Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cerataphis lataniae
(palm aphid)

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Datasheet

Cerataphis lataniae (palm aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cerataphis lataniae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • palm aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867)

Preferred Common Name

  • palm aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphis palmae (Baehr)
  • Boisduvalia lataniae (Boisduval)
  • Ceratovacuna palmae (Baehr)
  • Coccus lataniae Boisduval

International Common Names

  • English: latania aphid
  • Spanish: afido negro de las orquídeas

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Cerataphis
  •                                         Species: Cerataphis lataniae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The genus Cerataphis consists of eight species. There is some confusion in the literature between Cerataphis lataniae and both C. brasiliensis and C. orchidearum (Howard et al., 2001). C. lataniae is often found on palms; a key to wingless adults of Cerataphis species found on palms and orchids is provided by Russell (1996).

Description

Top of page The genus Cerataphis can easily be recognized by eye, but it is difficult to distinguish between species without a micropscope.

No eggs have been described because live young develop through parthenogenesis and are born to anholocyclic females.

Nymphs are similar to adults, but smaller.

Adults: Wingless adult females are small, oval, flattened, shiny-brown or orange-brown with a flat, white fringe of wax around the edge of the body. The wax is produced by wax gland plates arranged in a series of oval facets, like a chain, on the edge of the body. The wax glands are illustrated in Miyazaki (1987). The body is 0.8-1.3 mm long (Noordam, 1991) and 0.7-1.1 mm wide (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). The antennae usually have four segments although occasionally there may be five. The cauda, illustrated in Miyazaki (1987), has 8-12 setae and the posterior margin of the genital plate has 7-14 setae. A colour photograph of C. lataniae is provided in Perez Hidalgo et al. (2000). Eastop (1966) describes other more detailed distinguishing characters.

Distribution

Top of page Outside of tropical regions, C. lataniae is common on palms in glasshouses (Blackman and Eastop, 2000). Bogs and Brasch (1986) report C. lataniae successfully overwintering in glasshouses in Germany. C. lataniae is included on the British checklist but this is likely to be an invalid record.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007
-HainanPresentNative Not invasive Qiao Zhang, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-Hong KongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007
-MaharashtraPresentNative Not invasive More et al., 2002; More et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2007
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007
-JavaPresentNative Not invasive Perez-Hidalgo et al., 2000; Qiao & Zhang, 2001; Qiao Zhang, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2007
MalaysiaPresentNative Not invasive Perez-Hildalgo et al., 2000; Qiao & Zhang, 2001; Qiao Zhang, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2007
PhilippinesPresentNative Not invasive Zipagan et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2007
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Qiao Zhang, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2007

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentPérez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; Perez-Hidalgo et al., 2000; Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-IndianaPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
MontserratPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva Melo et al., 1977; Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-CearaPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva Melo et al., 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced Invasive Sánchez-Soto Nakano, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2007
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
French GuianaPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007
GuyanaPresentIntroduced Invasive Schotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2007

Europe

GermanyRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Bogs Braasch, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2007
ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive Bogs Braasch, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2007
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
UKAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2007

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000; Campbell, 2003; Campbell, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2007
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentNative Not invasive Moore Tudela, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2007
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Moore Tudela, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2007
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007

Risk of Introduction

Top of page C. lataniae is not a major phytosanitary risk but it has spread internationally and has been detected during import inspections in the UK. The spread of C. lataniae to the Canary Isles was probably via the trade in ornamental palms (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). To prevent its spread into New Zealand, the biosecurity authorities of New Zealand list C. lataniae as a regulated pest (New Zealand Biosecurity, 2005).

Habitat

Top of page C. lataniae is found on the leaves of palms, especially Latania and Cocos, throughout the tropics and on such hosts in tropical glasshouses, in regions where outdoors survival would not be possible (Blackman and Eastop, 2000).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Within their native range, all species of Cerataphis are dioecious between the primary host, Styrax spp., and secondary hosts within the Arecaceae, Pandanaceae, Orchidaceae and Araceae (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). However, now that C. lataniae has spread outside of its native range, it has also been found on Musaceae, specifically on Strelitza alba (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000). Reports of C. lataniae on various orchid species are questionable due to the taxonomic confusion with C. orchidearum, a species for which orchids are well recorded hosts (Tenbrink and Hara, 1994; Howard et al., 2001).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Acoelorrhaphe wrightii (Everglades palm)ArecaceaeOther
Acorus calamus (Calamus)AcoraceaeOther
ArecaArecaceaeOther
Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeOther
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeOther
Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeOther
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeOther
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
Daemonorops verticillarisArecaceaeOther
Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
LataniaArecaceaeMain
MangiferaAnacardiaceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeOther
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
Poa (meadow grass)PoaceaeOther
Psidium (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Raphia vinifera (wine raffia palm)ArecaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Sticky honeydew on the leaf surfaces of infested hosts is a symptom of infestation. The presence of black sooty moulds, which use honeydew as a substrate, is another symptom.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Fruit / premature drop
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Females give birth to live young. There are four nymphal instars. Growth and population development is dependent upon environmental conditions, primarily temperature and host quality. Where conditions are suitable, there are many generations per year and populations can build quickly. In the Maharashtra region of India, C. lataniae populations peak in May (More et al., 2003).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Vector transmission

C. lataniae is not reported as a vector of plant pathogenic viruses but, as many aphid species do vector viruses through feeding on phloem, it is possible that C. lataniae has the potential to act as a vector.

Movement in trade

C. lataniae probably spread to the Canary Isles via trade in ornamental palms (Perez Hidalgo et al., 2000).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx adults; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves adults; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections Negative
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page C. lataniae attacks common and dwarf coconut palms in Brazil (Silva Melo, 1977) where, together with the whitefly Aleurodicus cocois and ants (Atta spp.), it is one of the main insect pests of acai palms (Euterpe oleracea) in nurseries (de Souza and de Lemos, 2004). Attacks on Cocos flowers can cause them to drop prematurely or result in abnormal fruit (Silva Melo, 1977). In the Philippines, C. lataniae occurrs on more than 1% of young palms (Zipagan et al., 1992). C. lataniae is a major insect pest on arecanut in the Maharashtra region of India (More et al., 2002, 2003). However, despite C. lataniae being reported as a major pest, there has been no work published which quantifies the economic or environmental damage caused by this aphid. Sanchez-Soto and Nakano (2002) report that Cocos nucifera trees are more susceptible to attack by the lepidopteran pest Batrachedra nuciferae if they are already infested with C. lataniae.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page The leaves and stems of susceptible hosts, suspected of being infested, should be carefully examined by eye for juvenile and adult aphids.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page C. lataniae resembles C. brasiliensis and C. orchidearum; however, C. lataniae lacks the one or more pairs of hairs on the underside of the head that are present on C. brasiliensis. C. lataniae can be is distinguished from C. orchidearum as C. orchidearum is larger, up to 1.75 mm long and 1.50 mm wide, and generally has more setae on the cauda (10 to 17) and on the genital plate (18 to 24), as opposed to the 8 to 12 setae on the cauda and 7 to 14 setae on the genital plate of C. lataniae (Russell, 1996).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Material lightly infested with C. lataniae can be trimmed to remove the infested plant parts, and those parts can be destroyed, for example, by burning. Alternatively, whole plants can be treated with an aphicide. Biocontrol may also be possible using the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium mucarium or predators such as Aphidoletes aphidimyza and Chrysoperla carnea.

References

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Anon, 2000. Checklist of the species of the Italian fauna. Italian Ministry of Environment. http://www.faunaitalia.it/checklist/invertebrates/families/Pentatomidae.html

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1994. Aphids on the worlds trees. An identification and information guide. The Natural History Museum. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 2000. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide., Ed. 2:x + 466 pp.; 39 pp. of ref.

Bogs D; Braasch D, 1986. Aphids and aphid control in greenhouses. Nachrichtenblatt Fur Den Pflanzenschutz in Der Ddr, 40:11:223-227.

CABI/EPPO, 2007. Cerataphis lataniae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 694.

Campbell RK, 2003. Guam. In: Shine C, Reaser JK, Gutierrez AT, eds. Invasive Alien Species in the Austral Pacific Region: National Reports and Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Project, Cape Town, South Africa, 35-45.

Eastop VF, 1966. A taxonomic study of Australian Aphidoidea. Australian Journal of Zoology,14:399-592.

Howard FW; Moore D; Giblin-Davies RM; Abad RG, 2001. Insects on Palms. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Melo QMS; Cavalcante RD; Araujo FE de; Cavalcante MLS, 1977. Cerataphis latanip (Boisduval, 1867), attacking coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the State of Ceara. Fitossanidade, 2(2):56

Miyazaki M, 1987. Morphology and systematics. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. Aphids, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Volume A. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 1-25.

Moore A; Tudela A, 1999. Insect pests of Micronesia, http://www.crees.org/plantprotection/AubWeb/bugweb/bugroot.htm.

More PS; Desai BD; Jalagaonkar VN; Mule RS, 2002. Record of pests infesting arecanut, (Areca catechu Linneaus) and their seasonal incidence in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 4(3):120-122.

More PS; Desai BD; Jalagaonkar VN; Mule RS, 2003. Record of pests infesting arecanut, Areca catechu Linneaus and their seasonal incidence. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 5: 1, 5-8.

New Zealand Biosecurity, 2005. www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/registers-lists/ unwanted-organisms/index. htm

Noordam D, 1991. Hormaphidinae from Java (Homoptera: Aphididae). Zoologische Verhandelingen, No. 270:525 pp.

PTrez Hidalgo N; Gonzßlez Hernßndez A; Carnero Hernßndez A; Seco Fernßndez MV, 2000. Two species of Cerataphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Hormaphidinae) introduced into the Canary Islands. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 26(3):425-432; 13 ref.

Qiao GE; Zhang GX, 2001. A study on the Genus Cerataphis Lichenstein from China with the description of one new species (Homptera: Hormaphididae), Acta Entomologica Sinica, 44(4):555-559.

Russell LM, 1996. Notes on Cerataphis brasiliensis and synonyms palmae, variabilis and fransseni (Homoptera: Aphididae), with a key to Cerataphis species living on palms and orchids. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(3):439-449; 19 ref.

Sánchez-Soto S; Nakano EO, 2002. Ocorrência de Batrachedra nuciferae Hodges (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) no Estado de São Paulo. Neotropical Entomology 31(4):657-658.

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Souza LA de; Lemos WP de, 2004. Pests associated with Acai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart) in greenhouses. Revista de Ciências Agrárias, 42:231-241.

Steiner H, 2001. Ecology and Plant Protection: The Insect Fauna of Rattan. A study of potential pest species on Calamus manna and other rattan palms in Peninsula Malaysia. Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. http://www2.gtz.de/toeb/pdf/TOEB_The_Insect_Fauna_of_Rattan_palms_in_Malaysia.pdf

Tenbrink VL; Hara AH, 1994. Cerataphis orchidearum (Westwood). Datasheet for fringed orchid aphid. www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/Type/cerataph.htm

Zipagan MB; Pacumbaba EP; Orense JC, 1992. Insects significantly occuring on cadang-cadang and disease-free areas. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 17(1):s46.

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