Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cryptoblabes gnidiella
(citrus pyralid)

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Datasheet

Cryptoblabes gnidiella (citrus pyralid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cryptoblabes gnidiella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • citrus pyralid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Wingspan 11-20 mm. Forewing greyish-brown with a variable amount of whitish suffusion, scattered reddish-brown scales give a purplish appearance, hindwing shining white; veins conspicuous, pale greyish-brown.
TitleAdult
CaptionWingspan 11-20 mm. Forewing greyish-brown with a variable amount of whitish suffusion, scattered reddish-brown scales give a purplish appearance, hindwing shining white; veins conspicuous, pale greyish-brown.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Wingspan 11-20 mm. Forewing greyish-brown with a variable amount of whitish suffusion, scattered reddish-brown scales give a purplish appearance, hindwing shining white; veins conspicuous, pale greyish-brown.
AdultWingspan 11-20 mm. Forewing greyish-brown with a variable amount of whitish suffusion, scattered reddish-brown scales give a purplish appearance, hindwing shining white; veins conspicuous, pale greyish-brown. ©Natural History Museum, London

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cryptoblabes gnidiella Millière

Preferred Common Name

  • citrus pyralid

Other Scientific Names

  • Albinia casazzar Briosi
  • Albinia gnidiella Millière
  • Albinia wockiana
  • Cryptoblabes aliena Swezey
  • Cryptoblabes wockeana
  • Ephestia gnidiella Millière

International Common Names

  • English: christmasberry webworm; honeydew moth; rind-boring orange moth
  • Spanish: piralido de los cítricos
  • French: pyrale des agrumes
  • Portuguese: traca da uva

Local Common Names

  • Israel: ash klipat haadar
  • Italy: ficide degli agrumi; ficide della vite; piralide dei fiori

EPPO code

  • CRYBAL (Cryptoblabes aliena)
  • CRYBGN (Cryptoblabes gnidiella)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Pyralidae
  •                             Genus: Cryptoblabes
  •                                 Species: Cryptoblabes gnidiella

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent
LiberiaPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresentOriginal citation: Akanbi, 1973
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

IndiaPresent
-DelhiPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IsraelPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
PakistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
CyprusPresent
FrancePresent
GreecePresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresentOriginal citation: Favaloro et al., 1974
MaltaPresent
PolandAbsent, Intercepted only
PortugalPresent
-MadeiraPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

BermudaPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

New ZealandPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
UruguayPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / internal feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / webbing
Stems / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Apanteles Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Blaptostethus piceus Predator
Brachymeria excarinata Parasite Larvae
Bracon Parasite Larvae
Goniozus emigratus Parasite Larvae
Labidura riparia Predator Larvae/Pupae
Nemorilla floralis Parasite Larvae
Nemorilla maculosa Parasite Larvae
Orius Predator Eggs/Larvae
Scolothrips sexmaculatus Predator Eggs/Larvae
Trichogramma platneri Parasite Eggs
Xanthopimpla Parasite Larvae

References

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Bagnoli, B., Lucchi, A., 2001. Bionomics of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Pyralidae Phycitinae) in Tuscan vineyards. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 24(7), 79-83.

Baum D, 1986. Field trials for controlling the European grape berry moth (Lobesia botrana Schiff.) and the honeydew moth (Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill.) in vineyards. Alon Hanotea, 40(9):795-799; [1 pl.]; 3 ref.

Bisotto-de-Oliveira R, Redaelli LR, Sant'Ana J, Cover C, Botton M, 2007. Ocurrence of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) associated with grape phenology in Bento Gonçalves, RS. (Ocorrência de Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) relacionada à fenologia da videira em Bento Gonçalves, RS.) Neotropical Entomology, 36(4):555-559. http://www.scielo.br/ne

Bjostad LB, Gurevitz E, Gothilf S, Roelofs WL, 1981. Sex attractant for the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella. Phytoparasitica, 9(2):95-99

Carter DJ, 1984. Pest Lepidoptera of Europe with special reference to the British Isles. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk.

Dawidowicz , Rozwaka R, 2016. Honeydew moth Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): an adventive species frequently imported with fruit to Poland. Polish Journal of Entomology, 85(2):181-189. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pjen

Duffy BK, Gardner DE, 1994. Locally established Botrytis fruit rot of Myrica faya, a noxious weed in Hawaii. Plant Disease, 78(9):919-923

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Goater B, 1986. British pyralid moths. A guide to their identification. British pyralid moths. A guide to their identification., 175pp.; [8 col. pl., 12 fig., 22x16 cm].

Gubbaiah, 1984. Cryptoblabes gnidiella, a fern-feeding caterpillar, and its parasites. International Rice Research Newsletter, 9(6):20-21

Halperin, J., Sauter, W., 1991. An annotated list with new records of Lepidoptera associated with forest and ornamental trees and shrubs in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 25-26, 105-147.

Harari, A. R., Zahavi, T., Gordon, D., Anshelevich, L., Harel, M., Ovadia, S., Dunkelblum, E., 2007. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption. Pest Management Science, 63(8), 769-775. doi: 10.1002/ps.1365

Herting B, Simmonds FJ, 1975. A catalogue of parasites and predators of terrestrial arthropods. Section A. Host or prey/enemy. Volume VI. Lepidoptera, Part 1 (Microlepidoptera). A catalogue of parasites and predators of terrestrial arthropods. Section A. Host or prey/enemy. Volume VI. Lepidoptera, Part 1 (Microlepidoptera). Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. Farnham Royal UK, [5 +]218 pp.

Ishaaya I, Gurevitz E, Ascher KRS, 1983. Synthetic pyrethroids and avermectin for controlling the grapevine pests Lobesia botrana, Cryptoblabes gnidiella and Drosophila melanogaster. Phytoparasitica, 11(3/4):161-166

Karsholt O, 1996. The Lepidoptera of Europe: A Distributional Checklist. Stenstrup, Denmark: Apollo Books, in press.

Kishore, P., Jotwani, M. G., 1982. Estimation of avoidable losses caused by the earhead caterpillars on sorghum and their control. Entomon, 7(1), 65-69.

McQuate, G. T., Follett, P. A., Yoshimoto, J. M., 2000. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93(3), 846-851. doi: 10.1603/0022-0493-93.3.846

Roberts, H., 1969. Forest insects of Nigeria with notes on their biology and distribution. In: Inst. Pap. Commonw. For. Inst , (44) : Oxford.206 pp.

Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW, Hernandez LM, 2004. HOSTS - A database of the hostplants of the world’s Lepidoptera. London, UK: The Natural History Museum.

Salama, S. I., 2008. Biological studies on Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infesting stored garlic. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo), 53(2), 397-402.

Sasmal, S., Kulshrestha, J. P., 1984. Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Mill), a pest of 'Azolla' infests rice., 5(1/2), 2.

Sellanes, C., González, A., 2014. The potential of sex pheromones analogs for the control of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Lepdoptera: Pyralidae), an exotic pest in South America. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 99, 55-60. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2014_99_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

Sellanes, C., Rossini, C., González, A., 2010. Formate analogs as antagonists of the sex pheromone of the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella: electrophysiological, behavioral and field evidence. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 36(11), 1234-1240. doi: 10.1007/s10886-010-9861-8

Silva, E. B., Mexia, A., 1999. The pest complex Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on sweet orange groves (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) in Portugal: interspecific association. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 25(1), 89-98.

Singh YP, Srivastava AS, 1984. Relative toxicity of some insecticides to the larvae of Cryptoblabes gnidiella Miller. Indian Journal of Entomology, 46(3):346-351

Swailem SM, Ismail II, 1972. On the biology of the honey dew moth Cryptoblabes gnidiella, Milliere. Bulletin de la societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 56:127-134

Swirski E, Izhar Y, Wysoki M, Gurevitz E, Greenberg S, 1980. Integrated control of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Hom.: Pseudococcidae), in avocado plantations in Israel. Entomophaga, 25(4):415-426

Takara J, 1981. Insect pests on Azolla pinnata at Bangkhen, Thailand. International Rice Research Newsletter, 6(4):12-13

Taley YM, Dongardeo ML, Sharnagat BK, 1974. Bionomics of sorghum earhead webworms. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36(2):151-152

Tawfik MFS, Abul-Nasr S, El-Husseini MM, 1972. The biology of Labiduria riparia Pallas (Dermaptera:Labiduridae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 56:75-92

Tawfik MFS, El-Husseini, 1972. The life-history of the Anthocorid predator, Blaptostethus piceus Fieber var. pallescens Poppius (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 55:239-252.

Tio R del, Ocete R, Ocete ME, 1994. Practical indications for differentiating preimaginal stages of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermuller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere, 1867) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), two vine pests in Jerez, Spain. SHILAP, Sociedad Hispano-Luso-Americana de Lepidopterologia, 22(86):119-125

Torres-Vila, L. M., Cruces Caldera, E., Rodríguez-Molina, M. C., Sánchez González, Á., Delgado Valiente, E., Ferrero García, J. J., Ponce Escudero, F., Palo Núñez, E., Barrena Galán, F., Aza Barrero, M. C., Rodríguez Corbacho, F., 2006. Damage, spatial distribution and intra- and inter-specific interaction of the main carpophagous of holm and cork oak in Extremadura (Spain): Curculio elephas Gyllenhal, Cydia fagiglandana Zeller and Cydia triangulella Goeze. (Daños, distribución espacial e interacción intra- e inter-específica de los principales carpófagos de encina y alcornoque en Extremadura: Curculio elephas Gyllenhal, Cydia fagiglandana Zeller y Cydia triangulella Goeze). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 32(1), 45-56.

Van den Berg MA, de Villiers EA, Joubert PH, 2001. Pests and beneficial arthropods of tropical and non-citrus subtropical crops in South Africa. ARC 0 LNR. South Africa: Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, 525 pp.

Vidart, M. V., Mujica, M. V., Calvo, M. V., Duarte, F., Bentancourt, C. M., Franco, J., Scatoni, I. B., 2013. Relationship between male moths of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) caught in sex pheromone traps and cumulative degree-days in vineyards in southern Uruguay. SpringerPlus, 2(258), (10 June 2013). http://www.springerplus.com/content/pdf/2193-1801-2-258.pdf

Wysoki M, 1986. New records of Lepidopterous pests of macadamia in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 14(2):147

Wysoki M, Haan Pde, Izhar Y, 1988. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis preparations containing dead and live spores against two avocado pests: the giant looper, Boarmia selenaria (Lep.: Geometridae) and the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Lep.: Phycitidae). Crop Protection, 7(2):131-136; [4 fig.]; 18 ref.

Wysoki, M., Izhar, Y., Gurevitz, E., Swirski, E., Greenberg, S., 1975. Control of the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill. (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), with Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in avocado plantations. Phytoparasitica, 3(2), 103-111.

Wysoki, M., Jong, M. de, 1989. Attraction of Trichogramma platneri to eggs of some lepidopterous pests of avocado. Phytoparasitica, 17(4), 315-318.

Yehuda SB, Wysoki M, Rosen D, 1991. Phenology of the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on avocado in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 25-26:149-160

Yehuda SB, Wysoki M, Rosen D, 1993. Laboratory evaluation of microbial pesticides against the honeydew moth. Insect Science and its Application, 14(5):627-630; 10 ref.

Zhang BC(Compiler), 1994. Index of economically important Lepidoptera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 599 pp.

Zimmerman EC, 1958. Insects of Hawaii, Vol 8. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.

Öztürk, N., Ulusoy, M. R., 2011. Determination of hosts of Honeydew moth [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] and damage ratio on pomegranate fruits in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (Doğu Akdeniz Bölgesi'nde Portakal güvesi [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)]'nin konukçuları ve nardaki zarar oranının belirlenmesi). Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 51(3), 231-238. http://www.ziraimucadele.gov.tr

Öztürk, N., Ulusoy, M. R., 2013. A new pest, honeydew moth [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] on persimmon (Diosppyros kaki L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey. (Trabzon hurması (Diosppyros kaki L.) ve mısır (Zea mays L.)'da yeni bir zararlı, portakal güvesi [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)]). TABAD, Tarım Bilimleri Araștırma Dergisi, 6(1), 6-9. http://www.nobel.gen.tr/Makaleler/TABAD-Issue%201-6fcfd1de74fd4b91b6597fd1a577b335.pdf

Distribution References

Anon, 1994. Index of economically important Lepidoptera. [ed. by Zhang B C]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 599 pp.

Anshelevich L, Kehat M, Dunkelblum E, Greenberg S, 1993. Sex pheromone traps for monitoring the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella: effect of pheromone components, pheromone dose, field aging of dispenser, and type of trap on male captures. Phytoparasitica. 21 (3), 189-198.

Bagnoli B, Lucchi A, 2001. Bionomics of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Pyralidae Phycitinae) in Tuscan vineyards. Bulletin OILB/SROP. 24 (7), 79-83.

Bisotto-de-Oliveira R, Redaelli L R, Sant'Ana J, Cover C, Botton M, 2007. Ocurrence of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) associated with grape phenology in Bento Gonçalves, RS. (Ocorrência de Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) relacionada à fenologia da videira em Bento Gonçalves, RS.). Neotropical Entomology. 36 (4), 555-559. http://www.scielo.br/ne DOI:10.1590/S1519-566X2007000400013

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dawidowicz Ł, Rozwałka R, 2016. Honeydew moth Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): an adventive species frequently imported with fruit to Poland. Polish Journal of Entomology. 85 (2), 181-189. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pjen

Duffy B K, Gardner D E, 1994. Locally established Botrytis fruit rot of Myrica faya, a noxious weed in Hawaii. Plant Disease. 78 (9), 919-923. DOI:10.1094/PD-78-0919

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Gubbaiah, 1984. Cryptoblabes gnidiella, a fern-feeding caterpillar, and its parasites. International Rice Research Newsletter. 9 (6), 20-21.

Halperin J, Sauter W, 1991. An annotated list with new records of Lepidoptera associated with forest and ornamental trees and shrubs in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology. 105-147.

Harari A R, Zahavi T, Gordon D, Anshelevich L, Harel M, Ovadia S, Dunkelblum E, 2007. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption. Pest Management Science. 63 (8), 769-775. DOI:10.1002/ps.1365

Ishaaya I, Gurevitz E, Ascher K R S, 1983. Synthetic pyrethroids and avermectin for controlling the grapevine pests Lobesia botrana, Cryptoblabes gnidiella and Drosophila melanogaster. Phytoparasitica. 11 (3/4), 161-166.

Karsholt O, 1996. The Lepidoptera of Europe: A Distributional Checklist., Stenstrup, Denmark: Apollo Books, in press.

Kishore P, Jotwani M G, 1982. Estimation of avoidable losses caused by the earhead caterpillars on sorghum and their control. Entomon. 7 (1), 65-69.

McQuate G T, Follett P A, Yoshimoto J M, 2000. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. 93 (3), 846-851. DOI:10.1603/0022-0493-93.3.846

NHM, 1895. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1907. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1912. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1913. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1957. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1962. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1970. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1978. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1981. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1984. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1988. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Öztürk N, Ulusoy M R, 2011. Determination of hosts of Honeydew moth [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] and damage ratio on pomegranate fruits in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (Doğu Akdeniz Bölgesi'nde Portakal güvesi [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)]'nin konukçuları ve nardaki zarar oranının belirlenmesi.). Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 51 (3), 231-238. http://www.ziraimucadele.gov.tr

Öztürk N, Ulusoy M R, 2011a. The adult population dynamics of the Honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in citrus orchards in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (Doğu Akdeniz Bölgesi turunçgil bahçelerinde Portakal güvesi, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)'nın ergin popülasyon değișimi.). Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 51 (1), 17-32. http://www.ziraimucadele.gov.tr

Öztürk N, Ulusoy M R, 2013. A new pest, honeydew moth [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] on persimmon (Diosppyros kaki L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey. (Trabzon hurması (Diosppyros kaki L.) ve mısır (Zea mays L.)'da yeni bir zararlı, portakal güvesi [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)].). TABAD, Tarım Bilimleri Araștırma Dergisi. 6 (1), 6-9. http://www.nobel.gen.tr/Makaleler/TABAD-Issue%201-6fcfd1de74fd4b91b6597fd1a577b335.pdf

Roberts H, 1969. Forest insects of Nigeria with notes on their biology and distribution. In: Inst. Pap. Commonw. For. Inst. Oxford. 206 pp.

Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW, Hernandez LM, 2004. HOSTS - A database of the hostplants of the world's Lepidoptera., London, UK: The Natural History Museum.

Salama S I, 2008. Biological studies on Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infesting stored garlic. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo). 53 (2), 397-402.

Sasmal S, Kulshrestha J P, 1984. Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Mill), a pest of 'Azolla' infests rice. Rice Research Newsletter. 5 (1/2), 2.

Sellanes C, González A, 2014. The potential of sex pheromones analogs for the control of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Lepdoptera: Pyralidae), an exotic pest in South America. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 55-60. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2014_99_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

Sellanes C, Rossini C, González A, 2010. Formate analogs as antagonists of the sex pheromone of the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella: electrophysiological, behavioral and field evidence. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 36 (11), 1234-1240. DOI:10.1007/s10886-010-9861-8

Silva E B, Mexia A, 1999. The pest complex Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on sweet orange groves (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) in Portugal: interspecific association. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. 25 (1), 89-98.

Takara J, 1981. Insect pests on Azolla pinnata at Bangkhen, Thailand. International Rice Research Newsletter. 6 (4), 12-13.

Vidart M V, Mujica M V, Calvo M V, Duarte F, Bentancourt C M, Franco J, Scatoni I B, 2013. Relationship between male moths of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) caught in sex pheromone traps and cumulative degree-days in vineyards in southern Uruguay. SpringerPlus. 2 (258), (10 June 2013). http://www.springerplus.com/content/pdf/2193-1801-2-258.pdf

Wysoki M, Izhar Y, Gurevitz E, Swirski E, Greenberg S, 1975. Control of the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill. (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), with Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in avocado plantations. Phytoparasitica. 3 (2), 103-111.

Yehuda S B, Wysoki M, Rosen D, 1991. Phenology of the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on avocado in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology. 149-160.

Yehuda S B, Wysoki M, Rosen D, 1993. Laboratory evaluation of microbial pesticides against the honeydew moth. Insect Science and its Application. 14 (5), 627-630.

Zimmerman EC, 1958. Insects of Hawaii., 8 Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii.

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