Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Liberibacter asiaticus
(Asian greening)

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Datasheet

Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 June 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Liberibacter asiaticus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian greening
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Rhizobiales
  •         Family: Phyllobacteriaceae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Asian form of Huanglongbing is considered very invasive due to the cryptic nature of the disease and its ability to be transported either in infected plant material or infective psyllids, in which the disease can persist for up to 3 months (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); blotchy mottle, showing early symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); blotchy mottle, showing early symptoms.
Copyright©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); blotchy mottle, showing early symptoms.
SymptomsLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); blotchy mottle, showing early symptoms.©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); leaf symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); leaf symptoms.
Copyright©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); leaf symptoms.
SymptomsLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); leaf symptoms.©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); blotchy mottle, showing early symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); blotchy mottle, showing early symptoms.
Copyright©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); blotchy mottle, showing early symptoms.
SymptomsLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); blotchy mottle, showing early symptoms.©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); advanced symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); advanced symptoms.
Copyright©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); advanced symptoms.
SymptomsLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); advanced symptoms.©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); advanced symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); advanced symptoms.
Copyright©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); advanced symptoms.
SymptomsLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); advanced symptoms.©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); devastated orchard.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); devastated orchard.
Copyright©Matthew Weinert/AQIS
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); devastated orchard.
SymptomsLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); devastated orchard.©Matthew Weinert/AQIS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Liberibacter asiaticus Jagoueix et al., 1994

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian greening

Other Scientific Names

  • Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
  • Ca. Liberobacter asiaticum
  • Ca. Liberobacter asiaticus
  • Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Jagoueix et al.
  • Candidatus Liberobacter asiaticum Jagouiex et al., 1994
  • Candidatus Liberobacter asiaticus
  • Liberobacter asiaticum Monique Garnier
  • Liberobacter asiaticus

International Common Names

  • English: Asian citrus greening; Asian citrus greening disease; blotchy mottle disease of citrus; decline of citrus; greening; huang long bin; Huanglongbing; leaf mottling of citrus; vein phloem degeneration of citrus; yellow branch of citrus; yellow shoot of citrus
  • Spanish: enverdecimiento de los cítricos
  • French: greening des agrumes; virescence des agrumes
  • Chinese: yellow dragon

Local Common Names

  • India: citrus dieback
  • Indonesia: citrus vein phloem regeneration (CVPD)
  • Philippines: blotchy mottle; mottle leaf disease
  • South Africa: yellow branch disease
  • Taiwan: likubin

EPPO code

  • LIBEAS (Liberobacter asiaticum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The Asian form of Huanglongbing is considered very invasive due to the cryptic nature of the disease and its ability to be transported either in infected plant material or infective psyllids, in which the disease can persist for up to 3 months (da Graca and Korsten, 2004). Yield losses due to this disease have been estimated to be between 30% and 100%, depending on the proportion of the canopy affected and the age of the trees during inoculation (Gottwald, 2010; Ammar et al., 2011). History has shown that the appearance of the vector in a country will almost guarantee the appearance of the disease in the future, e.g. in Brazil and Florida, USA. The species and its vector are on several alert lists including the EPPO A1 Regulated Quarantine Plant Pests.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Rhizobiales
  •                 Family: Phyllobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Candidatus Liberibacter
  •                         Species: Liberibacter asiaticus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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For further information on the taxonomy and nomenclature of this species, see datasheet on citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease.

Description

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The bacteria causing huanglongbing are restricted to the sieve tubes of the phloem vessels. Electron microscopy studies reveal that they possess the characteristic double membrane cell envelope of the liberibacters (Garnier et al., 1984; Texeira et al., 2005). Thin-section EM examination reveals elongated sinuous rods with an uneven diameter of 0.15-0.25 µm. Round forms of larger diameter can also be observed in degenerating cells. Similar particles are observed in the haemolymph and salivary glands of the two insect vectors.

Distribution

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Of the Liberibacter species that cause Huanglongbing, the Asian form is the most widespread.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptAbsent, Never occurred, Invalid presence record(s)
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent, Few occurrencesFirst report.
MauritiusPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
RéunionPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
TanzaniaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
UgandaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-BorneoPresent
-Irian JayaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-JavaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent, Widespread
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent, Few occurrences
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-MizoramPresent
-NagalandPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IranPresent, Localized
JapanPresent, Localized
-KyushuPresent, Localized
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Localized
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
OmanPresent, Localized
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent, Widespread
Saudi ArabiaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
TaiwanPresent, Widespread
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent, Localized
YemenPresent, Localized

Europe

BelgiumAbsent
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
PortugalAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SloveniaAbsent
SpainAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey

North America

BarbadosPresent, Localized
BelizePresent, Localized
Costa RicaPresent, Localized
CubaPresent, Widespread
DominicaPresent, Few occurrences
Dominican RepublicPresent, Localized
GuadeloupePresent2012
GuatemalaPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent, Widespread
MartiniquePresent2013
MexicoPresent, Localized
NicaraguaPresent, Few occurrences
PanamaPresent, Localized
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Localized
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentOriginal citation: NAPPO (2010)
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent, Localized
-CaliforniaPresent, LocalizedPresent: subject to official control
-FloridaPresent, Widespread
-GeorgiaPresent, Few occurrences
-LouisianaPresent, Few occurrences
-South CarolinaPresent, Few occurrences
-TexasPresent, Localized

Oceania

Cook IslandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
FijiAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
Papua New GuineaPresent, Localized
SamoaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
Timor-LestePresentIntroducedInvasive
TongaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Localized
BrazilPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent, Few occurrences
ParaguayPresent, Localized
VenezuelaPresent, Localized

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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In Taiwan, India and the Philippines, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and mandarin (C. reticulata) are the most susceptible, with lime (C. aurantiifolia), lemon (C. limon), sour orange (C. aurantium) and grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi) more tolerant. In India rough lemon (C. jambhiri), sweet lime (C. limettoides) and pomelo (C. grandis) are tolerant and the trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) is fairly tolerant. As with African greening, some citrus selections are more affected by Asian greening than others, blood red sweet orange is more susceptible than Hamlin orange (da Graca, 1991).

Transmission to Catharanthus roseus, which shows distinct yellowing symptoms, is via the parasitic plant dodder, not the insect vector (Garnier and Bove, 1983).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Atalantia buxifoliaRutaceaeOther
  • Deng et al. (2008)
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeOther
    CitrusRutaceaeMain
      Citrus amblycarpaUnknown
      Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeOther
      Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeOther
      Citrus hystrix (mauritius bitter orange)RutaceaeUnknown
      Citrus jambhiri (rough lemon)RutaceaeOther
      Citrus latifolia (tahiti lime)RutaceaeOther
      Citrus limettioides (palestine sweet lime)RutaceaeUnknown
      Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeOther
      Citrus limonia (mandarin lime)RutaceaeUnknown
      Citrus macropteraRutaceaeOther
      Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeOther
      Citrus medica (citron)RutaceaeOther
      Citrus nobilis (tangor)RutaceaeOther
        Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeMain
        Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeMain
        Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeOther
        Clausena indicaRutaceaeOther
          Clausena lansium (wampi)RutaceaeOther
            Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)CapparaceaeWild host
            Limonia acidissima (elephant apple)RutaceaeOther
              Pisonia aculeataNyctaginaceaeWild host
              Severinia buxifoliaUnknown
              • Deng et al. (2008)
              Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeUnknown
              Trichostigma octandrumPhytolaccaceaeWild host
              Triphasia trifolia (limeberry)RutaceaeOther

                Growth Stages

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                Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                Symptoms

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                The first symptom of Huanglongbing is usually the appearance of a yellow shoot on a tree (hence the name Huanglongbing, which literally means ‘yellow dragon disease’). Progressive yellowing of the entire canopy follows: leaves turn pale yellow, show symptoms of zinc or manganese deficiency, or display blotchy mottling, and are reduced in size. Blotchy mottle is the most characteristic symptom, but is not specific to Huanglongbing. Stubborn disease (Spiroplasma citri), severe forms of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), species of Phytophthora, waterlogging, and the use of marcots can produce similar blotchy mottle patterns. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are also associated with the early stages of citrus blight (a disease of unconfirmed aetiology). However, Huanglongbing bacteria do not induce the xylem dysfunction and wilting observed in blighted trees.

                Chronically infected trees are sparsely foliated and show extensive twig dieback. The fruits are often small, lopsided, can have a sour or bitter taste (Jepson, 2009; ANR, 2010; USDA, 2012) and are poorly coloured (hence the origin of the name greening). They often contain aborted seeds. Similar fruit symptoms are also observed with CTV infection. The lifespan of infected trees is shortened (Miyakawa, 1980; Ammar et al., 2011).

                List of Symptoms/Signs

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                SignLife StagesType
                Fruit / abnormal patterns
                Fruit / abnormal shape
                Fruit / premature drop
                Fruit / reduced size
                Growing point / dieback
                Growing point / discoloration
                Growing point / dwarfing; stunting
                Leaves / abnormal colours
                Leaves / abnormal forms
                Leaves / abnormal patterns
                Leaves / yellowed or dead
                Whole plant / discoloration
                Whole plant / dwarfing
                Whole plant / early senescence
                Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

                Biology and Ecology

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                Four forms of greening now exist worldwide. The Asian form (L. asiaticus) is more severe and is tolerant of higher temperatures (30-35°C) than the other forms. It is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Capoor et al., 1967; da Graca and Korsten, 2004; Bastianel et al., 2005; Ammar et al., 2011). The pathogen has recently been detected in another psyllid, Diaphorina communis (Donovan et al., 2012).

                Notes on Natural Enemies

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                The vector Diaphorina citri is parasitized by Tamarixia radiata in Africa, Reunion, Mauritius and Guadeloupe and by Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis in Florida, USA.

                Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                Vector transmission

                In the 1960s citrus greening was shown to be transmitted by two insects: the African citrus psyllid, Trioza erytreae, in Africa (McLean and Oberholzer, 1965) and the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Asia (Capoor et al., 1967; Martinez and Wallace, 1967). Experimentally, both species of psyllid have been shown to transmit both forms of the disease (Massonie et al., 1976; Lallemand et al., 1986). The bacteria are transmitted by psyllids as they feed. Liberibacter asiaticus and Liberibacter americanus are transmitted by the adults of the citrus psyllid D. citri (Jepson, 2009). According to Manjunath et al. (2008), there is a remote possibility that L. asiaticus bacteria are transmitted transversally (transmission from parent to offspring).

                Pathway Causes

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                CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                HorticultureDeliberate by locals Yes
                Industrial purposesFruit industries that decide to establish their own orchards from imported cuttings Yes
                Live food or feed tradeCountry markets at border points Yes Yes
                Nursery tradeDeliberate introductions within countries Yes
                Off-site preservation Genetic resource conservation within and between collaborating countries Yes Yes
                People sharing resourcesDeliberate between friends and family Yes
                ResearchResearch organisations Yes
                SmugglingTourists Yes

                Pathway Vectors

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                VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                GermplasmResearch Yes
                Land vehicles Yes
                Plants or parts of plants Yes

                Plant Trade

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                Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                Bark
                Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                True seeds (inc. grain)

                Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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                VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
                Diaphorina citriCABI/EPPO (2012)Insect

                Impact

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                Huanglongbing has been regarded as one of the most important threats to global commercial and sustainable citrus production (Garnier et al., 2000Duan et al., 2009; ANR, 2010; Ammar et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2012). It is estimated that globally more than 60 million trees had been destroyed by the disease by the early 1990s (Aubert, 1993). In West Java alone it was estimated that from 1960 onwards no less than 3 million trees were destroyed by Huanglongbing, and the destruction is still taking place (Tirtawadja, 1980). In Asia, approximately 100 million infected citrus trees have been destroyed by this disease, and 1 million trees were eliminated in Brazil in 2004 (Gottwald et al., 2007Duan et al., 2009).

                Risk and Impact Factors

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                Invasiveness
                • Invasive in its native range
                • Has a broad native range
                • Abundant in its native range
                • Highly adaptable to different environments
                • Is a habitat generalist
                • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
                • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
                • Reproduces asexually
                • Has high genetic variability
                Impact outcomes
                • Damaged ecosystem services
                • Host damage
                • Increases vulnerability to invasions
                • Loss of medicinal resources
                • Negatively impacts agriculture
                • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                • Reduced native biodiversity
                • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
                • Threat to/ loss of native species
                • Negatively impacts trade/international relations

                Diagnosis

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                A diagnostic protocol for Liberibacter africanusLiberibacter americanus and Liberibacter asiaticus and for their detection in their psyllid vectors Diaphorina citri and Trioza erytreae has been published by EPPO (2014). The protocol involves detection based on the disease symptoms and molecular tests (PCR), and reporting and documentation.

                See the datasheet on Citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease for a description of the diagnostic tests for this species.

                Detection and Inspection

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                Huanglongbing is difficult to recognize due to symptoms of the disease resembling those of other citrus disorders (see Symptoms). If suspected, the presence of the disease should be confirmed by identifying the bacterium by PCR or electron microscopy (Hong-Ji Su, 2001; ANR, 2010).

                Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                Disease symptoms are almost identical to, and can be confused with, those of the other strains of Liberibacter causing Huanglongbing. Mixed infections of two of the strains have been reported (Coletta-Filho et al., 2005). Leaf symptoms also resemble nutrient deficiencies, particularly deficiencies of zinc, calcium and nitrogen (ANR, 2010).

                Blotchy mottle is the most characteristic symptom of Huanglongbing, but is not specific to it. Stubborn disease (Spiroplasma citri), severe forms of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), species of Phytophthora, waterlogging, and the use of marcots can produce similar blotchy mottle patterns. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are also associated with the early stages of citrus blight (a disease of unconfirmed aetiology). However, Huanglongbing bacteria do not induce the xylem dysfunction and wilting observed in blighted trees.

                Prevention and Control

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                Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                Phytosanitary Measures

                In areas where the disease is not present, effective quarantine measures are essential to prevent the introduction of the HLB organism or the vector. Furthermore, the possibility exists that the vector could be introduced 'naturally' or through alternative hosts such as Murraya spp. This poses a potential threat because the adult D. citri can transmit the disease, which can persist in the vector for up to 3 months (da Graca and Korsten, 2004).

                Biological Control

                In the absence of hyperparaitic wasps, the parasitic wasp Tamarixia radiata significantly reduced populations of D. citri, the vector of HLB, on the Indian Ocean island of Reunion, leaving a strongly limited population of the vector (Aubert and Quilici, 1984).

                Chemical Control


                There are no chemical controls that specifically target the bacterium. Reports of management of the disease in China and Indonesia by eradicating infected plants and psyllid hosts, production and planting of Huanglongbing-free trees and chemical control of the psyllid vector have been published (Xu et al., 1991; Bove et al., 2000).

                References

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                Adkar-Purushothama CR, Maheshwar PK, Janardhana GR, 2011. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with Citrus decumana (Beejapuraka) in South India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6(1):26-27. http://www.springerlink.com/content/ug0 m573343272 l5u/fulltext.html

                Alabi OJ, Kunta M, Dale J, Sétamou M, 2014. Survey and detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in a citrus nursery facility in South Texas. Plant Health Progress, No.December:PHP-RS-14-0028. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/search/search_action.asp

                Ammar E, Shatters RG Jr, Lynch C, Hall DG, 2011. Detection and relative titer of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the salivary glands and alimentary canal of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 104(3):526-533. http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/esa/00138746/v104n3/s18.pdf?expires=1306550278&id=0000&titleid=10263&checksum=8ED91F63A8746C846736DBAA1D435A7F

                ANR, 2010. Citrus bacterial canker disease and huanglongbing (citrus greening). Publication 8218. California, USA: University of California, Agriculture and Nature Resources. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu

                Aubert B, 1993. Citrus greening disease, a serious limiting factor for citriculture in Asia and Africa. Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the International Society of Nurserymen, South Africa, 134-142

                Aubert B, Quilici S, 1984. Biological control of the African and Asian citrus psyllids (Homoptera: Psylloidea), through eulophid and encyrtid parasites (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Reunion Island. In: Garnsey SM, Timmer LW, Dodds JA, eds. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International of Citrus Virologists. University of California, Riverside, USA: IOCV, 100-108

                Badaracco, A., Redes, F. J., Preussler, C. A., Agostini, J. P., 2017. Citrus huanglongbing in Argentina: detection and phylogenetic studies of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Australasian Plant Pathology, 46(2), 171-175. doi: 10.1007/s13313-017-0473-4

                Bastianel C, Garnier-Semancik M, Renaudin J, Bové JM, Eveillard S, 2005. Diversity of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," based on the omp gene sequence. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(11):6473-6478. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/71/11/6473

                Bove J, Erti Dwiastuti, M, Triviranto A, Surpriyanto A, Nasli E, Becu P, Garnier M, 2000. Incidence of Huanglongbing and citrus rehabilitation in north Bali, Indonesia. In: da Graca J, Lee R, Yokomi R, eds. Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the International organisation of Citrus Virologists. Riverside, USA: IOCV, 200-206

                Bové JM, 2006. Huanglongbing: a destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus. Journal of Plant Pathology, 88(1):7-37. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

                Brown SE, Oberheim AP, Barrett A, McLaughlin WA, 2011. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with huanglongbing in the weeds Cleome rutidosperma, Pisonia aculeata and Trichostigma octandrum in Jamaica. New Disease Reports, 24:Article 25. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=024025

                CABI/EPPO, 2006. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 766. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

                CABI/EPPO, 2012. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 766 (Edition 3)

                CABI/EPPO, 2017. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases , (No.April) Wallingford, UK: CABI.Map 766 (Edition 4).

                Capoor SP, Rao DG, Viswanath SM, 1967. Diaphorina citri, a vector of the greening disease of citrus in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 37:572-576

                Cellier G, Moreau A, Cassam N, Hostachy B, Ryckewaert P, Aurela L, Picard R, Lombion K, Rioualec AL, 2014. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with Huanglongbing on Citrus latifolia in Martinique and Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Plant Disease, 98(5):683-684. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                Coletta-Filho H, Takita M, Targon M, Machado M, 2005. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from citrus Huanglongbing bacteria reveal a different ’Ca. Liberibacter’ strain associated with citrus disease in São Paulo. Plant Disease, 89:848-852

                Coletta-Filho H, Targon M, Takita M, DeNegri J, Pompeu J, Machado M, 2004. First report of the Causal agent of Huanglongbing ’Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Brazil. Plant Disease, 88:1382

                da Graca J, Korsten L, 2004 Citrus Huanglongbing: Review, present status and future strategies. In Navqui S, ed. Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables: Diagnosis and Management vol 1

                da Graca JV, 1991. Citrus greening disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 29:109-136

                Davis RI, Jacobson SC, Rahamma S, Gunua TG, 2000. Surveillance for citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease in New Guinea and north Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology, 29(3):226; 3 ref

                Deng X, Chen J, Shan Z, Zhou G, Li H, Civerolo EL, 2008. Identification of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' from foshou (Citrus medica) in China. Plant Pathology, 57(2):365. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01757.x

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                27/03/13 Updated by:

                Esther Arengo, National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Uganda

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