Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

 

Continuing to use www.cabi.org  means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Horizon Scanning Tool (beta) for prioritizing invasive species threats

Datasheet

Casuarina glauca (scaly oak (Australia))

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Casuarina glauca
  • Preferred Common Name
  • scaly oak (Australia)
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Binggeli (1999) considered this to be a highly invasive tree species. It is now a category 1 pest plant species in Florida, US...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Scotts Head, New South Wales,  Australia.
TitleTree habit
CaptionScotts Head, New South Wales, Australia.
CopyrightCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Scotts Head, New South Wales,  Australia.
Tree habitScotts Head, New South Wales, Australia.CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Casuarina glauca Sieber ex Spreng.

Preferred Common Name

  • scaly oak (Australia)

International Common Names

  • English: black casuarina (Australia); black she-oak (Australia); Brazilian oak (Australia); gray she-oak (Australia); grey buloke; grey she-oak (Australia); longleaf casuarina; scaly bark beefwood (Australia); suckering Australian pine; suckering casuarina (Australia); swamp oak (Australia); swamp she-oak (Australia)
  • Spanish: casuarina; pino de Australia
  • French: pin d'Australie

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: suckerling Australian pine
  • Malaysia: ru paya

EPPO code

  • CSUGL (Casuarina glauca)

Trade name

  • swamp she-oak

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page Binggeli (1999) considered this to be a highly invasive tree species. It is now a category 1 pest plant species in Florida, USA where its distribution is being monitored (Miller et al., 2002). It is considered a category 1 invasive plant species in the Bahamas (BEST Commission, 2003). Smith (1998) considered it to be the most invasive of the Casuarinas on the Hawaiian islands. Like other invasive Casuarinas it is able to take advantage of disturbed sites for colonization.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Casuarinales
  •                         Family: Casuarinaceae
  •                             Genus: Casuarina
  •                                 Species: Casuarina glauca

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The casuarinas are a group of 96 species of trees and shrubs which comprise the family Casuarinaceae (Wilson and Johnson, 1989). They have been placed in four genera: Allocasuarina, Casuarina, Ceuthostoma and Gymnostoma. A useful summary of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic variation in casuarinas is provided by Turnbull (1990). The genus Casuarina comprises 11 tree species, including 4 species with two subspecies each (Boland et al., 1996), although narrower species circumscriptions recognize up to 17 species. They are mostly endemic to Australia, but with some representation in South-East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

The generic name is from the Latin 'casuarius' (a cassowary), likening the pendulous branchlets to the drooping feathers of the cassowary. The specific name is drawn from the Greek 'glaukos' which is a descriptive term for the blue-green (glaucous) leaves, and the common name 'she-oak' relates to the patterning of the wood, comparable to but less strong than oak (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002).

Description

Top of page C. glauca is a medium-sized tree 8-20 m high, often with buttressed and fluted stem; rarely a shrub to about 2 m that frequently regenerates through vigorous root suckers. Branchlets spreading or drooping, to 38 cm long. Bark hard, grey or grey-brown, finely fissured and scaly, with a tessellated appearance. Leaves 8-20 mm long and 0.9-1.2 mm in diameter, glabrous; leaf-teeth in whorls of 12-17, rarely 20, erect, 0.6-0.9 mm long. Leaf-teeth on new shoots long and recurved. Male flowers, clusters with pollen along 1.2-4 cm of the tips of some branchlets 7-10 whorls per cm. Rounded female 'cones' are 3-12 mm on stalked heads, hairy when young, reddish- to white-pubescent, becoming glabrous, about 6 mm, with dark red stigmas. Mature woody cones subglobose to shortly cylindrical, 9-18 x 7-9 mm, bracteoles broadly acute, opening to release one pale, winged nutlet 3.5-5 mm long (WAC, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page C. glauca originates from the south-eastern coast of Australia (Elfers, 1988). C. glauca's natural habitat in Australia is river estuaries, where it is often very conspicuous. Native range habitats include estuarine floodplains, salt marshes, estuarine floodplains, saline swamp flats, sand dunes and the edges of mangroves (Elfers, 1988; WAC, 2005; Weber, 2003). In its native Australia, C. glauca may occur with Melaleuca quinquenervia and Eucalyptus robusta. In the successional process it is usually replaced by C. cunninghamiana (Elfers, 1988).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced Planted
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroduced Planted
ChinaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
IndiaPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroduced Planted
-GujaratPresentIntroduced Planted
-HaryanaPresentIntroduced Planted
-Indian PunjabPresentIntroduced Planted
-KarnatakaPresentIntroduced Planted
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced Planted
-RajasthanPresentIntroduced Planted
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced Planted
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced Planted
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Planted
IsraelPresentIntroducedWeinstein, 1993; WAC, 2005
JordanPresentIntroduced Planted
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Planted
PakistanPresentIntroduced Planted
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Planted
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced Planted
SingaporePresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced Planted
ThailandPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
VietnamPresentIntroduced Planted
YemenPresentIntroduced Planted

Africa

BotswanaPresentIntroduced Planted
EgyptPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
EritreaPresentIntroduced Planted
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Planted
GhanaPresentIntroduced Planted
KenyaPresentIntroduced1910 Planted WAC, 2005
MalawiPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Planted
SenegalPresentIntroduced Planted
SomaliaPresentIntroduced Planted
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
SudanPresentIntroduced Planted
SwazilandPresentIntroduced Planted
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Planted
-ZanzibarPresentIntroduced Planted
UgandaPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Planted
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Planted

North America

USAPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Miller et al., 2002
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1998; Weber, 2003

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced Planted
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive Hammerton, 2001; BEST Commission, 2003
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Planted
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
DominicaPresentIntroduced Planted
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
HaitiPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
HondurasPresentIntroduced Planted
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Planted
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Planted
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced Planted

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Planted
BoliviaPresentIntroduced Planted
BrazilPresentIntroduced Planted
ChilePresentIntroduced Planted
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Planted
ParaguayPresentIntroduced Planted
PeruPresentIntroduced Planted

Europe

CyprusPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
PortugalPresentIntroduced Planted

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2002
AustraliaPresentNativeWAC, 2005
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Planted
-New South WalesPresentNativePlanted, Natural
-QueenslandPresentNativePlanted, Natural
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Planted
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Planted
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Planted
FijiPresentIntroduced Planted
GuamPresentIntroduced Planted
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Planted Bulloch, 1994
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedPIER, 2002
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Planted
TongaPresentIntroduced Planted
TuvaluPresentIntroduced Planted
VanuatuPresentIntroduced Planted

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page C. glauca has been introduced to many countries as a timber, fuel and fodder tree, and for soil conservation. It was introduced to Florida, USA before 1924 and planted extensively for shelter and amenity (Anon., 1997). Elfers (1988) relates that it was originally introduced to the same habitats as C. equisetifolia in Florida, but was found less able to tolerate salt-spray and saline soils. Smith (1998) reports it to be widespread across the Hawaiian islands, where it is an aggressive colonizer. Outside its natural range Weber (2003) states that it invades sandy banks and beaches, and Hammerton (2001) reports that it can colonize disturbed sites.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page This species is classified as potentially invasive by Binggeli (1999) and is registered as invasive in Florida, Bahamas and Hawaii. Other species within its genus (e.g. C. equisetifolia, C. cunninghamiana) are also invasive and have been a source of serious environmental problems. The wide introduction of this species across many tropical and subtropical countries may constitute a risk for future invasive events.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

Closely related species are C. equisetifolia and C. cunninghamiana, and these Casuarinas readily interbreed forming hybrids. C. glauca and C. cunninghamiana are particularly closely related and hybrids are quite common in cultivation (El-Lakhany et al., 1990). Significant inter- and intra-provenance variation in survival and growth has been found. The chromosome number of C. glauca is 2n=18 (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002).

Physiology and Phenology

WAC (2005) notes that C. glauca is able to form monospecific stands in open woods and is moderately fast-growing. It is less tolerant of saline soils and salt-spray than the related C. equisetifolia (Elfers, 1988). C. glauca fixes atmospheric nitrogen through actinorhizal associations with Frankia spp. in root nodules (Hammerton, 2001), which facilitates its colonization of poor soils (Anon., 1997). Hammerton (2001) claims that C. glauca is among the most fire-sensitive of Casuarina spp., and that it also suffers when grazed. C. glauca is sensitive to fire (Weber, 2003). C. glauca can be grown using the same silvicultural practices as C. equisetifolia and C. cunninghamiana. Methods suitable for propagating casuarinas from seed are described by Carter (1987), Doran (1990) and Doran and Turnbull (1997). Bai and Zhong (1996) briefly describe methods used in China.

Reproductive Biology

The flowers are dioecious. C. glauca is probably wind-pollinated but insect pollination can also occur. Seed production is prolific with approximately 414,900 seeds/kg (WAC, 2005). The seeds are winged samaras. In storage, seeds can survive for many years (WAC, 2005). In The Bahamas, it is able to produce flowers and fruit all year-round (Hammerton, 2001). C. glauca regularly produces root suckers and coppices readily, and root suckers may even be formed by undamaged trees (Elfers, 1988). Where root suckering is left unchecked, inpenetrable thickets may result (Hammerton, 2001). In Florida, USA spread is thought to be through root suckers as it is not known to produce seed there (Anon., 1997).

Environmental Requirements

C. glauca is suited to warm humid and subhumid climatic zones, and although it will tolerate absolute minimum temperatures as low as 4°C, it is sensitive to heavy frosts. C. glauca tolerates a wide range of adverse conditions, including periodic waterlogging, drought, salt spray and highly saline soils, but is less tolerant of saline soils and salt-spray than the related C. equisetifolia (Elfers, 1988). It is generally a low altitude, coastal species, though may be planted at higher elevations.

Associations

In its native Australia, C. glauca may occur with Melaleuca quinquenervia and Eucalyptus robusta. In the successional process it usually precedes C. cunninghamiana by which it is replaced (Elfers, 1988). C. glauca forms actinorhizal associations with Frankia spp. in root nodules. This allows nitrogen fixation to occur (Hammerton, 2001).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
-23 -37 0 250

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -4
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 13 24
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 33
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 2 15

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration07number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5702180mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Pests include several pathogens such as Casuarina bacterial wilt, Pseudomonas solanacearum affecting the roots, herbivores including wood-boring Coleoptera such as Stromatium fulvum, the larvae of which burrow through the inner bark, sapwood and heartwood. Another wood borer, Macrotoma palmata (Coleoptera) is known to attack C. glauca in Egypt. Termites including Kalotermes flavicollis (in Egypt), Microtermes michaelseni and Ancistrotermes latinotus (both in Zimbabwe) are known to increase mortality (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Seeds (samaras) are wind dispersed (Weber, 2003). The related species C. cunninghamiana and equisetifolia are also known to achieve some dispersal by water. In Australia, the fruits of all species of Casuarina are a major food source for several species of parrots (Schodde et al., 1993) though no information was available on whether these birds disperse the seeds. Referring to Casuarina species in general, Snyder (1992) states that seeds may be transported by animals.

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health Negative
Livestock production None
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page Elfers (1988) reports that the vigorous root system damages pavements, lawns and blocks and fractures sewer and water pipes. Falling trees can be dangerous in hurricanes and damage property (Elfers, 1988). The control of Casuarina is costly. Invasive Casuarinas are reported to increase soil erosion (e.g. Elfers, 1988; Hammerton, 2001).

Environmental Impact

Top of page Invasive Casuarina specie including C. glauca are reported to increase soil erosion (e.g. Elfers, 1988; Hammerton, 2001).

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page Like other invasive Casuarina species, C. glauca is capable of forming dense monospecific stands that, through shading and deposition of litter, shroud out the native understorey flora (Weber, 2003). Habitat changes caused by invasion of various Casuarina species, constitute a risk to loggerhead turtles, green sea turtles, the gopher tortoise and many small mammals (see Elfers, 1988).

Social Impact

Top of page The dense thickets formed by this species can make areas inaccessible. Casuarina pollen can be allergenic and act as a respiratory irritant (Elfers, 1988).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page C. glauca has been widely planted to revegetate disturbed soils and to reclaim land especially in coastal environments. The species has been planted to reduce erosion and conserve soil. It has also been used for shelter and windbreaks, and as a hedge plant. C. glauca has been planted as an ornamental and amenity tree in coastal locations. It can improve soil fertility because of its nitrogen-fixing ability. It produces excellent fuelwood which can be used to produce a high-quality charcoal (WAC, 2005). The timber is used for posts, piles, building timbers, light construction, flooring, fences, industrial and domestic woodware, tool handles and carvings. Wood fibre can be used to make particleboard (WAC, 2005). Leaves can be used as fodder for cattle, goats and sheep, and as an ingredient in chicken feed (WAC, 2005).

Wood Products

Top of page

Charcoal

Roundwood

  • Piles
  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences
  • Flooring
  • For light construction

Wood-based materials

  • Particleboard

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles
  • Turnery

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Closely related species are C. equisetifolia and C. cunninghamiana, and these Casuarinas readily interbreed forming hybrids. C. glauca and C. cunninghamiana are particularly closely related and hybrids are quite common in cultivation (El-Lakhany et al., 1990).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Hammerton (2001) claims that C. glauca is among the most fire-sensitive of the Casuarinas, and that it also suffers when grazed. Fires have been used to control the related Casuarina equisetifolia when trees occur in high density and the location permits (Weber, 2003). In relation to the Casuarinas as a group, Elfers (1988) specified that disturbance of natural habitats should be minimized to reduce opportunities for colonization and where habitats had to be disturbed, swift replanting with indigenous vegetation was recommended. An alternative cultural approach was to counteract potential invasion by periodic flooding (Elfers, 1988). Weber (2003) reports that adults of the related species C. equisetifolia can be killed by spraying with triclopyr applied to a band at the bottom of the stem. Summarizing control information for the Casuarina spp. as a group (i.e. C. cunninghamiana, C. equisetifolia and C. glauca), Elfers (1988) noted that common methods of control are basal bark injection or cut stump application of triclopyr. Manual removal is feasible for saplings and seedlings (Weber, 2003).

References

Top of page

Anon., 1997. Casuarina glauca sieber ex spreng. University of Florida, USA: Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/casgla.pdf.

Bai J; Zhong C, 1996. Management of casuarina plantations in China. In: Pinyopusarerk K, Turnbull JW, Midgley SJ, eds. Recent Casuarina Research and Development. Proceedings of the 3rd International Casuarina Workshop, Da Nang, Vietnam. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, 196-200.

Beadle NCW, 1981. The vegetation of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1981, 690pp.; 19pp. of ref.

BEST Commission, 2003. Invasive plant species. Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology (BEST) Commission. http://www.best.bs/Invasive_plant_species.htm.

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.

Boland DJ; Brooker MIH; Chippendale GM; Hall N; Hyland BPM; Johnston RD; Kleinig DA; Turner JD, 1984. Forest trees of Australia. 4th ed. Melbourne, Australia:Thomas Nelson and CSIRO. xvi + 687 pp.; 77 ref.

Bulloch BT, 1994. Nodulation by Frankia increases growth of Casuarinaceae in a New Zealand horticultural soil. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 22(1):39-44; 14 ref.

Carter EJ, 1987. From Seed to Trial Establishment. DFR User Series No. 2. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products.

Clemson A, 1985. Honey and pollen flora. Honey and pollen flora., iv + 263 pp.; [B].

Cremer KW, 1990. Trees for rural Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Doran JC, 1990. Nursery practice. In: Cremer KW, ed. Trees for Rural Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 89-106.

Doran JC; Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs].

El Lakany MH, 1983. A review of breeding drought resistant Casuarina for shelterbelt establishment in arid regions with special reference to Egypt. Forest Ecology and Management, 6(2):129-137; 49 ref.

Elfers SC, 1988. Element Stewardship Abstract for Casuarina equisetifolia Australian Pine. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, USA. http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/casuequ.html.

El-Lakany MH; Mohamed SY, 1993. Root characteristics of four tree species as affected by irrigation systems. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 38:183-210.

El-Lakany MH; Omran TA; Shehata MS, 1990. Effects of the season of seed collection and storage temperature on seed germinability and subsequent seedling growth of casuarina species grown in Egypt. In: El-Lakany MH, Turnbull JW, Brewbaker JL, eds. Advances in Casuarina Research and Utilization. Proceedings of the 2nd International Casuarina Workshop. Cairo, Egypt: Desert Development Centre.

El-Lakany MH; Omran TA; Shehata MS, 1990a. Effects of the season of seed collection and storage temperature on seed germinability and subsequent seedling growth of casuarina species grown in Egypt. In: El-Lakany MH, Turnbull JW, Brewbaker JL, eds. Advances in Casuarina Research and Utilization. Proceedings of the 2nd International Casuarina Workshop. Cairo, Egypt: Desert Development Center, 188-194.

El-Lakany MH; Turnbull JW; Brewbaker JL, eds. , 1990. Advances in Casuarina Research and Utilization. Proceedings of the 2nd International Casuarina Workshop. Cairo, Egypt: Desert Development Centre.

El-Osta MLM; El-Morshedy MM; Megahed MM, 1996. Properties of particleboard from casuarina and willow mixtures. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 47:129-140.

Faridah Hanum I; Maesen LJG van der, eds. , 1997. Plant resources of southeast Asia. No. 11. Auxillary plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys.

Hafeez SM, 1993. Identification of fast growing salt tolerant tree species. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 43(4):216-220; 2 ref.

Hammerton JL, 2001. Casuarinas: a clear and present danger. Bahamas Journal of Science, 9, 2-14.

Hoy NT; Gale MJ; Walsh KB, 1994. Revegetation of a scalded saline discharge zone in central Queensland. 1. Selection of tree species and evaluation of an establishment technique. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34(6):765-776; 24 ref.

Marcar NE; Crawford DF; Leppert PL; Jovanovic T; Floyd R; Farrow R, 1995. Trees for saltland: a guide to selecting native species for Australia. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO.

Midgley SJ; Turnbull JW; Johnson RD eds, 1983. Casuarina Ecology, Management and Utilization. Proceedings of the 1st International Casuarina Workshop. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO.

Miller JH; Chambliss EB; Bargeron CT, 2002. Invasive Plants of the Thirteen Southern States. http://www.invasive.org/seweeds.cfm.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Pal M; Bakshi M; Bhandari HCS, 1994. Rooting cladode segments: a new technique for the rapid mass clonal propagation of cladode bearing plant species. Indian Forester, 120:729-732.

PIER, 2002. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (3.3). Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Hawaii, USA. http://www.hear.org/pier

Pinyopusarerk K; Turnbull JW; Midgley SJ; eds, 1996. Recent Casuarina Research and Development. Proceedings of the 3rd International Casuarina Workshop, Da Nang, Vietnam. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products.

Pryor LD, 1989. Vegetative propagation of Casuarina and Acacia: potential for success. In: Boland DJ, ed. Trees for the tropics. ACIAR Monograph No. 10, 155-157.

Redden P. Bowen GD, Robson AD, 1986. Nodulation of Casuarinaceae in relation to host species and soil properties. Australian Journal of Botany, 34:435-444.

Rockwood DL; Pathak NN; Satapathy PC, 1993. Woody biomass production systems for Florida. Biomass and Bioenergy, 5(1):23-34; 23 ref.

Schodde R; Mason IJ; Wood JT, 1993. Geographical differentiation in the glossy black-cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami (Temminck) and its history. Emu, 93:156-166.

Smith CW, 1998. Pest Plants of Hawaiian Native Ecosystems. University of Hawaii, USA: Department of Botany. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith/aliens.htm.

Snyder SA, 1992. Casuarina spp. In: Fire Effects Information System, (online), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Services Laboratory. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/casspp/introductory.html.

Turnbull JW; Martensz PN, 1982. Aspects of seed collection, storage and germination in Casuarinaceae. Australian Forest Research, 12(4):281-294; 31 ref.

WAC, 2005. Agroforestree database. World Agroforestry Centre: Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/AFT.htm.

Weber E, 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp.

Weinstein A, 1993. Provenance trials of Casuarina cunninghamiana, Casuarina glauca, and Allocasuarina verticillata in Israel. Australian Forestry, 56(1):34-37; 8 ref.

Wilson KL; Johnson LAS, 1989. Casuarinaceae. Flora of Australia, 3:100-189.

World Agroforestry Centre, 2002. Agroforestree Database. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/AFT.htm.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT