Cerataphis lataniae (palm aphid)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867)
Preferred Common Name
- palm aphid
Other Scientific Names
- Aphis palmae (Baehr)
- Boisduvalia lataniae (Boisduval)
- Ceratovacuna palmae (Baehr)
- Coccus lataniae Boisduval
International Common Names
- English: latania aphid
- Spanish: afido negro de las orquídeas
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Hemiptera
- Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
- Unknown: Aphidoidea
- Family: Aphididae
- Genus: Cerataphis
- Species: Cerataphis lataniae
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page The genus Cerataphis consists of eight species. There is some confusion in the literature between Cerataphis lataniae and both C. brasiliensis and C. orchidearum (Howard et al., 2001). C. lataniae is often found on palms; a key to wingless adults of Cerataphis species found on palms and orchids is provided by Russell (1996).
DescriptionTop of page The genus Cerataphis can easily be recognized by eye, but it is difficult to distinguish between species without a micropscope.
No eggs have been described because live young develop through parthenogenesis and are born to anholocyclic females.
Nymphs are similar to adults, but smaller.
Adults: Wingless adult females are small, oval, flattened, shiny-brown or orange-brown with a flat, white fringe of wax around the edge of the body. The wax is produced by wax gland plates arranged in a series of oval facets, like a chain, on the edge of the body. The wax glands are illustrated in Miyazaki (1987). The body is 0.8-1.3 mm long (Noordam, 1991) and 0.7-1.1 mm wide (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). The antennae usually have four segments although occasionally there may be five. The cauda, illustrated in Miyazaki (1987), has 8-12 setae and the posterior margin of the genital plate has 7-14 setae. A colour photograph of C. lataniae is provided in Perez Hidalgo et al. (2000). Eastop (1966) describes other more detailed distinguishing characters.
DistributionTop of page Outside of tropical regions, C. lataniae is common on palms in glasshouses (Blackman and Eastop, 2000). Bogs and Brasch (1986) report C. lataniae successfully overwintering in glasshouses in Germany. C. lataniae is included on the British checklist but this is likely to be an invalid record.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Hainan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Qiao Zhang, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Hong Kong||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Maharashtra||Present||Native||Not invasive||More et al., 2002; More et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Java||Present||Native||Not invasive||Perez-Hidalgo et al., 2000; Qiao & Zhang, 2001; Qiao Zhang, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Malaysia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Perez-Hildalgo et al., 2000; Qiao & Zhang, 2001; Qiao Zhang, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Philippines||Present||Native||Not invasive||Zipagan et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Taiwan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Qiao Zhang, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Burundi||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Pérez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Bermuda||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; Perez-Hidalgo et al., 2000; Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Colorado||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Florida||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Indiana||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Ohio||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-South Dakota||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
Central America and Caribbean
|Cuba||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Dominican Republic||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Jamaica||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Montserrat||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Puerto Rico||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Saint Lucia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Brazil||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva Melo et al., 1977; Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Ceara||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva Melo et al., 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Sánchez-Soto Nakano, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Colombia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|French Guiana||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Guyana||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Germany||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Invasive||Bogs Braasch, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Italy||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Bogs Braasch, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Spain||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|UK||Absent, intercepted only||CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Australia||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|-Queensland||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Guam||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; Campbell, 2003; Campbell, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Micronesia, Federated states of||Present||Native||Not invasive||Moore Tudela, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Present||Native||Not invasive||Moore Tudela, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Solomon Islands||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2007|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page C. lataniae is not a major phytosanitary risk but it has spread internationally and has been detected during import inspections in the UK. The spread of C. lataniae to the Canary Isles was probably via the trade in ornamental palms (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). To prevent its spread into New Zealand, the biosecurity authorities of New Zealand list C. lataniae as a regulated pest (New Zealand Biosecurity, 2005).
HabitatTop of page C. lataniae is found on the leaves of palms, especially Latania and Cocos, throughout the tropics and on such hosts in tropical glasshouses, in regions where outdoors survival would not be possible (Blackman and Eastop, 2000).
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page Within their native range, all species of Cerataphis are dioecious between the primary host, Styrax spp., and secondary hosts within the Arecaceae, Pandanaceae, Orchidaceae and Araceae (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). However, now that C. lataniae has spread outside of its native range, it has also been found on Musaceae, specifically on Strelitza alba (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). Reports of C. lataniae on various orchid species are questionable due to the taxonomic confusion with C. orchidearum, a species for which orchids are well recorded hosts (Tenbrink and Hara, 1994; Howard et al., 2001).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Acoelorrhaphe wrightii (Everglades palm)||Arecaceae||Other|
|Acorus calamus (Calamus)||Acoraceae||Other|
|Areca catechu (betelnut palm)||Arecaceae||Other|
|Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)||Moraceae||Other|
|Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)||Moraceae||Other|
|Citrus limon (lemon)||Rutaceae||Other|
|Cocos nucifera (coconut)||Arecaceae||Main|
|Persea americana (avocado)||Lauraceae||Other|
|Poa (meadow grass)||Poaceae||Other|
|Raphia vinifera (wine raffia palm)||Arecaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Sticky honeydew on the leaf surfaces of infested hosts is a symptom of infestation. The presence of black sooty moulds, which use honeydew as a substrate, is another symptom.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Fruit / premature drop|
|Inflorescence / external feeding|
|Leaves / abnormal leaf fall|
|Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Whole plant / external feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Females give birth to live young. There are four nymphal instars. Growth and population development is dependent upon environmental conditions, primarily temperature and host quality. Where conditions are suitable, there are many generations per year and populations can build quickly. In the Maharashtra region of India, C. lataniae populations peak in May (More et al., 2003).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Vector transmission
C. lataniae is not reported as a vector of plant pathogenic viruses but, as many aphid species do vector viruses through feeding on phloem, it is possible that C. lataniae has the potential to act as a vector.
Movement in trade
C. lataniae probably spread to the Canary Isles via trade in ornamental palms (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||adults; nymphs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Leaves||adults; nymphs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; nymphs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page C. lataniae attacks common and dwarf coconut palms in Brazil (Silva Melo, 1977) where, together with the whitefly Aleurodicus cocois and ants (Atta spp.), it is one of the main insect pests of acai palms (Euterpe oleracea) in nurseries (de Souza and de Lemos, 2004). Attacks on Cocos flowers can cause them to drop prematurely or result in abnormal fruit (Silva Melo, 1977). In the Philippines, C. lataniae occurrs on more than 1% of young palms (Zipagan et al., 1992). C. lataniae is a major insect pest on arecanut in the Maharashtra region of India (More et al., 2002, 2003). However, despite C. lataniae being reported as a major pest, there has been no work published which quantifies the economic or environmental damage caused by this aphid. Sanchez-Soto and Nakano (2002) report that Cocos nucifera trees are more susceptible to attack by the lepidopteran pest Batrachedra nuciferae if they are already infested with C. lataniae.
Detection and InspectionTop of page The leaves and stems of susceptible hosts, suspected of being infested, should be carefully examined by eye for juvenile and adult aphids.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page C. lataniae resembles C. brasiliensis and C. orchidearum; however, C. lataniae lacks the one or more pairs of hairs on the underside of the head that are present on C. brasiliensis. C. lataniae can be is distinguished from C. orchidearum as C. orchidearum is larger, up to 1.75 mm long and 1.50 mm wide, and generally has more setae on the cauda (10 to 17) and on the genital plate (18 to 24), as opposed to the 8 to 12 setae on the cauda and 7 to 14 setae on the genital plate of C. lataniae (Russell, 1996).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Material lightly infested with C. lataniae can be trimmed to remove the infested plant parts, and those parts can be destroyed, for example, by burning. Alternatively, whole plants can be treated with an aphicide. Biocontrol may also be possible using the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium mucarium or predators such as Aphidoletes aphidimyza and Chrysoperla carnea.
ReferencesTop of page
Anon, 2000. Checklist of the species of the Italian fauna. Italian Ministry of Environment. http://www.faunaitalia.it/checklist/invertebrates/families/Pentatomidae.html
Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 2000. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide., Ed. 2:x + 466 pp.; 39 pp. of ref.
Bogs D; Braasch D, 1986. Aphids and aphid control in greenhouses. Nachrichtenblatt Fur Den Pflanzenschutz in Der Ddr, 40:11:223-227.
Campbell RK, 2003. Guam. In: Shine C, Reaser JK, Gutierrez AT, eds. Invasive Alien Species in the Austral Pacific Region: National Reports and Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Project, Cape Town, South Africa, 35-45.
Eastop VF, 1966. A taxonomic study of Australian Aphidoidea. Australian Journal of Zoology,14:399-592.
Miyazaki M, 1987. Morphology and systematics. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. Aphids, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Volume A. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 1-25.
Moore A; Tudela A, 1999. Insect pests of Micronesia, http://www.crees.org/plantprotection/AubWeb/bugweb/bugroot.htm.
More PS; Desai BD; Jalagaonkar VN; Mule RS, 2002. Record of pests infesting arecanut, (Areca catechu Linneaus) and their seasonal incidence in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 4(3):120-122.
More PS; Desai BD; Jalagaonkar VN; Mule RS, 2003. Record of pests infesting arecanut, Areca catechu Linneaus and their seasonal incidence. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 5: 1, 5-8.
New Zealand Biosecurity, 2005. www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/registers-lists/ unwanted-organisms/index. htm
PTrez Hidalgo N; Gonzßlez Hernßndez A; Carnero Hernßndez A; Seco Fernßndez MV, 2000. Two species of Cerataphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Hormaphidinae) introduced into the Canary Islands. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 26(3):425-432; 13 ref.
Qiao GE; Zhang GX, 2001. A study on the Genus Cerataphis Lichenstein from China with the description of one new species (Homptera: Hormaphididae), Acta Entomologica Sinica, 44(4):555-559.
Russell LM, 1996. Notes on Cerataphis brasiliensis and synonyms palmae, variabilis and fransseni (Homoptera: Aphididae), with a key to Cerataphis species living on palms and orchids. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(3):439-449; 19 ref.
Sánchez-Soto S; Nakano EO, 2002. Ocorrência de Batrachedra nuciferae Hodges (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) no Estado de São Paulo. Neotropical Entomology 31(4):657-658.
Souza LA de; Lemos WP de, 2004. Pests associated with Acai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart) in greenhouses. Revista de Ciências Agrárias, 42:231-241.
Steiner H, 2001. Ecology and Plant Protection: The Insect Fauna of Rattan. A study of potential pest species on Calamus manna and other rattan palms in Peninsula Malaysia. Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. http://www2.gtz.de/toeb/pdf/TOEB_The_Insect_Fauna_of_Rattan_palms_in_Malaysia.pdf
Tenbrink VL; Hara AH, 1994. Cerataphis orchidearum (Westwood). Datasheet for fringed orchid aphid. www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/Type/cerataph.htm
Zipagan MB; Pacumbaba EP; Orense JC, 1992. Insects significantly occuring on cadang-cadang and disease-free areas. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 17(1):s46.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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