Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Liberibacter asiaticus
(Asian greening)

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Datasheet

Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Liberibacter asiaticus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian greening
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Rhizobiales
  •         Family: Phyllobacteriaceae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Asian form of Huanglongbing is considered very invasive due to the cryptic nature of the disease and its ability to be transported either in infected plant material or infective psyllids, in which the disease can...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Blotchy mottle, early HLB symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBlotchy mottle, early HLB symptoms.
CopyrightMatthew Weinert/AQIS
Blotchy mottle, early HLB symptoms.
SymptomsBlotchy mottle, early HLB symptoms.Matthew Weinert/AQIS
HLB leaf symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionHLB leaf symptoms.
CopyrightMatthew Weinert/AQIS
HLB leaf symptoms.
SymptomsHLB leaf symptoms.Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Advanced HLB symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAdvanced HLB symptoms.
CopyrightMatthew Weinert/AQIS
Advanced HLB symptoms.
SymptomsAdvanced HLB symptoms.Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Advanced HLB symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAdvanced HLB symptoms.
CopyrightMatthew Weinert/AQIS
Advanced HLB symptoms.
SymptomsAdvanced HLB symptoms.Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Orchard devastated by HLB.
TitleSymptoms on crop
CaptionOrchard devastated by HLB.
CopyrightMatthew Weinert/AQIS
Orchard devastated by HLB.
Symptoms on cropOrchard devastated by HLB.Matthew Weinert/AQIS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Liberibacter asiaticus Jagoueix et al., 1994

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian greening

Other Scientific Names

  • Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
  • Ca. Liberobacter asiaticum
  • Ca. Liberobacter asiaticus
  • Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Jagoueix et al.
  • Candidatus Liberobacter asiaticum Jagouiex et al., 1994
  • Candidatus Liberobacter asiaticus
  • Liberobacter asiaticum Monique Garnier
  • Liberobacter asiaticus

International Common Names

  • English: blotchy mottle disease of citrus; decline of citrus; greening; huang long bin; Huanglongbing; leaf mottling of citrus; vein phloem degeneration of citrus; yellow branch of citrus; yellow shoot of citrus
  • Spanish: enverdecimiento de los cítricos
  • French: greening des agrumes; virescence des agrumes
  • Chinese: yellow dragon

Local Common Names

  • India: citrus dieback
  • Indonesia: citrus vein phloem regeneration (CVPD)
  • Philippines: blotchy mottle; mottle leaf disease
  • South Africa: yellow branch disease
  • Taiwan: likubin

EPPO code

  • LIBEAS (Liberobacter asiaticum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The Asian form of Huanglongbing is considered very invasive due to the cryptic nature of the disease and its ability to be transported either in infected plant material or infective psyllids, in which the disease can persist for up to 3 months (da Graca and Korsten, 2004). Yield losses due to this disease have been estimated to be between 30% and 100%, depending on the proportion of the canopy affected and the age of the trees during inoculation (Gottwald, 2010; Ammar et al., 2011). History has shown that the appearance of the vector in a country will almost guarantee the appearance of the disease in the future, e.g. in Brazil and Florida, USA. The species and its vector are on several alert lists including the EPPO A1 Regulated Quarantine Plant Pests.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Rhizobiales
  •                 Family: Phyllobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Candidatus Liberibacter
  •                         Species: Liberibacter asiaticus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page For further information on the taxonomy and nomenclature of this species, see datasheet on citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease.

Description

Top of page The bacteria causing huanglongbing are restricted to the sieve tubes of the phloem vessels. Electron microscopy studies reveal that they possess the characteristic double membrane cell envelope of the liberibacters (Garnier et al., 1984; Texeira et al., 2005). Thin-section EM examination reveals elongated sinuous rods with an uneven diameter of 0.15-0.25 µm. Round forms of larger diameter can also be observed in degenerating cells. Similar particles are observed in the haemolymph and salivary glands of the two insect vectors.

Distribution

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Of the Liberibacter species that cause Huanglongbing, the Asian form is the most widespread.

There is a preliminary report of L. asiaticus in Barbados (IPPC, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentDonovan et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
CambodiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentEPPO, 2014
-HainanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentEPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentEPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
East TimorPresentIntroduced Invasive Weinert et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-Arunachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-GujaratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-HaryanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentAdkar-Purushothama et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-KeralaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-ManipurPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-MeghalayaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-RajasthanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Davis et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-KalimantanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-SulawesiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
IranRestricted distributionMohkami et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2012; Salehi et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014; Salehi and Rasoulpour, 2015
JapanRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
LaosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-SarawakPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
NepalWidespreadIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
SyriaAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
TaiwanWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
VietnamRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
YemenRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014

Africa

EthiopiaPresentSaponari et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012
MauritiusRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
RéunionRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014

North America

MexicoRestricted distributionIPPC, 2009; NAPPO, 2010; NAPPO, 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-AlabamaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2018
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012; NAPPO, 2012; Kumagai et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresent, few occurrencesNAPPO, 2012; NAPPO, 2013; Alabi et al., 2014; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
BelizeRestricted distributionManjunath et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
Costa RicaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
CubaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
DominicaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
Dominican RepublicRestricted distributionIPPC, 2009; EPPO, 2014
French West IndiesPresentCellier et al., 2014
GuadeloupePresent2012Cellier et al., 2014
HondurasPresentEPPO, 2014
JamaicaWidespreadBrown et al., 2011; EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014EPPO Reporting Service No. 2012/014.
MartiniquePresent2013Cellier et al., 2014
NicaraguaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentEPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoRestricted distributionEPPO, 2018
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNAPPO, 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaEradicatedEPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2016
ParaguayRestricted distributionLeite et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014

Oceania

Cook IslandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
FijiAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
SamoaAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
TongaAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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In Taiwan, India and the Philippines, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and mandarin (C. reticulata) are the most susceptible, with lime (C. aurantiifolia), lemon (C. limon), sour orange (C. aurantium) and grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi) more tolerant. In India rough lemon (C. jambhiri), sweet lime (C. limettoides) and pomelo (C. grandis) are tolerant and the trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) is fairly tolerant. As with African greening, some citrus selections are more affected by Asian greening than others, blood red sweet orange is more susceptible than Hamlin orange (da Graca, 1991).

Transmission to Catharanthus roseus, which shows distinct yellowing symptoms, is via the parasitic plant dodder, not the insect vector (Garnier and Bove, 1983).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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The first symptom of Huanglongbing is usually the appearance of a yellow shoot on a tree (hence the name Huanglongbing, which literally means ‘yellow dragon disease’). Progressive yellowing of the entire canopy follows: leaves turn pale yellow, show symptoms of zinc or manganese deficiency, or display blotchy mottling, and are reduced in size. Blotchy mottle is the most characteristic symptom, but is not specific to Huanglongbing. Stubborn disease (Spiroplasma citri), severe forms of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), species of Phytophthora, waterlogging, and the use of marcots can produce similar blotchy mottle patterns. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are also associated with the early stages of citrus blight (a disease of unconfirmed aetiology). However, Huanglongbing bacteria do not induce the xylem dysfunction and wilting observed in blighted trees.

Chronically infected trees are sparsely foliated and show extensive twig dieback. The fruits are often small, lopsided, can have a sour or bitter taste (Jepson, 2009; ANR, 2010; USDA, 2012) and are poorly coloured (hence the origin of the name greening). They often contain aborted seeds. Similar fruit symptoms are also observed with CTV infection. The lifespan of infected trees is shortened (Miyakawa, 1980; Ammar et al., 2011).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / premature drop
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / dwarfing; stunting
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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Four forms of greening now exist worldwide. The Asian form (L. asiaticus) is more severe and is tolerant of higher temperatures (30-35°C) than the other forms. It is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Capoor et al., 1967; da Graca and Korsten, 2004; Bastianel et al., 2005; Ammar et al., 2011). The pathogen has recently been detected in another psyllid, Diaphorina communis (Donovan et al., 2012).

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The vector Diaphorina citri is parasitized by Tamarixia radiata in Africa, Reunion, Mauritius and Guadeloupe and by Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis in Florida, USA.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector transmission

In the 1960s the agent was shown to be transmitted by two insects: the African citrus psyllid, Trioza erytreae, in Africa (McLean and Oberholzer, 1965) and the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Asia (Capoor et al., 1967; Martinez and Wallace, 1967). Experimentally, both species of psyllid have been shown to transmit both forms of the disease (Massonie et al., 1976; Lallemand et al., 1986). The bacteria are transmitted by psyllids as they feed. Liberibacter asiaticus and Liberibacter americanus are transmitted by the adults of the citrus psyllid D. citri (Jepson, 2009). According to Manjunath et al. (2008), there is a remote possibility that L. asiaticus bacteria are transmitted transversally (transmission from parent to offspring).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
HorticultureDeliberate by locals Yes
Industrial purposesFruit industries that decide to establish their own orchards from imported cuttings Yes
Live food or feed tradeCountry markets at border points Yes Yes
Nursery tradeDeliberate introductions within countries Yes
Off-site preservation Genetic resource conservation within and between collaborating countries Yes Yes
People sharing resourcesDeliberate between friends and family Yes
ResearchResearch organisations Yes
SmugglingTourists Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
GermplasmResearch Yes
Land vehicles Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
True seeds (inc. grain)

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Diaphorina citriCABI/EPPO, 2012. Insect

Impact

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Huanglongbing has been regarded as one of the most important threats to global commercial and sustainable citrus production (Garnier et al., 2000Duan et al., 2009; ANR, 2010; Ammar et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2012). It is estimated that globally more than 60 million trees had been destroyed by the disease by the early 1990s (Aubert, 1993). In West Java alone it was estimated that from 1960 onwards no less than 3 million trees were destroyed by Huanglongbing, and the destruction is still taking place (Tirtawadja, 1980). In Asia, approximately 100 million infected citrus trees have been destroyed by this disease, and 1 million trees were eliminated in Brazil in 2004 (Gottwald et al., 2007Duan et al., 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Host damage
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations

Diagnosis

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A diagnostic protocol for Liberibacter africanusLiberibacter americanus and Liberibacter asiaticus and for their detection in their psyllid vectors Diaphorina citri and Trioza erytreae has been published by EPPO (2014). The protocol involves detection based on the disease symptoms and molecular tests (PCR), and reporting and documentation.

See the datasheet on Citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease for a description of the diagnostic tests for this species.

Detection and Inspection

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Huanglongbing is difficult to recognize due to symptoms of the disease resembling those of other citrus disorders (see Symptoms). If suspected, the presence of the disease should be confirmed by identifying the bacterium by PCR or electron microscopy (Hong-Ji Su, 2001; ANR, 2010).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Disease symptoms are almost identical to, and can be confused with, those of the other strains of Liberibacter causing Huanglongbing. Mixed infections of two of the strains have been reported (Coletta-Filho et al., 2005). Leaf symptoms also resemble nutrient deficiencies, particularly deficiencies of zinc, calcium and nitrogen (ANR, 2010).

Blotchy mottle is the most characteristic symptom of Huanglongbing, but is not specific to it. Stubborn disease (Spiroplasma citri), severe forms of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), species of Phytophthora, waterlogging, and the use of marcots can produce similar blotchy mottle patterns. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are also associated with the early stages of citrus blight (a disease of unconfirmed aetiology). However, Huanglongbing bacteria do not induce the xylem dysfunction and wilting observed in blighted trees.

Prevention and Control

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Phytosanitary Measures

In areas where the disease is not present, effective quarantine measures are essential to prevent the introduction of the HLB organism or the vector. Furthermore, the possibility exists that the vector could be introduced 'naturally' or through alternative hosts such as Murraya spp. This poses a potential threat because the adult D. citri can transmit the disease, which can persist in the vector for up to 3 months (da Graca and Korsten, 2004).

Biological Control

In the absence of hyperparaitic wasps, the parasitic wasp Tamarixia radiata significantly reduced populations of D. citri, the vector of HLB, on the Indian Ocean island of Reunion, leaving a strongly limited population of the vector (Aubert and Quilici, 1984).

Chemical Control


There are no chemical controls that specifically target the bacterium. Reports of management of the disease in China and Indonesia by eradicating infected plants and psyllid hosts, production and planting of Huanglongbing-free trees and chemical control of the psyllid vector have been published (Xu et al., 1991; Bove et al., 2000).

References

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Adkar-Purushothama CR, Maheshwar PK, Janardhana GR, 2011. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with Citrus decumana (Beejapuraka) in South India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6(1):26-27. http://www.springerlink.com/content/ug0 m573343272 l5u/fulltext.html

Alabi OJ, Kunta M, Dale J, Sétamou M, 2014. Survey and detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in a citrus nursery facility in South Texas. Plant Health Progress, No.December:PHP-RS-14-0028. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/search/search_action.asp

Ammar E, Shatters RG Jr, Lynch C, Hall DG, 2011. Detection and relative titer of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the salivary glands and alimentary canal of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 104(3):526-533. http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/esa/00138746/v104n3/s18.pdf?expires=1306550278&id=0000&titleid=10263&checksum=8ED91F63A8746C846736DBAA1D435A7F

ANR, 2010. Citrus bacterial canker disease and huanglongbing (citrus greening). Publication 8218. California, USA: University of California, Agriculture and Nature Resources. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu

Aubert B, 1993. Citrus greening disease, a serious limiting factor for citriculture in Asia and Africa. Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the International Society of Nurserymen, South Africa, 134-142

Aubert B, Quilici S, 1984. Biological control of the African and Asian citrus psyllids (Homoptera: Psylloidea), through eulophid and encyrtid parasites (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Reunion Island. In: Garnsey SM, Timmer LW, Dodds JA, eds. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International of Citrus Virologists. University of California, Riverside, USA: IOCV, 100-108

Bastianel C, Garnier-Semancik M, Renaudin J, Bové JM, Eveillard S, 2005. Diversity of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," based on the omp gene sequence. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(11):6473-6478. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/71/11/6473

Bove J, Erti Dwiastuti, M, Triviranto A, Surpriyanto A, Nasli E, Becu P, Garnier M, 2000. Incidence of Huanglongbing and citrus rehabilitation in north Bali, Indonesia. In: da Graca J, Lee R, Yokomi R, eds. Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the International organisation of Citrus Virologists. Riverside, USA: IOCV, 200-206

Bové JM, 2006. Huanglongbing: a destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus. Journal of Plant Pathology, 88(1):7-37. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

Brown SE, Oberheim AP, Barrett A, McLaughlin WA, 2011. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with huanglongbing in the weeds Cleome rutidosperma, Pisonia aculeata and Trichostigma octandrum in Jamaica. New Disease Reports, 24:Article 25. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=024025

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 766. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 766 (Edition 3)

Capoor SP, Rao DG, Viswanath SM, 1967. Diaphorina citri, a vector of the greening disease of citrus in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 37:572-576

Cellier G, Moreau A, Cassam N, Hostachy B, Ryckewaert P, Aurela L, Picard R, Lombion K, Rioualec AL, 2014. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with Huanglongbing on Citrus latifolia in Martinique and Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Plant Disease, 98(5):683-684. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Coletta-Filho H, Takita M, Targon M, Machado M, 2005. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from citrus Huanglongbing bacteria reveal a different ’Ca. Liberibacter’ strain associated with citrus disease in São Paulo. Plant Disease, 89:848-852

Coletta-Filho H, Targon M, Takita M, DeNegri J, Pompeu J, Machado M, 2004. First report of the Causal agent of Huanglongbing ’Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Brazil. Plant Disease, 88:1382

da Graca J, Korsten L, 2004 Citrus Huanglongbing: Review, present status and future strategies. In Navqui S, ed. Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables: Diagnosis and Management vol 1

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27/03/13 Updated by:

Esther Arengo, National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Uganda

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