Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Citrus impietratura disease
(samrah)

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Datasheet

Citrus impietratura disease (samrah)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Citrus impietratura disease
  • Preferred Common Name
  • samrah
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Diseases of unknown aetiology
  •   Species: Citrus impietratura disease

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleGum pocket in the albedo of Navelina sweet orange fruit
Caption
CopyrightAntonio Catara
Gum pocket in the albedo of Navelina sweet orange fruitAntonio Catara

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Citrus impietratura disease Ruggieri, 1955

Preferred Common Name

  • samrah

Other Scientific Names

  • citrus impietratura virus

International Common Names

  • English: impietratura of citrus
  • Spanish: petrificacion

EPPO code

  • CSI000 (Citrus impietratura agent)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Diseases of unknown aetiology
  •     Species: Citrus impietratura disease

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Klote, 1973
LibyaPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Khalil et al., 1994
MoroccoPresent, LocalizedCHAPOT (1961); Nhami and Kissi (1978); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentGraca (1978)
TanzaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Swai et al., 1988
ZimbabwePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)

Asia

IndiaPresentAhlawat et al. (1984); Bhagabati et al. (1986)
IsraelPresentBental and Yoffe (1968)
LebanonPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresent, LocalizedCengiz et al. (1976); Nas and Karaca (1976); EPPO (2020)

Europe

CyprusPresent, WidespreadPAPASOLOMONTOS (1969); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedRUGGIERI (1955); RUGGIERI (1961); Scaramuzzi et al. (1966); Cartia and Catara (1972); EPPO (2020)
-SicilyPresentEPPO (2020)
SpainPresent, LocalizedCHAPOT (1961); EPPO (2020)

South America

VenezuelaPresent, LocalizedRONDÓN et al. (1970); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / premature drop

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Wood Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants

References

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Ahlawat YS; Chenulu VV; Chakraborty NK; Vishwanath SM, 1984. Occurrence of impietratura disease of Citrus in India. Current Science, 53(7):384-385

Bar-Joseph M, 1976. Some effects of temperature on symptoms appearance and therapy of citrus impietratura disease. In: Proceedings 7th Conference International Organization of Citrus Virologist, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 105-108.

Bar-Joseph M; Loebenstein G, 1970. Leaf flecking on indicator seedlings associated with citrus impietratura in Israel: a possible indexing method. Plant Disease Reporter, 54:643-645.

Bental A; Yoffe I, 1968. The impietratura disease of citrus fruits. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 16:64-65.

Bhagabati KN; Borthakur BC; Ahlawat YS, 1986. Occurrence of impietratura disease of citrus in northeastern India. Indian Phytopathology, 39(1):110-111

Cartia C; Catara A, 1972. Susceptibility of citrus species and varieties to impietratura.. In: Price WC, ed. Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists, University Florida Press, Gainesvflle, 184-187.

Catara A; Bassi M; Perrotta G; Lio GM di San; La Ferlita C, 1979. Present status of impietratura disease. In: Grierson W, ed. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 3:946-953

Catara A; Scaramuzzi G, 1980. Impietratura. In: BovT JM, Vogel R, eds. Description and illustration of virus and virus-like disease of citrus. A collection of colour slides, Paris, IRFA SETCO-FRUITS.

Cengiz A; Tekinel N; Dolar MS; Nas YZ, 1976. Research on citrus virus diseases in the Mediterranean region. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 16(2):63-79

Chapot H, 1961. Impietratura in Mediterranean countries. In: Price WC, ed. Proceeding of the 2nd Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 177-184.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Graca JVda, 1978. A disorder in South Africa resembling citrus impietratura disease. Phytophylactica, 10(2):75-76

Nas YZ; Karaca I, 1976. Investigations on impietratura disease of citrus; its hosts, distribution, symptoms, transmission and importance in Mediterranean region. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 5(2/3):71-80

Nhami A; Kissi A, 1978. Inventaires des viroses et des maladies similaires affectant le verger agrumicole Marocain. Maroc Fruits, 529:5-12.

Papasolomontos A, 1969. A report on impietratura disease of citrus; its distribution and importance. In: HD Chapman ed. Proceedings 1st International Cftrus Symposium, University of California, Riverside, 1457-1462.

Reichert I; Hellinger E, 1930. Internal decline: physiological disease of citrus fruits new to Palestine. Hadar, 3:220-224.

Rondon A; Angeles N; Leal YF, 1970. La petrificacion de los citricos en Venezuela. Agronomia Tropical, 20:131-134.

Ruggieri G, 1955. Le arance impietrate. Rivista di Agrumicoltura, 1:65-69.

Ruggieri G, 1961. Observations and research on impietratura. In: Price WC, ed. Proceedings 2nd Conference International Organization of Cftrus Virologists, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 182-186.

Scaramuzzi G; Catara A; Cartia G, 1966. Investigations on impietratura disease. In: Childs JFL, ed. Proceedings 4th Conference International Organization of Citrus Virologist, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 197-200.

Swai IS, 1988. Citrus diseases in Tanzania. Acta Horticulturae, 218:329-332

Vogel R; BovF JM, 1980. Pollen transmission to citrus of the agent inducing cristacortis and psorosis young leaf symptoms. In: Proceedings 1st International Citrus Symposium, 1457-1462.

Distribution References

Ahlawat Y S, Chenulu V V, Chakraborty N K, Vishwanath S M, 1984. Occurrence of impietratura disease of Citrus in India. Current Science. 53 (7), 384-385.

Bental A, Yoffe I, 1968. The impietratura disease of citrus fruits. In: FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 16 64-65.

Bhagabati K N, Borthakur B C, Ahlawat Y S, 1986. Occurrence of impietratura disease of citrus in northeastern India. Indian Phytopathology. 39 (1), 110-111.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cartia C, Catara A, 1972. Susceptibility of citrus species and varieties to impietratura. [Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists], [ed. by Price WC]. Gainesville, University Florida Press. 184-187.

Cengiz A, Tekinel N, Dolar M S, Nas Y Z, 1976. Research on citrus virus diseases in the Mediterranean region. (Akdeniz bolgesinde turuncgil virus hastaliklari uzerinde arastirmalar.). Bitki Koruma Bulteni. 16 (2), 63-79.

CHAPOT H, 1961. Impietratura in Mediterranean countries. In: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists. [Proceedings of the Second Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists.], 177-181 pp.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Graca J V da, 1978. A disorder in South Africa resembling citrus impietratura disease. Phytophylactica. 10 (2), 75-76.

Nas Y Z, Karaca I, 1976. Investigations on impietratura disease of citrus; its hosts, distribution, symptoms, transmission and importance in Mediterranean region. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology. 5 (2/3), 71-80.

Nhami A, Kissi A, 1978. (Inventaires des viroses et des maladies similaires affectant le verger agrumicole Marocain). In: Maroc Fruits, 529 5-12.

PAPASOLOMONTOS A, 1969. A report on impietratura disease of citrus; its distribution and importance. In: Proceedings 1st int. Citrus Symp., Univ. California, Riverside 1968. [Proc. 1st int. Citrus Symp.], 3 Riverside. 1457-62 pp.

RONDÓN A, ÁNGELES N, LEAL F, 1970. Impietratura disease of citrus in Venezuela. (La "petrificación" de los cítricos en Venezuela.). Agron. trop. 131-4.

RUGGIERI G, 1955. Hard fruit in oranges. (Le arance impietrate.). Rivista di Agrumicoltura. 65-9.

RUGGIERI G, 1961. Observations and research on impietratura. In: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists. [Proceedings of the Second Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists.], 182-186 pp.

Scaramuzzi G, Catara A, Cartia G, 1966. Investigations on impietratura disease. [Proceedings 4th Conference International Organization of Citrus Virologist], [ed. by Childs JFL]. Gainesville, University of Florida Press. 197-200.

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