Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri
(mealybug destroyer)

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Datasheet

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cryptolaemus montrouzieri
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mealybug destroyer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. montrouzieri larva eating Pseudococcus viburni.
TitleLarva
CaptionC. montrouzieri larva eating Pseudococcus viburni.
CopyrightMike Copland, Wye College
C. montrouzieri larva eating Pseudococcus viburni.
LarvaC. montrouzieri larva eating Pseudococcus viburni.Mike Copland, Wye College
C. montrouzieri pupae on guava bark.
TitlePupae
CaptionC. montrouzieri pupae on guava bark.
CopyrightMike Copland, Wye College
C. montrouzieri pupae on guava bark.
PupaeC. montrouzieri pupae on guava bark.Mike Copland, Wye College
C. montrouzieri adult on a mealybug colony.
TitleAdult
CaptionC. montrouzieri adult on a mealybug colony.
CopyrightMike Copland, Wye College
C. montrouzieri adult on a mealybug colony.
AdultC. montrouzieri adult on a mealybug colony.Mike Copland, Wye College
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); natural enemy. The beetle (ladybird, ladybeetle) Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer), predating a citrus mealybug.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); natural enemy. The beetle (ladybird, ladybeetle) Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer), predating a citrus mealybug.
Copyright©Sonya Broughton/Department of Agriculture & Food Western Australia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); natural enemy. The beetle (ladybird, ladybeetle) Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer), predating a citrus mealybug.
Natural enemyPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); natural enemy. The beetle (ladybird, ladybeetle) Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer), predating a citrus mealybug.©Sonya Broughton/Department of Agriculture & Food Western Australia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant

Preferred Common Name

  • mealybug destroyer

International Common Names

  • English: destroyer, mealybug; ladybird, mealybug; mealybug ladybird

EPPO code

  • CRYEMO (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Coccinellidae
  •                             Genus: Cryptolaemus
  •                                 Species: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent1918Bodenheimer (1951); Booth and Pope (1986)
Cabo VerdePresentCABI (Undated b)
EgyptPresentIntroduced1922Bodenheimer (1951); Booth and Pope (1986); Williams (1986)Establishment uncertain
KenyaPresent1924Greathead (1972); Booth and Pope (1986)
MauritiusPresent1938Booth and Pope (1986)
Saint HelenaPresentGreathead and Greathead (1992)
SeychellesPresent1959Booth and Pope (1986)
SomaliaPresentCABI (Undated b)
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1900Annecke et al. (1969); Booth and Pope (1986)Establishment uncertain
TanzaniaPresent1935Booth and Pope (1986)
TunisiaPresentBodenheimer (1951)

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentProkopenko (1982); CABI (Undated)
ChinaPresentIntroducedDong (1993)Establishment uncertain
-BeijingPresentCABI (Undated b)
-GuizhouPresentXuan Dai (1996)
-SichuanPresentLin Yin et al. (1997)
GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated b)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
IndiaPresentIntroduced1898Ghorpade (1981); Booth and Pope (1986); CABI (Undated)Established
-Andhra PradeshPresentBabu and Azam (1989); Satyanarayana et al. (1991)
-KarnatakaPresentMani (1995); Mani (1995a); Mani et al. (1995); Verghese and Urs (1995)
-KeralaPresentChacko et al. (1978)
-Tamil NaduPresentChacko (1979); Mani and Krishnamoorthy (1997); CABI (Undated)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedBooth and Pope (1986); CABI (Undated)Establishment uncertain
-JavaPresent1918Booth and Pope (1986)
-SulawesiPresent1928Booth and Pope (1986)
IranPresentHeidari (1986); Khalaf and Aberoomand (1989)
IsraelPresentIntroduced1924Booth and Pope (1986); Mendel et al. (1992)Establishment uncertain
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent1916Booth and Pope (1986)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)Establishment uncertain
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
TaiwanPresentIntroducedBooth and Pope (1986)Establishment uncertain
TurkeyPresentIntroducedTuncyurek (1970); Oncuer and Bayhan (1982)Establishment uncertain

Europe

CyprusPresentGerini (1977)
FinlandPresentRahaman and Aniszewski (2016)
FrancePresentIntroduced1918Panis and Brun (1971); Panis (1981); Booth and Pope (1986)Establishment uncertain
GreecePresentArgyriou (1970); Hamid and Michelakis (1997); CABI (Undated)
-CretePresentCABI (Undated b)
ItalyPresentIntroduced1907Liotta et al. (1976); Mazzone (1977); Arzone (1983); Laudonia and Viggiani (1986); Longo and Benfatto (1987)Establishment uncertain
-SardiniaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-SicilyPresentCABI (Undated b)
NetherlandsPresentHennekam et al. (1987)
PolandPresentLipa (1976)
PortugalPresentCardosa (1990)
RussiaPresentZaets (1970); Yasnosh and Mjavanadze (1983); Mzhavanadze (1984)
-Southern RussiaPresentNiyazov (1969)
SpainPresent1926Carrero (1980); Booth and Pope (1986); CABI (Undated)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedGreathead (Undated)Established
BahamasPresentIntroducedSchotman (1989)Established
BarbadosPresentIntroducedAlam (1972)Establishment uncertain
BelizePresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
BermudaPresent1926Booth and Pope (1986)
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced1912Booth and Pope (1986)Establishment uncertain
CubaPresentBooth and Pope (1986)
DominicaPresentIntroducedGreathead (Undated)Established
GrenadaPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
JamaicaPresentIntroducedGreathead (Undated)Established
MontserratPresentCABI (Undated b)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1911Booth and Pope (1986)Establishment uncertain
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedGreathead (Undated)Established
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedMcComie et al. (1997)Establishment uncertain
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
United StatesPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced1891Bartlett (1974); Morse et al. (1987); Bellows and Morse (1988)Established
-FloridaPresentIntroducedBooth and Pope (1986)Established
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1893Charanasri and Nishida (1973); Bach (1991); CABI (Undated)Establishment uncertain
-TexasPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
-New South WalesPresentCarver et al. (1987)
-QueenslandPresentMurray (1976); Murray (1982); Carver et al. (1987); CABI (Undated)
-Western AustraliaPresent1902Collins and Scott (1982); Booth and Pope (1986)
Cook IslandsPresentCABI (Undated b)
FijiPresent1923Booth and Pope (1986)
GuamPresent1926Booth and Pope (1986)
New CaledoniaPresentChazeau (1981)
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1897Booth and Pope (1986); Charles (1993)Establishment uncertain
Papua New GuineaPresentShaw et al. (1979)

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedGreathead and Greathead (1992)Established
ChilePresentIntroduced1931Booth and Pope (1986)Establishment uncertain
GuyanaPresentIntroduced1913Booth and Pope (1986)Establishment uncertain
PeruPresentCABI (Undated b)
SurinamePresentIntroducedGreathead (Undated)Established
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedGreathead (Undated)Established

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Aleurodicus dispersus
Aleurothrixus floccosus
Aonidiella aurantii
Aphis fabaeAdults/Nymphs
Aphis gossypii
Aphis neriiAdults/Nymphs
Ceroplastes floridensis
Ceroplastes rubens
Chloropulvinaria aurantii
Chloropulvinaria flocciferaAdults/Nymphs
Chloropulvinaria polygonata
Coccus hesperidum
Coccus longulus
Coccus pseudomagnoliarum
Coccus viridisAdults/Nymphs
Dactylopius ceylonicusAdults/Nymphs
Dactylopius confusus
Dactylopius opuntiaeAdults/Nymphs
Dysmicoccus boninsisAdults/Nymphs
Dysmicoccus brevipesAdults/Nymphs
Dysmicoccus neobrevipes
Ferrisia virgataAdults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Icerya purchasi
Icerya samaraiaAll Stages
Kilifia acuminataAdults/Nymphs
Maconellicoccus hirsutusAdults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Nipaecoccus filamentosusAdults/Nymphs
Nipaecoccus nipaeAdults/Nymphs
Nipaecoccus viridis
Oracella acutaAll Stages
Parasaissetia nigra
Paropsis atomariaEggs/Larvae
Phenacoccus solenopsisEggs/Larvae
Philephedra tuberculosa
Planococcus citriAdults/Nymphs
Planococcus ficusAdults/Nymphs
Planococcus kenyaeAdults/Nymphs
Planococcus lilacinusAdults/Nymphs
Protopulvinaria pyriformis
PseudococcusAdults/Nymphs
Pseudococcus calceolariaeAdults/Eggs/Nymphs
Pseudococcus comstockiAdults/Nymphs
Pseudococcus longispinusAdults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Pseudococcus maritimusAdults/Nymphs
Pseudococcus viburniAll Stages
Pulvinaria hydrangeae
Pulvinaria psidiiAdults/Nymphs
Pulvinaria vitis
Puto barberiAdults/Nymphs
Rastrococcus iceryoidesAdults/Eggs/Nymphs
Rastrococcus invadensAdults/Nymphs
Saccharicoccus sacchari
Saccharipulvinaria iceryi
Saissetia coffeae
Saissetia oleae
Scirtothrips citri
Sitotroga cerealella
Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoidesEggs

References

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Alam MM, 1972. The establishment of Anagyrus saccharicola Timb.(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Barbados, West Indies, against the sugarcane mealybug, Saccharicoccus sacchari (Ckll.) (Hemiptera:Coccidae). Entomophage, 17(4):357-363

Annecke DP, Karny M, Burger WA, 1969. Improved biological control of the prickly pear, Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck, in South Africa through the use of an insecticide. Phytophylactica, 1(1):9-13

Argyriou LC, 1970. The Coccoids of Citrus in Greece. Awamia, 37:57-65

Arzone A, 1983. Pseudococcus obscurus Essig and Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Muls. in Turin. Atti XIII Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia. Istituto di Entomologia Agraria e Apicoltura, Universita di Torino Turin Italy, 448-452

Averbeck JK, Haddock JD, 1983. The effect of prey diet on predation efficiency of the coccinellid, Cryptolpmus montrouzieri (Mulsant). Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 93:211-212

Avidzhba NSh, 1981. Comparative effectiveness of some organophosphorus preparations in citrus plantations. In: Sem'yanov VP, ed. Noveishie dostizheniya sel'skokhozyaistvennoi entomologii (po materialam USh s"ezda VEO, Vil'nyus, 9-13 oktyabrya 1979 g.) Vsesoyuznoe Entomologicheskoe Obshchestvo Vilnius USSR, 4-6

Babu TR, Azam KM, 1987. Biology of Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Mulsant, (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) in relation with temperature. Entomophaga, 32(4):381-386

Babu TR, Azam KM, 1987. Influence of some pesticides on the egg and larval stages of the mealybug predator, Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera). Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 15(1):109-112

Babu TR, Azam KM, 1987. Residual toxicity of different insecticides to the adult Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera). Tropical Pest Management, 33(2):180-181

Babu TR, Azam KM, 1987. Toxicity of different fungicides to adult Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Crop Protection, 6(3):161-162

Babu TR, Azam KM, 1988. Effect of low holding temperature during pupal instar on adult emergence, pre-oviposition and fecundity of Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera). Insect Science and its Application, 9(2):175-177

Babu TR, Azam KM, 1988. Predation potential of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) in relation to temperature. Journal of Research APAU, 16(2):108-110; 4 ref.

Babu TR, Azam KM, 1989. Biological control of grape mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 17(1):123-126

Bach CE, 1991. Direct and indirect interactions between ants (Pheidole megacephala), scales (Coccus viridis) and plants (Pluchea indica). Oecologia, 87(2):233-239.

Balakrishnan MM, Kumar PKV, Govindarajan TS, 1987. Cryptolpmus montrouzieri: comparison of life cycle on Chloropulvinaria psidi and Planococcus citri. Journal of Coffee Research, 17(1):59-61

Bartlett BR, 1974. Introduction into California of cold-tolerant biotypes of the mealybug predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, and laboratory procedures for testing natural enemies for cold-hardiness. Environmental Entomology, 3(3):553-556

Beglyarov GA, Smetnik AI, 1977. Seasonal colonization of entomophages in the U.S.S.R. In: Ridgway RL, Vinson SB, ed. Biological control by augmentation of natural enemies. Insect and mite control with parasites and predators. Plenum Press. New York USA, 283-328

Bellows TS Jr, Morse JG, 1988. Residual toxicity following dilute or low-volume applications of insecticides used for control of California red scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) to four beneficial species in a citrus agroecosystem. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(3):892-898

Bellows TS Jr, Morse JG, Hadjidemetriou DG, Iwata Y, 1985. Residual toxicity of four insecticides used for control of citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on three beneficial species in a citrus agroecosystem. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(3):681-686

Bhat PK, Chacko MJ, Sreedharan K, 1983. Biology of the ladybird beetle, Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Mulsant, a predator of mealybugs. In: Venkata Ram CS, ed. Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium on Plantation Crops. Plant protection (entomology, microbiology, nematology, plant pathology and rodentology). PLACROSYM II 1979 PLACROSYM Standing Committee Kasaragod, Kerala India, 221-226

Bodenheimer FS, 1951. Citrus Entomology in the Middle East. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr WJ Junk & S Gravenhage.

Booth RG, Pope RD, 1986. A review of the genus Cryptolpmus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with particular reference to the species resembling C. montrouzieri Mulsant. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 76(4):701-717

Cardosa A, 1990. Preliminary study of the coccinellids found on citrus in Portugal. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 16(1):105-111

Carrero JM, 1980. Entomophages of citrus coccids in the Province of Valencia. In: ProceedingsInternational symposium of IOBC/WPRS on integrated control in agriculture, forestryVienna, ed. Workshop sessions. International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section. Vienna Austria, 521-526

Carver M, Inkerman PA, Ashbolt NJ, 1987. Anagyrus saccharicola Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and other biota associated with Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 26(4):367-368; 5 ref.

Castaner M, Garrido A, 1995. Toxicidad producida por contacto y persistencia de diversos plaguicidas sobre tres insectos utilizados en control biologico: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Lysiphlebus testaceipes y Encarsia formosa. Investigacion Agraria, Produccion y Proteccion Vegetales. 10(1): 139-147.

Chacko MJ, 1979. The recovery of Cryptolpmus montrouzieri on the Shevaroy Hills (Tamilnadu). Journal of Coffee Research, 9(3):80-81

Chacko MJ, Bhat PK, Rao LVAnanda, Deepak Singh MB, Ramanarayan EP, Sreedharan K, 1978. The use of the ladybird beetle, Cryptolpmus montrouzieri for the control of coffee mealybugs. Journal of Coffee Research, 8(1):14-19

Charanasri V, Nishida T, 1973. Relative abundance of three Coccinellid predators of the green scale, Coccus viridis (Green) on Plumeria trees. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 22(1):27-32

Charles JG, 1993. A survey of mealybugs and their natural enemies in horticultural crops in North Island, New Zealand, with implications for biological control. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3(4):405-418

Chazeau J, 1981. Data on the biology of Coelophora quadrivittata (Col.; Coccinellidae), a predator of Coccus viridis (Hom.: Coccidae) in New Caledonia. Entomophaga, 26(3):301-311

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Codling A, 1977. Biological control of mealy bug. National Cactus and Succulent Journal. 32(2): 36-38.

Collins L, Scott JK, 1982. Interaction of ants, predators and the scale insect, Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi, on Carpobrotus edulis, an exotic plant naturalized in Western Australia. Australian Entomological Magazine, 8(5):73-78

Cooper S, 1985, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri a predator for mealybugs. Bristish Cactus and Succulent Journal 3: 38-39.

Copland MJW, 1983. Temperature constraints in the control of mealybug and scale insects. Bulletin SROP, 6(3):142-145

Copland MJW, Tingle CCD, Saynor M, Panis A, 1985. Biology of glasshouse mealybugs and their predators and parasitoids. pp 82-86 in Biological Pest Control: the glasshouse experience Hussey NW and Scopes NEA (eds), Blandford Press, Poole, 240 pp.

Cranshaw W, Sclar DC, Cooper D, 1996. A review of 1994 pricing and marketing by suppliers of organisms for biological control of arthropods in the United States. Biological Control, 6(2):291-296; 5 ref.

Dong HF, 1993. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Pseudococcus comstocki (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) on Clivia miniata and its control with inundative release of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Col.: Coccinellidae). Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 9(1):12-14

Ehnstrom B, Lundberg S, 1997. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, en nyckelpiga som anvands for biologisk bekampning i vaxthus i Sverige. Entomologisk Tidskrift. 118(1): 59-60.

Fisher TW, 1963. Mass culture of Cryptolaemus and Leptomastix natural enemies of citrus mealybugs. Bulletin California Agriculture Experimental Station, No 779, 39pp.

Gerini V, 1977. Contribution to the knowledge of the principal insects present on citrus in Cyprus. Rivista di Agricultura Subtropicale e Tropicale, 71(7/12):147-159

Ghorpade KD, 1981. Cryptolpmus montrousieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) breeding on aphids. Colemania, 1(1):59

Greathead DJ, 1972. The rediscovery in Kenya of two introduced Coccinellids (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. and Rodolia cardinalis (Muls.)). East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 38(2):214

Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Hagen KS, Chiang HC, 1974. The significance of predaceous Coccinellidae in biological and integrated control of insects. Recent advances in research on predation on insect pests in North America. Entomophaga 7: 25-44.

Hamid HA, Michelakis S, 1994. The importance of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Col., Coccinellidae) in the control of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Hom., Coccoidea) under specific conditions. Journal of Applied Entomology, 118(1):17-22

Hamid HA, Michelakis SE, 1997. The use of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant) for the control of Planococcus citri (Risso) in Crete - Greece. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 20(7):7-12; 14 ref.

Hassan SA, Bigler F, Bogenschutz H, Brown JU, Firth SI, Huang P, Ledieu MS, Naton E, Oomen PA, Overmeer WPJ, Rieckmann W, Samsoe-Petersen L, Viggiani G, Zon AQvan, 1983. Results of the second joint pesticide testing programme by the IOBC/WPRS-Working Group "Pesticides and Beneficial Arthropods". Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 95(2):151-158

Heidari M, 1986. Introduction to the Caspian sea mealybug Pseudococcus affinis (Hom: Pseudococcidae) pp 44-45 in Proceedings 8th Plant Protection Congress of Iran (30 Aug to 4 Sep 1986) Isfahan, Iran. 165 pp.

Heidari M, 1989. Biological control of glasshouse mealybugs using coccinellid predators. PhD thesis, Wye College, University of London 372 pp.

Heidari M, Copland MJW, 1992. Host finding by Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Col., Coccinellidae) a predator of mealybugs (Hom., Pseudococcidae). Entomophaga, 37(4):621-625

Heidari M, Copland MJW, 1993. Honeydew: a food resource or arrestant for the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri?. Entomophaga, 38(1):63-68; 14 ref.

Hennekam MMB, Kole M, Opzeeland K van, Alphen JJMvan, 1987. Biological control of citrus-mealybug in a commercial crop of ornamental plants in the Netherlands. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 52(2a):329-338

Hwang JS, Hsieh FK, Wu IS, 1986. The toxicity of insecticides to the various life stages of the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri (Risso)) and its predator, Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Mulsant. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 28(2):155-161

Kalshoven LGE, Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp.

Kaufmann T, 1996. Dynamics of sperm transfer, mixing, and fertilization in Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Kenya. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 89(2):238-242; 6 ref.

Khalaf J, Aberoomand GH, 1989. Some preliminary research on the biology and biological control of mealybug in Fars province of Iran. Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquees, 56(1-2):27, pe 93-99

Kishore R, Manjunath D, Kumar P, Datta RK, 1993. Mass production of Australian lady bird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera). Indian Journal of Sericulture, 32(2):184-188

Laudonia S, Viggiani G, 1986. Natural enemies of the citrophilus mealybug (Pseudococcus calceolarip Mask.) in Campania. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria "Filippo Silvestri", Italy, 43(Supplement):167-171

Limon de la Oliva F, Blasco Pascual J, 1973. Preliminaries for the study of natural control and of measures to use against pests of Citrus in the northern part of the Levante region, with a view to the establishment of a programme of integrated control. Boletin Informativo de Plagas, No. 109:69-86

Lin Yin, Peng YiKun, Chen ShiZhou, 1997. Studies on the bionomics of Aulacaspis citri Chen and its control. Journal of Southwest Agricultural University, 19(5):442-446; 4 ref.

Liotta G, Mineo G, Ragusa S, 1976. On the current state of knowledge concerning certain arthropods injurious to citrus in Sicily. [Sur lnetat actuel des connaissances concernant certains arthropods nuisibles aux agrumes en Sicile.] Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia Agraria e dell'Osservatorio di Fitopatologia di Palermo, 10:29-67

Lipa JJ, 1976. Arthropods (Arthropoda) introduced into Poland during 1959-1974 by the Institute of Plant Protection for the biological control of plant pests. Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 18(2):157-166

Longo S, Benfatto D, 1987. Entomophagous Coleoptera present on citrus in Italy. Informatore Fitopatologico, 37(7-8):21-30

Mani M, 1988. Bioecology and management of grapevine mealybug. Technical Bulletin - Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, No. 5:32 pp.

Mani M, 1990. Rid the grape-vine of mealybug. Indian Horticulture, 35(3):28-29

Mani M, 1995. Studies of the natural enemies of the wax scale Drepanococcus chiton (Green) on ber and guava. Entomon, 20(2):55-58; 7 ref.

Mani M, 1995. Studies on the natural enemies of oriental mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in India. Journal of Entomological Research, 19(1):61-70

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 1990. Evaluation of the exotic predator Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Muls. (Coccinellidae, Coleoptera) in the suppression of green shield scale, Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell) (Coccidae, Hemiptera) on guava. Entomon, 15(1-2):45-48

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 1991. Contact toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids to some parasitoids and predators of mealy bugs. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 19(1):93-95

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 1997. Discovery of Australian ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) on spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus dispersus) in India. Insect Environment, 3(1):5-6; 1 ref.

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, Pattar GL, 1995. Biological control of the mango mealybug, Rastrococcus iceryoides (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 1(1):15-20

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, Singh SP, 1990. The impact of the predator, Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Mulsant, on pesticide-resistant populations of the striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Ckll.) on guava in India. Insect Science and its Application, 11(2):167-170

Mani M, Thontadarya TS, 1987. Development and feeding potential of coccinellid predator, Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Muls. on the grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Journal of Biological Control, 1(1):19-22

Mazzone P, 1977. Recent distributions of Cryptolpmus montrouzieri (Muls.) in Campania. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici, 34:223-227

McComie LD, Gosine S, Siew P, 1997. The effect of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant) on the hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), on hibiscus plants in Trinidad. Tropical Fruits Newsletter, No. 23:7-10; 4 ref.

Mendel Z, Blumberg D, Zehavi A, Weissenberg M, 1992. Some polyphagous Homoptera gain protection from their natural enemies by feeding on the toxic plants Spartium junceum and Erythrina corallodendrum (Leguminosae). Chemoecology, 3(3-4):118-124

Merlin J, Lemaitre O, GrTgoire JC, 1996. Chemical cues produced by conspecific larvae deter oviposition by the coccidophagous ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 79(2):147-151; 9 ref.

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Michelakis S, Hamid HA, Ascher KRS (ed. ), Ben Dov Y, 1995. Integrated control methods of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) in Crete, Greece. Israel Journal of Entomology. 29: 277-284.

Mineo G, 1967. Sul Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls (Osservazioni morphobiologische). Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia Agraria e dell' Osservatorio di Fitopatologia di Palermo 6: 99-143.

Moore D, 1988. Agents used for biological control of mealybugs (Pseudococcidae). Biocontrol News and Information, 9(4):209-225

Morse JG, Bellows TS Jr, Gaston LK, Iwata Y, 1987. Residual toxicity of acaricides to three beneficial species on California citrus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80(4):953-960

Murray DAH, 1976. Insect pests on passion fruit. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 102(2):145-151

Murray DAH, 1978. Population studies of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso), and its natural enemies on passion-fruit in south-eastern Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 35(2):139-142

Murray DAH, 1982. Effects of sticky banding of custard apple tree trunks on ants and citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Pseudococcidae (Hem)) in south-east Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 39(2):141-146

Mzhavanadze VI, 1984. Cryptolpmus against the camellia scale. Zashchita Rasteni, No. 7:26

Niyazov OD, 1969. The parasites and predators of grape mealybug. Zashchita Rastenii, 14(11):38-40

Oncuer C, Bayhan N, 1982. An investigation into the feeding capacity and diet of Cryptolpmus montrouzieri (Muls.). Turkiye Bitki Koruma Dergisi, 6(2):85-90

Oncuer C, Koldas M, 1981. The effect of different temperatures on the biology of Cryptolpmus montrouzieri (Muls.). Turkiye Bitki Koruma Dergisi, 5(4):235-242

Ortu S, 1982. Observations on Planococcus citri (Risso) in citrus plantations in Sardinia. Studi Sassaresi, 29:199-209

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Panis A, 1969. Observations faunistiques et biologiques sur quelques Pseudococcidae (Homoptera, Coccoidea) vivant dans le midi de la France. Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim., 1:211-244.

Panis A, 1979. Mealybugs (Homoptera, Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) within the framework of integrated control in Mediterranean citrus-growing. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et de Pathologie Vegetale, 78(3):88-96

Panis A, 1981. Note on some beneficial insects regulating populations of Pseudococcidae and Coccidae (Homoptera, Coccoidea) on citrus in eastern Provence. Fruits, 36(1):49-52

Panis A, Brun J, 1971. Biological control tests against three species of Pseudococcidae (Homoptera, Coccoidea) in greenhouses. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et de Pathologie Vegetale, 70(2):42-47

Peter C, David BV, Ramani S, 1987. Toxicity of chlorpyrifos to natural enemies. Current Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 16(5):69-70

Pilipyuk VI, Bugpva LN, Baklanova EV, 1982. The possibility of rearing the predacious beetle Cryptolpmus montrouzieri Muls. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) on eggs of the Angoumois grain moth. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 61(1):50-52

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Prokopenko AI, 1982. Cryptolpmus suppresses Chloropulvinaria. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 3:25

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Satyanarayana J, Murthy MS, Srinivasa N, 1991. Impact of pesticides on grapevine mealybug predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant 2. Residual toxicity and safety of pesticidal sprays to predatory adults. Indian Journal of Entomology, 53(4):581-586; 13 ref.

Satyanarayana J, Murthy MS, Srinivasa N, 1991. Impact of pesticides on grapevine mealybug predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. 1. Residual toxicity and safety of pesticidal sprays to predatory grubs. Indian Journal of Entomology, 53(4):587-592; 6 ref.

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Shaw DE, Plumb RT, Jackson GVH, 1979. Virus diseases of taro (Colocasia esculenta) and Xanthosoma sp. in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal, 30(4):71-97

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Sreedharan K, Chacko MJ, 1982. Influence of insecticides on Cryptolpmus montrouzieri 2. Residual effect of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides on adults. Journal of Coffee Research, 12(3):68-71

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Tuncyurek, 1970. The Coccoids harmful to Citrus in Turkey. Awamia, 37:67-80

Verghese A, Urs KCD, 1995. Development of sampling plan and spatial dispersion of natural population of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in a guava ecosystem. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 1(2):87-92; 8 ref.

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Williams DJ, 1986. The identity and distribution of the genus Maconellicoccus Ezzat (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 76(2):351-357

Xuan Dai, 1996. Investigation on ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) in tea gardens of east Guizhou. Journal of Tea Science, 16(2):131-134; 3 ref.

Yasnosh VA, Mjavanadze VI, 1983. On the efficiency and rational use of Cryptolpmus montrouzieri against plant pests in the Georgian SSR. 10th International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Volume 2. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, England, 20-25 November, 1983. Plant protection for human welfare British Crop Protection Council Croydon UK, 798

Yigit A, Canhilal R, Zaman K, 1994. Cold storage of some natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Turkiye III. Biyolojik Mucadele Kongresi Bildirileeri, 25-28 Ocak 1994, Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi, Bitki Koruma Bolumu, Izmir Bornova, Turkey; Ege Universitesi Basimevi, 137-146

Yumruktepe R, Uygun N, 1994. The side effects of some insecticides on some predatory ladybirds Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Nephus includens Kirsch. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Turkiye III. Biyolojik Mucadele Kongresi Bildirileeri, 25-28 Ocak 1994, Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi, Bitki Koruma Bolumu, Izmir Bornova, Turkey; Ege Universitesi Basimevi, 481-492

Zaets VG, 1970. The biological control of quarantine pests of fruit trees. Zashchita Rastenii, 15(12):45-46.

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Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 1997. Discovery of Australian ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) on spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus dispersus) in India. Insect Environment. 3 (1), 5-6.

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, Pattar G L, 1995. Biological control of the mango mealybug, Rastrococcus iceryoides (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 1 (1), 15-20.

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Mendel Z, Blumberg D, Zehavi A, Weissenberg M, 1992. Some polyphagous Homoptera gain protection from their natural enemies by feeding on the toxic plants Spartium junceum and Erythrina corallodendrum (Leguminosae). Chemoecology. 3 (3-4), 118-124. DOI:10.1007/BF01370139

Morse J G, Bellows T S Jr, Gaston L K, Iwata Y, 1987. Residual toxicity of acaricides to three beneficial species on California citrus. Journal of Economic Entomology. 80 (4), 953-960. DOI:10.1093/jee/80.4.953

Murray D A H, 1976. Insect pests on passion fruit. Queensland Agricultural Journal. 102 (2), 145-151.

Murray D A H, 1982. Effects of sticky banding of custard apple tree trunks on ants and citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Pseudococcidae (Hem)) in south-east Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences. 39 (2), 141-146.

Mzhavanadze V I, 1984. Cryptolaemus against the camellia scale. Zashchita Rasteniıbreve˜. 26.

Niyazov O D, 1969. The parasites and predators of grape mealybug. Zashchita Rastenii. 14 (11), 38-40.

Oncuer C, Bayhan N, 1982. An investigation into the feeding capacity and diet of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Muls.). (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Muls.)'nin beslenme kapasitesi ve rejimi uzerinde bir arastirma.). Turkiye Bitki Koruma Dergisi. 6 (2), 85-90.

Panis A, 1981. Note on some beneficial insects regulating populations of Pseudococcidae and Coccidae (Homoptera, Coccoidea) on citrus in eastern Provence. (Note sur quelques insectes auxiliaires regulateurs des populations de Pseudococcidae et de Coccidae (Homoptera, Coccoidea) des agrumes en Provence orientale.). Fruits. 36 (1), 49-52.

Panis A, Brun J, 1971. Biological control tests against three species of Pseudococcidae (Homoptera, Coccoidea) in greenhouses. (Essais de lutte biologique contre trois especes de Pseudococcidae (Homoptera, Coccoidea) en serres de plantes vertes.). Revue de Zoologie Agricole et de Pathologie Vegetale. 70 (2), 42-47.

Prokopenko A I, 1982. Cryptolaemus suppresses Chloropulvinaria. Zashchita Rastenii. 25.

Rahaman Sk M, Aniszewski T, 2016. Study on morphological characteristics of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and their host-plants in Joensuu, Finland. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal. 45 (1), 13-21. http://www.mabjournal.com/images/45_1_June_2016/45_1_02.pdf

Satyanarayana J, Murthy M S, Srinivasa N, 1991. Impact of pesticides on grapevine mealybug predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant 2. Residual toxicity and safety of pesticidal sprays to predatory adults. Indian Journal of Entomology. 53 (4), 581-586.

Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

Shaw D E, Plumb R T, Jackson G V H, 1979. Virus diseases of taro (Colocasia esculenta) and Xanthosoma sp. in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal. 30 (4), 71-97.

Tuncyurek, 1970. The Coccoids harmful to Citrus in Turkey. (Les cochenilles nuisibles aux Citrus en Turquie.). Awamia. 67-80.

Verghese A, Urs K C D, 1995. Development of sampling plan and spatial dispersion of natural population of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in a guava ecosystem. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 1 (2), 87-92.

Williams D J, 1986. The identity and distribution of the genus Maconellicoccus Ezzat (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 76 (2), 351-357. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300014814

Xuan Dai, 1996. Investigation on ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) in tea gardens of east Guizhou. Journal of Tea Science. 16 (2), 131-134.

Yasnosh V A, Mjavanadze V I, 1983. On the efficiency and rational use of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri against plant pests in the Georgian SSR. In: 10th International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Volume 2. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, England, 20-25 November, 1983. Plant protection for human welfare. [10th International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Volume 2. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, England, 20-25 November, 1983. Plant protection for human welfare.], Croydon, UK: British Crop Protection Council. 798.

Zaets V G, 1970. The biological control of quarantine pests of fruit trees. Zashchita Rastenii. 15 (12), 45-46.

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