning in North America has only been recorded in the Southern USA and Mexico and not in places with colder climates, but nevertheless only sterile triploid individuals are used for weed control in Alberta.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentIntroduced but not established
AngolaPresentIntroducedStatus in the wild unknown
BurundiAbsentIntroduced but not established
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentIntroduced
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroduced
LesothoAbsentIntroduced but not established
MalawiAbsentIntroduced but not established
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresentIntroducedProbably established through continuous restocking
MozambiqueAbsentIntroduced but not established
NigeriaPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
RwandaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
TunisiaPresentIntroduced
UgandaAbsentIntroduced but not established
ZambiaAbsentIntroduced but not established
ZimbabweAbsentIntroduced but not established

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroduced
ArmeniaPresentIntroduced
AzerbaijanAbsentNot established
BangladeshAbsentIntroduced but not established
BhutanPresentIntroduced
BruneiAbsentIntroduced but not established
CambodiaPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentNative
Hong KongPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
IranPresentIntroduced
IraqPresentIntroduced
IsraelPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroduced
JordanPresentIntroducedEstablished through continuous restocking
KazakhstanPresentIntroduced
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroduced
LaosAbsentIntroduced but not established
MalaysiaAbsentIntroduced but not established
MongoliaPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesAbsentIntroduced but not established
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedEstablished through continuous restocking
SingaporeAbsentIntroduced but not established
South KoreaPresentIntroduced
Sri LankaAbsentIntroduced but not established
TaiwanAbsentIntroduced but not established
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresentIntroduced
TurkmenistanPresentIntroduced
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroduced
UzbekistanPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroduced

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedPossibly not established
AustriaPresentIntroduced
BelarusPresentIntroduced
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
BulgariaPresentIntroduced
CroatiaPresentIntroduced
CyprusAbsentIntroduced but not established
CzechiaPresentIntroduced
DenmarkAbsentIntroduced but not established
EstoniaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedRare, potentially invasive; Not established
FinlandPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroduced
GermanyAbsentIntroduced but not established
GreeceAbsentIntroduced but not established
HungaryPresentIntroduced
ItalyAbsentIntroduced but not established
LatviaPresentIntroduced
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedPossibly not established
MoldovaPresentIntroduced
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedProbably established through continuous restocking
PolandPresentIntroduced
RomaniaPresentIntroduced
RussiaPresentNative and IntroducedNative to Amur river system of eastern Siberia; introduced elsewhere
-Russian Far EastPresentNative
SerbiaPresentIntroducedEstablished
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced
SloveniaPresentIntroduced
SwedenPresentIntroduced
SwitzerlandAbsentIntroduced but not established
UkrainePresentIntroduced
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentIntroduced
United KingdomAbsentIntroduced but not established

North America

CanadaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedSterile fish (for weed control) only
-OntarioPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
Costa RicaAbsentIntroduced but not established
CubaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicAbsentIntroduced but not established
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresent2017Introduced1976
-ArizonaPresent2019Introduced2017
-ArkansasPresent2020Introduced1968
-CaliforniaPresent1997Introduced1974
-ColoradoPresent2019Introduced1985
-ConnecticutPresent2017Introduced1985
-DelawarePresent2006Introduced1986
-FloridaPresent2021Introduced1972
-GeorgiaPresent2020Introduced1972
-HawaiiAbsentIntroduced but not established
-IdahoPresent2007Introduced1989
-IllinoisPresent2021Introduced1971
-IndianaPresent2021Introduced1977
-IowaPresent2019Introduced1973
-KansasPresent2010Introduced1974
-KentuckyPresent2020Introduced1974
-LouisianaPresent2018Introduced1978
-MarylandPresent2009Introduced1977
-MassachusettsPresent2017Introduced1978
-MichiganPresent2021Introduced1980
-MinnesotaPresent2020Introduced1977
-MississippiPresent2017Introduced1978
-MissouriPresent2018Introduced1971
-NebraskaPresent2018Introduced1975
-NevadaPresent2001Introduced1984
-New HampshirePresent1980Introduced1980
-New JerseyPresent2019Introduced1989
-New MexicoPresent2020Introduced1990
-New YorkPresent2021Introduced1985
-North CarolinaPresent2019Introduced1980
-North DakotaPresent1998Introduced1998
-OhioPresent2021Introduced1980
-OklahomaPresent2020Introduced1980
-OregonPresent2006Introduced1980
-PennsylvaniaPresent2020Introduced1992
-South CarolinaPresent2020Introduced1980
-South DakotaPresent2020Introduced1980
-TennesseePresent2020Introduced1978
-TexasPresent2021Introduced1975
-UtahPresent2019Introduced1984
-VirginiaPresent2021Introduced1986
-WashingtonPresent2003Introduced1987
-West VirginiaPresent2020Introduced1980
-WisconsinPresent2021Introduced1975
-WyomingPresent2019Introduced1987

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroduced
GuamPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced but not established
New ZealandPresentIntroduced
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedProbably established
BoliviaAbsentIntroduced but not established
BrazilPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced1995
ColombiaAbsentIntroduced but not established
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced
UruguayPresentIntroduced

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Afghanistan China 1966-1967 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988)
Algeria Hungary 1985 Fisheries (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004)
Armenia Research (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Bangladesh Hong Kong 1969 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Belarus Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Belgium Hungary 1967 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No Yes FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
Bhutan Nepal 1983 Aquaculture (pathway cause)International organisation No No FishBase (2004)
Bolivia 1981 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Brazil Hungary 1968 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No Yes FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
Bulgaria Former USSR 1964 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No Shireman and Smith (1983)
Cambodia Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Canada USA 1987 Research (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
China Unknown Yes No FAO (1997); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Colombia Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Costa Rica Taiwan 1976 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Côte d'Ivoire France 1979 Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004); Lever (1996)
Croatia Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
Cuba Former USSR 1966 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988)
Cyprus Israel 1977 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause); Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Czech Republic Former USSR 1961 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Denmark Malaysia 1965 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Egypt Hong Kong 1969 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Ethiopia Japan 1975 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Fiji Malaysia 1968 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988)
Finland Sweden 1970 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Former USSR 1949 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
France Czechoslovakia (former) 1967 Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004)
France Former USSR 1967 Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004)
France Asia 1957 Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004)
France Hungary 1967 Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004)
Germany China 1964 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Greece Poland 1980 Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Guyana Jamaica 1982 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004)
Honduras Taiwan 1976 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Hong Kong China Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Hungary China 1963 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes Yes FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
India Hong Kong 1959 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No Yes FAO (1997); FishBase (2004); Shetty et al. (1989); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Indonesia Malaysia 1915 Research (pathway cause)Government Yes No FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Iran Former USSR 1966 Research (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Iraq Japan 1968 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Israel China 1965 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Golani and Mires (2000)
Italy Yugoslavia (former) 1972 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause)Unknown No No Shireman and Smith (1983)
Jamaica Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Japan China 1878 Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Chiba et al. (1989); FishBase (2004)
Kazakhstan Russian Federation 1963 Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Kenya Japan 1969 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Korea, Republic of Japan 1963 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Kyrgyzstan 1963 Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Laos Japan 1968 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Malaysia China 19th century Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Mauritius India 1975 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
Mexico Taiwan 1960 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (1997); FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Mexico China 1965 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (1997); FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Moldova Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Morocco Bulgaria 1980 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Myanmar India 1969 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Nepal India 1965 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
New Zealand Malaysia 1966 Research (pathway cause)Government No Yes FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Nigeria 1972 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Pakistan China 1964 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (1997); FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Panama Taiwan 1977 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988)
Peru Panama 1979 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Philippines China 1964 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Poland Former USSR 1964 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (1997); FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Puerto Rico USA 1972 Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Romania China 1959 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes Yes FAO (1997); FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Russian Federation Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Rwanda Korea, Republic of 1979 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Singapore China Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector No No FishBase (2004)
Slovakia Former USSR 1961 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
South Africa Malaysia 1967 Research (pathway cause)Unknown No No Shireman and Smith (1983)
South Africa Hungary 1975 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Sri Lanka China 1948 Unknown No No FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
Sudan India 1975 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Sweden Hungary 1970 Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988)
Taiwan China pre-1900 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Liao and Liu (1989); Welcomme (1988)
Tanzania Unknown No No FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
Thailand China 1932 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector No Yes FishBase (2004); Piyakarnchana (1989); Welcomme (1988)
Tunisia France 1981 Government No Yes FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
Turkmenistan China Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
UK Austria 1963 Unknown No Yes FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
United Arab Emirates Hong Kong 1968 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Uruguay Research (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
USA Malaysia 1963 Unknown Yes No FAO (1997); FishBase (2004)
Uzbekistan 1961 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Vietnam China 1958 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes Yes FishBase (2004)
Yugoslavia (former) Former USSR 1963 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004); Welcomme (1988)
Morocco Hungary 1981 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FAO (2019)
Albania Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (2019)
Austria Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (2019)
Netherlands Hungary 1968 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FAO (2019)
Netherlands Taiwan 1968 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FAO (2019)
Argentina Japan 1975 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FAO (2019)
Dominican Republic Taiwan 1981 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Biological control (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Guatemala Honduras 1989 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Biological control (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Guam Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Papua New Guinea No No FAO (2019)
Zambia Israel 1980s Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Zambia Mauritius 1980s Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Switzerland 1974 Biological control (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Turkey China Aquaculture (pathway cause); Biological control (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Estonia Former USSR 1980s Biological control (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Angola Hungary 1980 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Mozambique Cuba 1991 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)International organisation No No FAO (2019)
Zimbabwe 1995 Biological control (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
Jordan Aquaculture (pathway cause); Biological control (pathway cause) No Yes FAO (2019)
Saudi Arabia Aquaculture (pathway cause); Biological control (pathway cause) No Yes FAO (2019)
Burundi China 1986 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No FAO (2019)
Lesotho South Africa 1979 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No FAO (2019)
Malawi Israel 1976 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No FAO (2019)
Haiti USA No No FAO (2019)
Haiti Jamaica No No FAO (2019)
Haiti Panama No No FAO (2019)
Uganda Hong Kong 1979 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No FAO (2019)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
FreshwaterLakes Present, no further details
FreshwaterRivers / streams Present, no further details
FreshwaterPonds Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The diploid chromosome number (2n) of Ctenopharyngodon idella, like that of bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), is 48 (Marian and Krasznai, 1979). C. idella (and H. nobilis) have ten pairs of metacentric, eight pairs of submetacentric and six pairs of telocentric chromosomes.

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceFood Source DatasheetLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
Acorus calamus Aquatic|Adult
Azolla (water fern) Aquatic|Adult
Bidens tripartita Aquatic|Adult
BrachionusAquatic|Fry; Aquatic|Larval up to 100
Butomus umbellatus Aquatic|Adult
Calamagrostis epigejos Aquatic|Adult
Calla palustris Aquatic|Adult
Carex elata, Carex nigra, Carex pseudocyperus Aquatic|Adult
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) Aquatic|Adult
Chara sp. (stonewort, muskgrass) Aquatic|Adult
Chironomus Aquatic|Fry
cladocerans (e.g. Moina) Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|Larval up to 100
Egeria densa (Brazilian elodea) Aquatic|Adult
Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) Aquatic|Adult
Elodea canadensis (Canada waterweed) Aquatic|Adult
Equisetum sp. Aquatic|Adult
filamentous algae (e.g. Cladophora) Aquatic|Adult
Fontinalis antipyretica Aquatic|Adult
Fontinalis sp. Aquatic|Adult
Glyceria fluitans Aquatic|Adult
Hydrilla sp., Hydrilla verticillata Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry
Hydrocharis morus Aquatic|Adult
Juncus articulatus, Juncus effusus, Juncus filiformis Aquatic|Adult
Lactuca sativa Aquatic|Adult
Lemna sp., Lemna minor (duckweed) Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry
Lysimachia vulgaris Aquatic|Adult
Myriophyllum sp., Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil) Aquatic|Adult
Najas foveolata, Najas guadalupensis (southern naiad) Aquatic|Adult
Nasturtium officinale (watercress) Aquatic|Adult
nauplii of copepods Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|Larval up to 100
Nitella spp. Aquatic|Adult
Nuphar sp. (spatterdock), Nuphar lutea Aquatic|Adult
Nymphaea sp. (fragrant waterlily) Aquatic|Adult
Nymphaea spp. (water-lillies) Aquatic|Adult
Panicum repens (torpedo grass) Aquatic|Adult
Phragmites australis Aquatic|Adult
phytoplankton Aquatic|Fry
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Aquatic|Adult
Poa palustris Aquatic|Adult
Persicaria amphibia (water smartweed) Aquatic|Adult
Potamogeton natans (floating leaved pondweed); Potamogeton amplifolius (big leaf pondweed); Potamogeton crispus (curly leaf pondweed); Potamogeton obtusifolius, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Potamogeton zosteriformes (flat-stemmed pondweed); Potamogeton praelongus (white-stemmed pondweed); Potamogeton illinoensis, Potamogeton lucens; Stuckenia filiformis; Stuckenia pectinata (sago pondweed) Aquatic|Adult
protozoans Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|Larval
Ranunculus fluitans Aquatic|Adult
Sagittaria sagittifolia Aquatic|Adult
Scirpus sp., Scirpus sylvaticus Aquatic|Adult
Sphagnum sp. Aquatic|Adult
Spirodela polyrhiza (duckweed) Aquatic|Adult
Spirogyra Aquatic|Adult
Stachys palustris Aquatic|Adult
Stratiotes aloides (water-aloe) Aquatic|Adult
tender aquatic plants (e.g. Wolffia arrhiza) Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Broodstock; Aquatic|Fry
tender land plants Aquatic|Adult
Trapa natans Aquatic|Adult
Trifolium repens Aquatic|Adult
Typha angustifolia, Typha latifolia, Typha spp., cat-tail) Aquatic|Adult
Typha sp. (pond cattails, young); Typha angustifolia, sedges and rushes Aquatic|Adult
Utricularia vulgaris (bladderwort) Aquatic|Adult
Vallisneria (eel grass) Aquatic|Adult
Vallisneria spiralis, Valiserina americana (water celery) Aquatic|Adult
water plantain Aquatic|Adult
young white water buttercup Aquatic|Adult
Zizania latifolia Aquatic|Adult
Typha domingensis Aquatic|Adult

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Tolerated Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) >3.8 Harmful Fry
Chlorine (mg/l) >0.2 Harmful Fry
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <2 Harmful Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <2 Harmful Larval
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <2 Harmful Fry
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <3 Harmful Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <2 Harmful Egg
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Egg
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Larval
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Fry
Nitrate (mg/l) >=1.6 Harmful Fry
Salinity (part per thousand) >12 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) >9 Harmful Fry
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Broodstock
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Egg
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Larval
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Fry
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 22 28 Optimum Broodstock
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.5 Optimum Fry
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.5 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.5 Optimum Broodstock
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.5 Optimum Egg
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.5 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 40 Harmful Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <=18 >=42 Harmful Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <0.5 >40.0 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 30 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 21 25 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 21 30 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 22 28 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 25 32 Optimum Adult

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anabas Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry Shireman and Smith (1983)
Ardeola schistaceus Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry FishBase (2004)
Aves Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry Agriculture Research Division; Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development (2014)
Bufo bufo gargarizans Predator Aquatic|Fry Anon. (1980)
Channa Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry Shireman and Smith (1983)
Clarias Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry Shireman and Smith (1983)
Cybister Predator Aquatic|Fry Anon. (1980)
Elopichthys bambusa Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry Shireman and Smith (1983)
Enhydris chinensis Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry FishBase (2004)
Eretes Predator Aquatic|Fry Anon. (1980)
Esox lucius Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|Larval Anon. (1980); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Gobius Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry Shireman and Smith (1983)
Laccotrephes japonensis Predator Aquatic|Fry Anon. (1980); NACA (1989)
Luciobrama typus Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry Shireman and Smith (1983)
Lutra lutra Predator Aquatic|Adult Adámek et al. (2003)
Micropterus salmoides Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry Shireman and Smith (1983)
Notonecta Predator Aquatic|Fry Anon. (1980)
Odonata Predator Aquatic|Fry NACA (1989)
Parasilurus asotus Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry Shireman and Smith (1983)
Rana tigerina rugulosa Predator Aquatic|Fry Anon. (1980)
Ranatra Predator Aquatic|Fry Anon. (1980)
Rhacopherus leucomystax Predator Aquatic|Fry Anon. (1980)
Sander lucioperca Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Silurus asotus Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry FishBase (2004)
Siniperca chuatsi Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry FishBase (2004); Shireman and Smith (1983)
Sinonatrix piscator Predator Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry FishBase (2004)
Thermocyclops oithonoides Predator Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|Larval Anon. (1980)

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture Yes
Biological control Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Human health Positive
Native flora Negative
Other Positive

Economic Impact

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Accidental introduction of the intestinal parasite, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (=gowkongensis), is associated with the introduction of Ctenopharyngodon idella from the Far East (Pérez-Ponce de León et al., 2018) and has caused extensive losses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) culture in Europe (Shireman and Smith, 1983).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Ctenopharyngodon idella has been introduced to many countries, mainly as a biological control for aquatic weeds (in ponds, reservoirs and other public waters) and for aquaculture and fisheries. The effects of the species in a body of water are complex; they are influenced by factors such as stocking density, size/age at stocking, abundance and type of macrophyte or aquatic vegetation, and the community structure of the ecosystem (Shireman and Smith, 1983). Dibble and Kovalenko (2009) provide a comprehensive review paper on the ecological impact of the species. It can drastically reduce or even entirely eliminate aquatic plants (ISSG, 2022).

Overstocking of Ctenopharyngodon idella can cause a large influx of nutrients from the carp faeces and a fast or substantial decrease of macrophytes in lakes and ponds. Adverse effects of overstocking of the species in various countries as reviewed by Shireman and Smith (1983) include:

  • phytoplankton blooms (USSR, Yugoslavia, Romania, India)
  • a decrease in invertebrate numbers and diversity (USSR and USA)
  • disruption of macroinvertebrate food base and consequent reduction in centrarchid biomass in a reservoir (USA)
  • reduction in the spawning sites for other fishes such as the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) (USA)
  • prevention of spawning by pike, Esox lucius and pikeperch (Lucioperca fluviatilis [Sander lucioperca]), in small Russian lakes.

Changes in water quality in lakes as a result of drastic reduction of macrophytes by Ctenopharyngodon idella include a decrease in dissolved oxygen and increase in carbon dioxide levels in a lake in Yugoslavia, and an increase in Kjeldahl nitrogen and significant decrease in pH in a lake in Florida (USA) (Shireman and Smith, 1983). On the other hand, the presence of the species improved oxygen levels in a reservoir in the USSR by drastically reducing the macrophytes that normally cause low dissolved oxygen during seasonal die-offs and decomposition.

A more exhaustive study on the environmental impact of the species as a weed control agent in nutrient enriched waters was done in New Zealand. After 15 years of research, the conclusions were:

  1. the grass carp were environmentally safe
  2. damage to native and introduced fisheries would be minimal
  3. the likelihood of breeding was low
  4. harmful effects of weed removal by fish would be much less than those of removal by herbicide or mechanical means (FAO, 1997; FishBase, 2004).

However, only sterile fish are released for weed control in New Zealand (Zylva, 1996), so populations will not persist without restocking.

Impact on Biodiversity

Contradictory results have been reported concerning interaction of Ctenopharyngodon idella with other species, since many factors influence the effects of the species. In his review, Petr (2000) reported that removal of aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum) by grass carp in a lake system (Lake Conroe, Texas, USA) resulted in the decline of some fish species (e.g. small phytophilic Lepomis spp., bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus and crappie, Pomoxis spp.) and a nearly fivefold increase in the density of threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense. The sportfish community changed after vegetation removal from the original largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)-crappie-hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) fishery to a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)-white bass (Morone chrysops)-hybrid striped bass-largemouth bass-black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) one. The littoral fish community also shifted from a sunfish and shad community to one that included large numbers of cyprinids, inland silversides (Menidia beryllina), and channel catfish. In many other lakes, there was no consistent trend on the effect of aquatic macrophyte removal, in that some grass carp lakes supported excellent fish populations and some did not.

Ctenopharyngodon idella affects other fish species by interfering with their reproduction, broadening or narrowing their food base and decreasing their refugia (Shireman and Smith, 1983). Overfeeding on aquatic vegetation affects habitats for migrating and wintering waterfowl because the native aquatic plants preferred by grass carp are also important food for the waterfowl and habitat for their invertebrate food items (Welcomme, 1988; Petr, 2000). C. idella has also been reported to compete for plant food with crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in small ponds, leading to a decrease in crayfish production.

Vegetation removal by Ctenopharyngodon idella has been reported to improve growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) due to increases in phytoplankton and zooplankton production (a secondary effect of the presence of C. idella), but it also led to higher predation on the trout by cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, due to lack of cover and changes in diet, densities and growth of native fishes (Nico and Fuller, 2005).

Daga et al. (2016) provide a review of non-native fish invasions, including Ctenopharyngodon idella, in the Iguaçu river, Brazil.

Accidental introduction of the intestinal parasite, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (=gowkongensis), is associated with the introduction of Ctenopharyngodon idella from the Far East (Pérez-Ponce de León et al., 2018) and has caused extensive losses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) culture in Europe (Shireman and Smith, 1983). In the USA, various tests have shown that the golden shiner virus that causes mortalities in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, is the same as the grass carp reovirus which must have been imported into the country along with C. idella (McEntire et al., 2003).

Branford and Duggan (2017) have studied the effects of translocations from aquaculture facilities in New Zealand with reference to spread of “hitchhiker” zooplankton species.

Social Impact

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The introduction of Ctenopharyngodon idella in many countries has generally resulted in a positive economic impact due to increase in aquaculture production and fisheries production in inland waters. Chinese carp, including grass carp, introduced in Malaysia have no negative impact on human lifestyles, customs or economy (Ang et al., 1989). Instead, the introductions have resulted in positive contributions to human nutrition and the economy. Other countries where aquaculture of the species has had positive economic effects include for example Poland, the Czech Republic and Vietnam (FAO, 1997; FishBase, 2004). In India, the species has increased fish production and proven to be a good table fish as well as an efficient biological control for submerged weeds (Shetty et al., 1989).

Ctenopharyngodon idella is not a popular food fish in Japan, but it is an important species in commercial fisheries (Chiba et al., 1989), especially among anglers, due to its size and peculiar feeding habits. It is also valued as a game fish for anglers in other countries such as Poland and the Czech Republic (Lever, 1996; FishBase, 2004).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Live feed

Environmental

  • Biological control

General

  • Aquaria fish

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Cured meat
  • Eggs (roe)
  • Fish meal
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Whole

Materials

  • Skins/leather/fur

References

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Agriculture Research Division, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, 2014. Biological weed control in Alberta using triploid grass carp. Alberta, Canada: Agriculture Research Division, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development.6 pp. https://open.alberta.ca/dataset/20940b7d-9ba8-4609-ba64-803730df87e5/resource/8de0a8d7-923a-433a-8a85-4a92df6b6dd5/download/2014-485-641-1-weed-control.pdf (Agri-Facts. Practical Information for Alberta’s Agriculture Industry. Agdex 485/641-1)

Ang, K., Gopinath, R. C., 1989. The status of introduced fish species in Malaysia. In: Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia [Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia], [ed. by Silva, S. De]. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society. 71-82.

Anon., 1980. Pond Fish Culture in China. A compilation of lecture notes for the training course on freshwater fish culture by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Beck ML, Biggers CJ, 1983. Ploidy of hybrids between grass carp and bighead carp determined by morphological analysis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 112(6):808-811

Beck ML, Biggers CJ, Barker CJ, 1984. Chromosomal and electrophoretic analyses of hybrids between grass carp and bighead carp (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Copeia, No. 2:337-342

Branford, S. N., Duggan, I. C., 2017. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) translocations, including hitchhiker introductions, alter zooplankton communities in receiving ponds. Marine and Freshwater Research, 68(12), 2216-2227. doi: 10.1071/MF17051

Brzuska E, 1999. Artificial spawning of herbivorous fish: use of an LHRH-a to induce ovulation in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes) and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes). Aquaculture Research, 30(11/12):849-856

Cai W, 1992. Isoenzymatic changes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus Cuvier & Valenciennes, affected with haemorrhagic disease. Journal of Fish Diseases, 15(4):305-313

Cai, Z., Curtis, L. R., 1989. Effects of diet on consumption, growth and fatty acid composition in young grass carp. Aquaculture, 81(1), 47-60. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(89)90229-9

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Chen YC, 1992. Integrated livestock-fish production in China. In: Mukherjee TK, Moi PS, Panandam JM, Yang YS, eds. Integrated Livestock-fish Production Systems. Proceedings of the FAO/IPT Workshop on Integrated Livestock-fish Production Systems, 16-20 December 1991. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, 18-26

Chiba, K., Taki, Y., Sakai, K., Oozeki, Y., 1989. Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. In: Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia [Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia], [ed. by Silva, S. S. De].

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Cudmore, B., Mandrak, N.E., 2004. Biological synopsis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). In: Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 2705, Canada: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.v + 44 pp. https://waves-vagues.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/286222.pdf (Cat. No. Fs 97-4/2705E)

Cui Y, Lui X, Wang S, Chen S, 1992. Growth and energy budget in young grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Val., fed plant and animal diets. Journal of Fish Biology, 41(2):231-238

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Cui, Y., Chen, S., Wang, S., Liu, X., 1993. Laboratory observations on the circadian feeding patterns in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) fed three different diets. Aquaculture, 113(1/2), 57-64. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(93)90340-5

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Daga, V. S., Debona, T., Abilhoa, V., Gubiani, É. A., Vitule, J. R. S., 2016. Non-native fish invasions of a Neotropical ecoregion with high endemism: a review of the Iguaçu river. Aquatic Invasions, 11(2), 209-223. doi: 10.3391/ai.2016.11.2.10

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Kamilov BG, Komrakova MY, 2003. Growth and maturation of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in Uzbekistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 35(2):115-118

Khaitov, A. H., Gafurov, A., Anrooy, R. van, Hasan, M. R., Bueno, P. B., Yerli, S. V., 2013. Fisheries and aquaculture in Tajikistan: review and policy framework. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular, (No.1030/3), iii-90. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3151e/i3151e.pdf

Kirkagac MU, 2003. The gut contents of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, during nursing in an earthen pond. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh, 55(2):139-143

Komrakova MY, Kamilov BG, 2001. Maturation, fecundity and reproduction of grass carp and bighead carp raised in farms of Uzbekistan in the perspective of rational brood stock management planning. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 17(5/6):255-261

Lever, C., 1996. Naturalized fishes of the world, California, USA: Academic Press.408 pp.

Li SiFa, Xu SenLin, 1995. Culture and capture of fish in Chinese reservoirs, Penang, Malaysia: Southbound Sdn. Bhd.xi + 128 pp.

Liao Shi, Xu BoZhao, Chen ChangYun, Liang ZhiPing, Zhang HongFang, 1991. Breeding grass carp against mosquitoes in rice field. Chinese Journal of Parasitology & Parasitic Diseases, 9(3), 219-221.

Liao, I. C., Lia, H. C., 1989. Exotic aquatic species in Taiwan. In: Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia [Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia], [ed. by Silva, S. S. De].

Lin H, Liang J, Peng C, Zhang S, Chen C, Kraak Gvan der, Peter RE, 1988. Induction of gonadotropin secretion and ovulation of cultured fishes by using LHRH-a and dopamine antagonist pimozide (Pim) or LHRH-a and catecholamine depletor reserpine (Res). Journal of Fisheries of China, 12(2):87-94

Ling ShaoWen, 1977. Aquaculture in Southeast Asia: a historical overview, [ed. by Mumaw, L.]. Seattle, USA: University of Washington.xv + 108 pp.

Liu FuGuang, Lin TainSheng, Huang DerUei, Perng MeeiLing, Liao IChiu, 2000. An automated system for egg collection, hatching, and transfer of larvae in a freshwater finfish hatchery. Aquaculture, 182(1/2):137-148

Luczynski M, 1992. Electrophoretic identification of herbivorous carps (bighead, grass and silver carp) and their hybrids. Acta Academiae Agriculturae ac Technicae Olstenensis, 425(19):9-13

Mair, G. C., Tuan, P. A., 2002. Vietnam: stock comparisons for polyculture and national breeding programmes. In: Proceedings of a workshop on Genetic Management and Improvement Strategies for Exotic Carps in Asia, 12-14 February 2002, Dhaka, Bangladesh [Proceedings of a workshop on Genetic Management and Improvement Strategies for Exotic Carps in Asia, 12-14 February 2002, Dhaka, Bangladesh], DFID, AFGRP. 6 pp. http://www.dfid.stir.ac.uk/Afgrp/

Marian T, Krasznai Z, 1979. Comparative karyological studies on Chinese carps. Aquaculture, 18(4):325-336

Masser, M. P., 2002. Using grass carp in aquaculture and private impoundments. In: SRAC Publications , (No. 3600) : Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC).4 pp. http://www.msstate.edu/dept/srac/publicat.htm

McEntire, M. E., Iwanowicz, L. R., Goodwin, A. E., 2003. Molecular, physical, and clinical evidence that golden shiner virus and grass carp reovirus are variants of the same virus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 15(4), 257-263. doi: 10.1577/H03-046.1

Miao WeiMin, undated. Pen fish culture in shallow freshwater lakes. In: Utilizing different aquatic resources for livelihoods in Asia: Lake and reservoir-based systems . unpaginated. http://pubs.iclarm.net/Pubs/IIRR/pdf/iirr_lake_reservoir.pdf

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NACA, 1989. Integrated Fish Farming in China. NACA Technical Manual 7. Bangkok, Thailand: Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia and the Pacific, 278 pp

Nandeesha MC, Das SK, Nathaniel DE, Varghese TJ, 1990. Breeding of carps with Ovaprim in India. Special Publication No. 4, Asian Fisheries Society, Indian Branch

Ngoc Tuan Tran, Wang GuiTang, Wu ShanGong, 2017. A review of intestinal microbes in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes). Aquaculture Research, 48(7), 3287-3297. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2109

Nico L, Fuller P, 2005. Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844). Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Revision Date: 12/8/2004. Gainesville, FL. Online at http://flgvwdmz014.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=514. Accessed 22 February 2005

Nico LG, Fuller PL, Schofield PJ, 2010. Ctenopharyngodon idella. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, FL. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=514

NOBANIS, 2011. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/

Okeyo DO, 1989. Herbivory in freshwater fishes: A review. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 41:79-97

Osborne, J. A., Riddle, R. D., 1999. Feeding and growth rates for triploid grass carp as influenced by size and water temperature. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 14(1), 41-45.

Pérez-Ponce de León, G., Lagunas-Calvo, O., García-Prieto, L., Briosio-Aguilar, R., Aguilar-Aguilar, R., 2018. Update on the distribution of the co-invasive Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (=Bothriocephalus acheilognathi), the Asian fish tapeworm, in freshwater fishes of Mexico. Journal of Helminthology, 92(3), 279-290. doi: 10.1017/S0022149X17000438

Peter RE, Lin HR, Kraak Gvan der, 1988. Induced ovulation and spawning of cultured freshwater fish in China: advances in application of GnRH analogues and dopamine antagonists. Aquaculture, 74(1-2):1-10

Peter, R. E., Lin, H. R., Kraak, G. van der, Little, M., 1993. Releasing hormones, dopamine antagonists and induced spawning. Recent Advances in Aquaculture, 4, 25-30.

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Pfeiffer TJ, Lovell RT, 1990. Responses of grass carp, stocked intensively in earthern ponds, to various supplemental feeding regimes. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 52(4):213-217; 12 ref

Pillay, T. V. R., 1990. Aquaculture: principles and practices, Oxford, UK: Fishing News Books.575pp.

Pípalová I, 2002. Initial impact of low stocking density of grass carp on aquatic macrophytes. Aquatic Botany, 72(1):9-18

Piyakarnchana T, 1989. Exotic aquatic species in Thailand. In: De Silva SS, ed. Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Asian Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ, 3. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society, 119-124

Ramussen J, 2000. Summary (by state) of Asian Carp distribution in the Mississippi River basin. Mississippi Interstate Cooperative Resource Association. Online at http://www.aux.cerc.cr.usgs.gov/MICRA/AsianCarpSurvey.pdf. Accessed 13 October 2004

Ramussen J, 2000. Summary of permit authority and prohibited species by state with special emphasis on Asian carp. Mississippi Interstate Cooperative Resource Association. Online at http://www.aux.cerc.cr.usgs.gov/MICRA/ansregs.pdf. Accessed 13 October 2004

Rothbard, S., Shelton, W. L., Rubinshtein, I., Yaniv Hinits, David, L., 2000. Induction of all-female triploids in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) by integration of hormonal sex inversion and ploidy manipulation. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh, 52(4), 133-150.

Salehi, H., 2004. Carp culture in Iran. Aquaculture Asia Magazine, 9(2), 8-11. http://www.enaca.org/AquacultureAsia/Articles/April-June-2004/3carp-culture-iran.pdf

Shelton, W. L., Jensen, G. L., 1979. Production of reproductively limited grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella] for biological control of aquatic weeds. In: Bulletin, Alabama Water Resources Research Institute , (No. WRRI-BULL-39) . 192 pp.

Shetty HPC, Nandeesha MC, Jhingran AG, 1989. Impact of exotic aquatic species in Indian waters. In De Silva SS, ed. Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Asian Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 3, 45-55

Shimma, Y., Shimma, H., 1969. A comparative study on fatty acid compositions of the native and reared silver carps, big heads, and grass carps. Bulletin of the Freshwater Fisheries Research Laboratory, 19(1), 37-46.

Shireman, J. V., Smith, C. R., 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844). In: FAO Fisheries Synopsis , (No. 135) . iv + 86pp.

Simon, T. P., Moy, P. B., Barnes, D. K., 1998. New distribution records for exotic and non-indigenous fish species in the Lake Michigan drainage, Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 107(1/4), 61-70.

Stone, N., Engle, C., Heikes, D., Freeman, D., 2000. Bighead carp. In: SRAC Publications , (No. 438) : Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC).4 pp. http://www.msstate.edu/dept/srac/publicat.htm

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Takeuchi, T., Watanabe, K., Yong, W. Y., Watanabe, T., 1991. Essential fatty acids of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi = Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 57(3), 467-473. doi: 10.2331/suisan.57.467

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Wang DaoZun, Zhao Liang, Tan YuJun, 1995. Requirement of the fingerling grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) for choline. Journal of Fisheries of China, 19(2):133-139

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Zhang SiMing, Wang DengQiang, Deng Hui, Yu LaiNing, 2002. Mitochondrial DNA variations of silver carp and grass carp in populations of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River revealed by using RFLP-PCR. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 26(2):142-147

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Distribution References

Agriculture Research Division, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, 2014. Biological weed control in Alberta using triploid grass carp., Alberta, Canada: Agriculture Research Division, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. 6 pp. https://open.alberta.ca/dataset/20940b7d-9ba8-4609-ba64-803730df87e5/resource/8de0a8d7-923a-433a-8a85-4a92df6b6dd5/download/2014-485-641-1-weed-control.pdf

Anon, 1988. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. [ed. by Welcomme R L]. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. x + 318 pp. https://www.fao.org/3/X5628E/X5628E00.htm

CABI, 2022. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chiba K, Taki Y, Sakai K, Oozeki Y, 1989. Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. In: Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. [Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia.], [ed. by Silva S S De].

Chou L, Lam T, 1989. Introduction of exotic aquatic species in Singapore. In: Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia [Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia.], [ed. by Silva S De]. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society. 91-97.

DAISIE, 2011. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. In: European Invasive Alien Species Gateway, http://www.europe-aliens.org/

FAO, 1997. Aquaculture production statistics 1986-1995. In: FAO Fish. Circ. 815, Rev. 9, 195 pp.

FAO, 2019. Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS). In: Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS). Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/fishery/dias/en

Froese R, Pauly D, 2004. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

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Golani D, Mires D, 2000. Introduction of fishes to the freshwater system of Israel. In: Isr. J. Aquacult./Bamidgeh, 52 (2) 47-60.

Greathead D J, Greathead A H, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information. 13 (4), 61N-68N. https://www.cabi.org/cabreviews/abstract/19921166435

Khaitov A H, Gafurov A, Anrooy R van, Hasan M R, Bueno P B, Yerli S V, 2013. Fisheries and aquaculture in Tajikistan: review and policy framework. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. iii-90. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3151e/i3151e.pdf

Lever C, 1996. Naturalized fishes of the world. California, USA: Academic Press. 408 pp.

Liao I C, Lia H C, 1989. Exotic aquatic species in Taiwan. In: Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. [Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia.], [ed. by Silva S S De]. Manila, Philippines:

NOBANIS, 2011. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. In: North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species, http://www.nobanis.org/

Piyakarnchana T, 1989. Exotic aquatic species in Thailand. In: Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia [Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia], 3 [ed. by De Silva SS]. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society. 119-124.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Shetty HPC, Nandeesha MC, Jhingran AG, 1989. Impact of exotic aquatic species in Indian waters. In: Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia [Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Asian Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ.], 3 [ed. by De Silva SS]. 45-55.

Shireman J V, Smith C R, 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844). In: FAO Fisheries Synopsis, iv + 86pp.

Simon T P, Moy P B, Barnes D K, 1998. New distribution records for exotic and non-indigenous fish species in the Lake Michigan drainage, Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 107 (1/4), 61-70.

US Geological Survey, 2022. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database., Gainesville, Florida, USA: US Geological Survey. http://nas.er.usgs.gov

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Johnny Jensen's Photographic Libraryhttp://www.jjphoto.dk
Mississippi Interstate Cooperative Resource Association (MICRA)http://www.micrarivers.org/
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extensionhttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu
US Fish & Wildlife Servicehttps://www.fws.gov/midwest/Fisheries/

Contributors

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23/08/2019 Updated by:

Vicki Bonham, consultant, UK

Main Author
Corazon Santiago
3 Mt. Caraballo, Fairmount Hills Subdivision, Antipolo City, Rizal 1870, Philippines

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