Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cerataphis lataniae
(palm aphid)

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Datasheet

Cerataphis lataniae (palm aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cerataphis lataniae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • palm aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    UK
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867)

Preferred Common Name

  • palm aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphis palmae (Baehr)
  • Boisduvalia lataniae (Boisduval)
  • Ceratovacuna palmae (Baehr)
  • Coccus lataniae Boisduval

International Common Names

  • English: latania aphid
  • Spanish: afido negro de las orquídeas

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Cerataphis
  •                                         Species: Cerataphis lataniae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Cerataphis consists of eight species. There is some confusion in the literature between Cerataphis lataniae and both C. brasiliensis and C. orchidearum (Howard et al., 2001). C. lataniae is often found on palms; a key to wingless adults of Cerataphis species found on palms and orchids is provided by Russell (1996).

Description

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The genus Cerataphis can easily be recognized by eye, but it is difficult to distinguish between species without a micropscope.

No eggs have been described because live young develop through parthenogenesis and are born to anholocyclic females.

Nymphs are similar to adults, but smaller.

Adults: Wingless adult females are small, oval, flattened, shiny-brown or orange-brown with a flat, white fringe of wax around the edge of the body. The wax is produced by wax gland plates arranged in a series of oval facets, like a chain, on the edge of the body. The wax glands are illustrated in Miyazaki (1987). The body is 0.8-1.3 mm long (Noordam, 1991) and 0.7-1.1 mm wide (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). The antennae usually have four segments although occasionally there may be five. The cauda, illustrated in Miyazaki (1987), has 8-12 setae and the posterior margin of the genital plate has 7-14 setae. A colour photograph of C. lataniae is provided in Perez Hidalgo et al. (2000). Eastop (1966) describes other more detailed distinguishing characters.

Distribution

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Outside of tropical regions, C. lataniae is common on palms in glasshouses (Blackman and Eastop, 2000). Bogs and Brasch (1986) report C. lataniae successfully overwintering in glasshouses in Germany. C. lataniae is included on the British checklist but this is likely to be an invalid record.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000

Asia

ChinaPresent
-HainanPresentNativeOriginal citation: Qiao Zhang (2001)
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-MaharashtraPresentNative
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNativeOriginal citation: Qiao Zhang (2001)

Europe

GermanyPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
ItalyPresentIntroducedInvasive
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
-Canary IslandsPresent
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedInvasive
CubaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MontserratPresentIntroducedInvasive
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedInvasive
United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
-IndianaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
-New YorkPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
-OhioPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Moore Tudela (1999)
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNativeOriginal citation: Moore Tudela (1999)
Solomon IslandsPresent

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasive
-CearaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Silva Melo et al., 1977
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Sánchez-Soto Nakano (2002)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
French GuianaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuyanaPresentIntroducedInvasive

Risk of Introduction

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C. lataniae is not a major phytosanitary risk but it has spread internationally and has been detected during import inspections in the UK. The spread of C. lataniae to the Canary Isles was probably via the trade in ornamental palms (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). To prevent its spread into New Zealand, the biosecurity authorities of New Zealand list C. lataniae as a regulated pest (New Zealand Biosecurity, 2005).

Habitat

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C. lataniae is found on the leaves of palms, especially Latania and Cocos, throughout the tropics and on such hosts in tropical glasshouses, in regions where outdoors survival would not be possible (Blackman and Eastop, 2000).

Hosts/Species Affected

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Within their native range, all species of Cerataphis are dioecious between the primary host, Styrax spp., and secondary hosts within the Arecaceae, Pandanaceae, Orchidaceae and Araceae (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). However, now that C. lataniae has spread outside of its native range, it has also been found on Musaceae, specifically on Strelitza alba (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). Reports of C. lataniae on various orchid species are questionable due to the taxonomic confusion with C. orchidearum, a species for which orchids are well recorded hosts (Tenbrink and Hara, 1994; Howard et al., 2001).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acoelorrhaphe wrightii (Everglades palm)ArecaceaeOther
    Acorus calamus (Calamus)AcoraceaeOther
      ArecaArecaceaeOther
        Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeOther
          Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeOther
            Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeOther
              Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeOther
                Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
                  Daemonorops verticillarisArecaceaeOther
                    Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                      LataniaArecaceaeMain
                        MangiferaAnacardiaceaeOther
                          Musa (banana)MusaceaeOther
                            Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                              Poa (meadow grass)PoaceaeOther
                                Psidium (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                  Raphia vinifera (wine raffia palm)ArecaceaeOther

                                    Growth Stages

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                                    Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

                                    Symptoms

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                                    Sticky honeydew on the leaf surfaces of infested hosts is a symptom of infestation. The presence of black sooty moulds, which use honeydew as a substrate, is another symptom.

                                    List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                    SignLife StagesType
                                    Fruit / abnormal shape
                                    Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
                                    Fruit / premature drop
                                    Inflorescence / external feeding
                                    Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
                                    Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                    Whole plant / external feeding

                                    Biology and Ecology

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                                    Females give birth to live young. There are four nymphal instars. Growth and population development is dependent upon environmental conditions, primarily temperature and host quality. Where conditions are suitable, there are many generations per year and populations can build quickly. In the Maharashtra region of India, C. lataniae populations peak in May (More et al., 2003).

                                    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                    Vector transmission

                                    C. lataniae is not reported as a vector of plant pathogenic viruses but, as many aphid species do vector viruses through feeding on phloem, it is possible that C. lataniae has the potential to act as a vector.

                                    Movement in trade

                                    C. lataniae probably spread to the Canary Isles via trade in ornamental palms (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000).

                                    Plant Trade

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                                    Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                    Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx adults; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                    Leaves adults; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                    Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                    Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                    Bark
                                    Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                    Fruits (inc. pods)
                                    Growing medium accompanying plants
                                    Roots
                                    Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                                    True seeds (inc. grain)
                                    Wood

                                    Wood Packaging

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                                    Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                    Loose wood packing material
                                    Non-wood
                                    Processed or treated wood
                                    Solid wood packing material with bark
                                    Solid wood packing material without bark

                                    Impact Summary

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                                    CategoryImpact
                                    Animal/plant collections Negative
                                    Animal/plant products None
                                    Biodiversity (generally) None
                                    Crop production Negative
                                    Environment (generally) None
                                    Fisheries / aquaculture None
                                    Forestry production None
                                    Human health None
                                    Livestock production None
                                    Native fauna None
                                    Native flora None
                                    Rare/protected species None
                                    Tourism None
                                    Trade/international relations None
                                    Transport/travel None

                                    Impact

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                                    C. lataniae attacks common and dwarf coconut palms in Brazil (Silva Melo, 1977) where, together with the whitefly Aleurodicus cocois and ants (Atta spp.), it is one of the main insect pests of acai palms (Euterpe oleracea) in nurseries (de Souza and de Lemos, 2004). Attacks on Cocos flowers can cause them to drop prematurely or result in abnormal fruit (Silva Melo, 1977). In the Philippines, C. lataniae occurrs on more than 1% of young palms (Zipagan et al., 1992). C. lataniae is a major insect pest on arecanut in the Maharashtra region of India (More et al., 2002, 2003). However, despite C. lataniae being reported as a major pest, there has been no work published which quantifies the economic or environmental damage caused by this aphid. Sanchez-Soto and Nakano (2002) report that Cocos nucifera trees are more susceptible to attack by the lepidopteran pest Batrachedra nuciferae if they are already infested with C. lataniae.

                                    Detection and Inspection

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                                    The leaves and stems of susceptible hosts, suspected of being infested, should be carefully examined by eye for juvenile and adult aphids.

                                    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                    C. lataniae resembles C. brasiliensis and C. orchidearum; however, C. lataniae lacks the one or more pairs of hairs on the underside of the head that are present on C. brasiliensis. C. lataniae can be is distinguished from C. orchidearum as C. orchidearum is larger, up to 1.75 mm long and 1.50 mm wide, and generally has more setae on the cauda (10 to 17) and on the genital plate (18 to 24), as opposed to the 8 to 12 setae on the cauda and 7 to 14 setae on the genital plate of C. lataniae (Russell, 1996).

                                    Prevention and Control

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                                    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                    Material lightly infested with C. lataniae can be trimmed to remove the infested plant parts, and those parts can be destroyed, for example, by burning. Alternatively, whole plants can be treated with an aphicide. Biocontrol may also be possible using the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium mucarium or predators such as Aphidoletes aphidimyza and Chrysoperla carnea.

                                    References

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                                    Anon, 2000. Checklist of the species of the Italian fauna. Italian Ministry of Environment. http://www.faunaitalia.it/checklist/invertebrates/families/Pentatomidae.html

                                    Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1994. Aphids on the worlds trees. An identification and information guide. The Natural History Museum. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                    Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 2000. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide., Ed. 2:x + 466 pp.; 39 pp. of ref.

                                    Bogs D; Braasch D, 1986. Aphids and aphid control in greenhouses. Nachrichtenblatt Fur Den Pflanzenschutz in Der Ddr, 40:11:223-227.

                                    CABI/EPPO, 2007. Cerataphis lataniae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 694.

                                    Campbell RK, 2003. Guam. In: Shine C, Reaser JK, Gutierrez AT, eds. Invasive Alien Species in the Austral Pacific Region: National Reports and Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Project, Cape Town, South Africa, 35-45.

                                    Eastop VF, 1966. A taxonomic study of Australian Aphidoidea. Australian Journal of Zoology,14:399-592.

                                    Howard FW; Moore D; Giblin-Davies RM; Abad RG, 2001. Insects on Palms. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

                                    Melo QMS; Cavalcante RD; Araujo FE de; Cavalcante MLS, 1977. Cerataphis latanip (Boisduval, 1867), attacking coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the State of Ceara. Fitossanidade, 2(2):56

                                    Miyazaki M, 1987. Morphology and systematics. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. Aphids, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Volume A. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 1-25.

                                    Moore A; Tudela A, 1999. Insect pests of Micronesia, http://www.crees.org/plantprotection/AubWeb/bugweb/bugroot.htm.

                                    More PS; Desai BD; Jalagaonkar VN; Mule RS, 2002. Record of pests infesting arecanut, (Areca catechu Linneaus) and their seasonal incidence in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 4(3):120-122.

                                    More PS; Desai BD; Jalagaonkar VN; Mule RS, 2003. Record of pests infesting arecanut, Areca catechu Linneaus and their seasonal incidence. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 5: 1, 5-8.

                                    New Zealand Biosecurity, 2005. www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/registers-lists/ unwanted-organisms/index. htm

                                    Noordam D, 1991. Hormaphidinae from Java (Homoptera: Aphididae). Zoologische Verhandelingen, No. 270:525 pp.

                                    PTrez Hidalgo N; Gonzßlez Hernßndez A; Carnero Hernßndez A; Seco Fernßndez MV, 2000. Two species of Cerataphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Hormaphidinae) introduced into the Canary Islands. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 26(3):425-432; 13 ref.

                                    Qiao GE; Zhang GX, 2001. A study on the Genus Cerataphis Lichenstein from China with the description of one new species (Homptera: Hormaphididae), Acta Entomologica Sinica, 44(4):555-559.

                                    Russell LM, 1996. Notes on Cerataphis brasiliensis and synonyms palmae, variabilis and fransseni (Homoptera: Aphididae), with a key to Cerataphis species living on palms and orchids. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(3):439-449; 19 ref.

                                    Sánchez-Soto S; Nakano EO, 2002. Ocorrência de Batrachedra nuciferae Hodges (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) no Estado de São Paulo. Neotropical Entomology 31(4):657-658.

                                    Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

                                    Souza LA de; Lemos WP de, 2004. Pests associated with Acai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart) in greenhouses. Revista de Ciências Agrárias, 42:231-241.

                                    Steiner H, 2001. Ecology and Plant Protection: The Insect Fauna of Rattan. A study of potential pest species on Calamus manna and other rattan palms in Peninsula Malaysia. Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. http://www2.gtz.de/toeb/pdf/TOEB_The_Insect_Fauna_of_Rattan_palms_in_Malaysia.pdf

                                    Tenbrink VL; Hara AH, 1994. Cerataphis orchidearum (Westwood). Datasheet for fringed orchid aphid. www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/Type/cerataph.htm

                                    Zipagan MB; Pacumbaba EP; Orense JC, 1992. Insects significantly occuring on cadang-cadang and disease-free areas. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 17(1):s46.

                                    Distribution References

                                    Bogs D, Braasch D, 1986. Aphids and aphid control in greenhouses., 40 (11) 223-227.

                                    CABI, EPPO, 2007. Cerataphis lataniae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 694. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20073255771

                                    CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                    CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                    Campbell RK, 2003. Guam. In: Invasive Alien Species in the Austral Pacific Region: National Reports and Directory of Resources, [ed. by Shine C, Reaser JK, Gutierrez AT eds]. Cape Town, South Africa: Global Invasive Species Project. 35-45.

                                    More P S, Desai B D, Jalagaonkar V N, Mule R S, 2003. Record of pests infesting arecanut, Areca catechu Linneaus and their seasonal incidence. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 5 (1), 5-8.

                                    More P S, Desai B D, Jalgaonkar V N, Mule R S, 2002. Record of pests infesting arecanut, (Areca catechu Linneaus) and their seasonal incidence in Konkan region of Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 4 (3), 120-122.

                                    Pérez Hidalgo N, González Hernández A, Carnero Hernández A, Seco Fernández M V, 2000. Two species of Cerataphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Hormaphidinae) introduced into the Canary Islands. (Dos especies de Cerataphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Hormaphidinae) introducidas en las Islas Canarias.). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. 26 (3), 425-432.

                                    Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

                                    Zipagan MB, Pacumbaba EP, Orense JC, 1992. Insects significantly occuring on cadang-cadang and disease-free areas. In: Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 17 (1) s46.

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