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Indian citrus ringspot virus

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Datasheet

Indian citrus ringspot virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Indian citrus ringspot virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Tymovirales
  •         Family: Alphaflexiviridae
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    Compendia
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Indian citrus ringspot virus

Other Scientific Names

  • Citrus ring spot virus
  • Citrus ringspot virus
  • ICRSV
  • Indian citrus ring spot virus

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Tymovirales
  •                 Family: Alphaflexiviridae
  •                     Genus: Mandarivirus
  •                         Species: Indian citrus ringspot virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV), which is now recognized as a distinct virus (Rustici et al., 2000, 2002), was initially known in India as Citrus ringspot virus (e.g. Byadgi et al., 1993; Thind et al., 1995; Ahlawat, 1997a, b; Lokhande, 1997; Pant and Ahlawat, 1998). Its name was changed to Indian citrus ringspot virus to avoid confusion with Citrus ringspot virus: a strain of Citrus psorosis virus, which has long been known to occur worldwide and is the type species of the Ophiovirus genus (Milne et al., 2000; Vaira et al., 2004). Although ICRSV has some similarities to potex-, fovea-, carla- and allexiviruses, it is distinct from such viruses (Rustici et al., 2000, 2002) and is now recognized as the type species of the newly recognised Mandarivirus genus (Rustici et al., 2000, 2002), which is now included in the Flexiviridae family (Adams et al., 2004).

Description

Top of page The virus has particles measuring approximately 650 x 15 nm with clearly visible cross banding (Rustici et al., 2000). The particles contain a coat protein of 34 kDa and single-stranded RNA of 7560 nucleotides. The genomic RNA contains six open-reading frames (ORFs) which encode putative proteins of 187.3, 25, 12, 6.4, 34 and 23 kDa, respectively (Rustici et al., 2000, 2002). ORF 1 probably encodes the viral replicase; ORFs 2, 3 and 4 form the triple-gene block; ORF 5 encodes the capsid protein; and the function of ORF 6 is unknown.

In thin sections of leaves, particles occur in the cytoplasm of parenchyma cells (Rustici et al., 2000).

Distribution

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The virus is widespread (10-100% incidence) wherever it occurs in India (e.g. Pant and Ahlawat, 1998), the only country in which it is known to occur.

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 308).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaWidespreadAhlawat, 1997a; Ahlawat, 1997b; Pant and Ahlawat, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Andhra PradeshWidespreadPant and Ahlawat, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
-GujaratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
-HaryanaWidespreadPant and Ahlawat, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Indian PunjabWidespreadThind et al., 1995; Thind and Arora, 1997; Lore and Cheema, 2001; Lore et al., 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-KarnatakaWidespreadPant and Ahlawat, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-MaharashtraWidespreadLokhande, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-RajasthanWidespreadPant and Ahlawat, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Uttar PradeshWidespreadPant and Ahlawat, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2015
PakistanAbsent, reported but not confirmedCABI/EPPO, 2015

Risk of Introduction

Top of page ICRSV has been reported to occur only in India. It is recommended that only virus-free material should be exchanged in internal and external trade.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Experimental Hosts

ICRSV is graft-transmissible to its natural hosts and to citron (Citrus medica) and rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri). The virus is also mechanically transmissible to five herbaceous species. It induces local lesions in Chenopodium amaranticolor [Chenopodium giganteum], Chenopodium quinoa, Glycine max, and Vigna unguiculata, and systemic infection in Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Saxa, which is a good source of virus for purification (Rustici et al., 2000).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page In naturally infected mandarin (Citrus spp.) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees, ICRSV induces the development in leaves of one to several conspicuous chlorotic rings. Severely affected trees suffer a significant loss of fruit yield and later decline with dieback symptoms.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The only known source of infection is infected citrus plants. The virus has no known vectors or known mode of natural spread; its widespread occurrence in India is probably partly due to past inadvertent use of infected scion budwood when producing young trees for replanting or establishing orchards.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page The virus is transmitted by grafting, but is not seedborne or soilborne and has no known vector (Pant and Ahlawat, 1998; Thind et al., 1999). It has, however, been detected in pollen (Pant and Ahlawat, 1998).

Impact

Top of page Infection by ICRSV reduced the number and weight of fruits of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus nobilis x Citrus deliciosa) plants by 45 and 55%, respectively. Fruit length, breadth, weight, granulation index and juice content were reduced by 11.59, 13.75, 38.88, 22.00 and 15.25%, respectively, whereas the shape index, peel, rag and peel thickness were increased, respectively, by 2.32, 10.23, 32.41 and 50%. Infected fruits had reduced levels of total soluble solids (12.96%), ascorbic acid (9.09%) and reducing sugars (10.90%), but an increased acidity of 56.69% (Lore et al., 2001). Similar effects of infection have also been reported by Thind et al. (1998).

Diagnosis

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Indexing

ICRSV induces ringspot leaf symptoms in graft-inoculated plants of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus nobilis x Citrus deliciosa), Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni), citron (Citrus medica) and rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri). Symptoms, however, are more conspicuous and appear sooner (usually 90 days or so after graft-infection) in Kinnow and Cleopatra mandarins which are, therefore, recommended as indicator hosts (Thind et al., 1999).

Serological Methods

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) can be used to detect and identify ICRSV (Ahlawat, 1997a; Pant and Ahlawat, 1998).

Molecular Method

Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has also been used experimentally for the detection of ICRSV (Shelley et al., 2003). For further information on molecular diagnostics for the detection of viruses and virus-like pathogens in citrus, see Rao et al. (2008).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Because ICRSV can occur in complex with other viruses, it is not possible to identify the virus with certainty by symptoms induced in Citrus spp. Specific identification requires the use of one or more of the diagnostic procedures outlined in the 'Diagnosis' section of this datasheet.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The virus is the type (and only) species of the newly recognised Mandarivirus genus (Vaira et al., 2004). ICRSV has some similarities to potex-, carla-, fovea- and allexiviruses (Rustici et al., 2000), but phylogenetic analysis suggests that it differs significantly from these viruses (Rustici et al., 2002).

Prevention and Control

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ICRSV can be managed by an integrated approach using virus-free planting material, sanitation, cultural practices and regulatory measures.

Cultural Control

The virus was eliminated from infected bud-sticks of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus nobilis x Citrus deliciosa) by exposure to dry heat for 30 minutes or more at 50°C or for 120 minutes at 45°C (Cheema et al., 1999). The production, multiplication and distribution of virus-free plants so produced are recommended for the effective and efficient control of ICRSV (Thind et al., 1999; Hoa et al., 2004; Singh et al., 2006; Sharma et al., 2007, 2008).

References

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Adams MJ; Antoniw JF; Bar-Joseph M; Brunt AA; Candresse T; Foster GD; Martelli GP; Milne RG; Zavriev SK; Fauquet CM, 2004. The new plant virus family Flexiviridae and assessment of molecular criteria for species demarcation. Archives of Virology, 149:1045-1060.

Ahlawat YS, 1997. Status of virus and virus-like pathogens infecting citrus in India and future strategies for citrus improvement. Indian Phytopathology, 50(2):192-193.

Ahlawat YS, 1997. Viruses, greening bacterium and viroids associated with citrus (Citrus species) decline in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 67(2):51-57; 36 ref.

Ahlawat YS; Pant RP, 2008. Indian citrus ringspot virus. In: Characterization, diagnosis & management of plant viruses. Volume 2: horticultural crops [ed. by Rao GP, Myrta A, Ling KS] Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 97-107.

Baranwal VK; Ahlawat YS, 2008. Molecular diagnostics for detection of virus and virus-like pathogens in citrus. In: Techniques in diagnosis of plant viruses [ed. by Rao GP, Valverde RA, Dovas CI] Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 141-151.

Byadgi AS; Ahlawat YS; Chakraborty NK; Varma A; Srivastava M; Milne RG, 1993. Characterization of a filamentous virus associated with citrus ringspot in India. In: Moreno P et al., ed. Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists. Riverside, California, USA, 155-162.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2015. Indian citrus ringspot virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1166 (Edition 1).

Cheema SS; Lore JS; Gosal SS, 1999. Management of citrus ring spot disease through thermotherapy. Indian Phytopathology, 52(4):354-356; 8 ref.

Hoa NV; Ahlawat YS, 2004. Characterization of four isolates of Indian citrus ringspot virus. Indian Phytopathology, 57(3):296-302.

Hoa NV; Ahlawat YS; Pant RP, 2004. Production of virus-free Kinnow mandarin and Mosambi sweet orange nucleus planting material through shoot tip grafting. Indian Phytopathology, 57(4):482-487.

Lokhande NM, 1997. Occurrence of a new viral ringspot disease of citrus in Vidarbha (Maharashtra). Madras Agricultural Journal, 84(3):165-166; 4 ref.

Lore JS; Cheema SS, 2001. Distribution of citrus ring spot virus (CRSV) in different agroclimatic zones of Punjab. Plant Disease Research, 16(2):272-273; 5 ref.

Lore JS; Cheema SS; Thind SK, 2001. Effect of citrus ring spot disease on yield and fruit quality of Kinnow. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 38(1/2):23-26; 10 ref.

Milne RG; Garcia ML; Grau O, 2000. Genus Ophiovirus. In: van Regenmortel MHV et al., eds. Virus Taxonomy; Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. USA: Academic Press, San Diego, 627-631.

Pant RP; Ahlawat YS, 1998. Partial characterization of a filamentous virus associated with ringspot disease of citrus. Indian Phytopathology, 51(3):225-232; 36 ref.

Roy A; Fayad A; Barthe G; Brlansky RH, 2005. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for reliable, sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in citrus trees. Journal of Virological Methods, 129(1):47-55. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal01660934

Rustici G; Accotto GP; Noris E; Masenga V; Luisoni E; Milne RG, 2000. Indian citrus ringspot virus: a proposed new species with some affinities to potex-, carla-, fovea- and allexiviruses. Archives of Virology, 145(9):1895-1908.

Rustici G; Milne RG; Accotto GP, 2002. Nucleotide sequence, genome organisation and phylogenetic analysis of Indian citrus ringspot virus. Archives of Virology, 147(11):2215-2224; 15 ref.

Sanjeev Sharma; Balwinder Singh; Gita Rani; Zaidi AA; Hallan V; Avinash Nagpal; Virk GS, 2007. In vitro production of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) free kinnow plants employing phytotherapy coupled with shoot tip grafting. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 43(3):254-259. http://www.ingenta.com/journals/browse/cabi/ivp

Sanjeev Sharma; Balwinder Singh; Gita Rani; Zaidi AA; Hallan VK; Nagpal AK; Virk GS, 2008. In vitro production of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) free Kinnow plants employing thermotherapy coupled with shoot tip grafting. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 92(1):85-92. http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0167-6857

Sanjeev Sharma; Balwinder Singh; Gita Rani; Zaidi AA; Vipin Hallan; Avinash Nagpal; Virk GS, 2007. Production of Indian citrus ringspot virus free plants of Kinnow employing chemotherapy coupled with shoot tip grafting. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 8(1):1-8. http://www.agr.hr/jcea/issues/jcea8-1/pdf/jcea81-1.pdf

Shelley P; Barthe GA; Derrick KS; Ahlawat YS, 2003. Comparison of isolates of Indian citrus ringspot virus and Citrus psorosis virus. Indian Phytopathology, 56(2):230-232.

Singh B; Sharma S; Rani G; Zaidi AA; Hallan V; Virk GS; Nagpal A, 2006. In vitro production of Indian citrus ringspot virus-free plants of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus nobilis Lour × C. deliciosa Tenora) by nucellar embryo culture. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad), 5(3):274-282. http://www.ansinet.org/ppj

Thind SK; Arora PK, 1997. Incidence and behaviour of ring spot virus in citrus. Indian Journal of Virology, 13(2):159-160; 3 ref.

Thind SK; Arora PK; Sharma JN; Cheema SS, 1999. Transmission of citrus ring spot virus through budwood, seed and insect-vectors. Indian Journal of Virology, 15(1):47-48; 6 ref.

Thind SK; Kapur SP; Sharma JN, 1995. Citrus ring spot virus - a new record from Punjab. Plant Disease Research, 10(1):75-77; 2 ref.

Thind SK; Sharma JN; Arora PK; Cheema SS, 1998. Effect of citrus ring spot virus on quality of Kinnow mandarin fruits. Indian Journal of Virology, 14(1):91-92; 6 ref.

Vaira AM; Accotto GP; Gago-Zachert S; Garcia ML; Grau O; Milne RG; Morikawa T; Natsuaki T; Torok V; Verbeek M; Vetten HJ, 2004. Genus Ophiovirus. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, eds. Virus Taxonomy, VIIIth Report of the ICTV. London, UK: Elsevier/Academic Press, 681-693.

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