Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cronartium ribicola
(white pine blister rust)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Cronartium ribicola (white pine blister rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cronartium ribicola
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white pine blister rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. ribicola infects white pines and Ribes spp., causing severe long-term damage and disruption to ecosystems by altering patterns of natural succession.

    There are a total of 14 specie...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Comparison of aecia blisters of C. ribicola var. ribes on Pinus lambertiana (a) with those of C. ribicola var. pidicularis on Pinus koraiensis (b).
TitleAecia blisters
CaptionComparison of aecia blisters of C. ribicola var. ribes on Pinus lambertiana (a) with those of C. ribicola var. pidicularis on Pinus koraiensis (b).
CopyrightMo-Mei Chen
Comparison of aecia blisters of C. ribicola var. ribes on Pinus lambertiana (a) with those of C. ribicola var. pidicularis on Pinus koraiensis (b).
Aecia blistersComparison of aecia blisters of C. ribicola var. ribes on Pinus lambertiana (a) with those of C. ribicola var. pidicularis on Pinus koraiensis (b).Mo-Mei Chen

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.

Preferred Common Name

  • white pine blister rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Peridermium indicum Colley & M.W. Taylor
  • Peridermium kurilense Dietel
  • Peridermium strobi Kleb.

International Common Names

  • English: currant rust
  • Spanish: moho ampolla del piño blanco
  • French: rouille vésiculeuse du pin blanc
  • Chinese: wu zhen song pao xiu bing

Local Common Names

  • Austria: Johannisbeeren-Säulenrost; Strobenrost; Weymouthskieferen-Blasenrost
  • Germany: Johannisbeeren-Säulenrost; Strobenrost; Weymouthskieferen-Blasenrost
  • Liechtenstein: Johannisbeeren-Säulenrost; Strobenrost; Weymouthskieferen-Blasenrost
  • Macedonia: rgja po korata na petoiglichestite borovi
  • Switzerland: Johannisbeeren-Säulenrost; Strobenrost; Weymouthskieferen-Blasenrost

EPPO code

  • CRONRI (Cronartium ribicola)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page C. ribicola infects white pines and Ribes spp., causing severe long-term damage and disruption to ecosystems by altering patterns of natural succession.

There are a total of 14 species of Pinus and over 40 susceptible Ribes species. Among the most susceptible pines in the USA are: the sugar pine (P. lambertiana), western white pine (P. monticola), eastern white pine (P. strobus). In China the most susceptible are: the Chinese red pine (P. massoniana) and the armandi pine (P. armandii) (Chen, 2004).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Cronartiaceae
  •                             Genus: Cronartium
  •                                 Species: Cronartium ribicola

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The specific forms f.sp. ribicola and f.sp. pedicularis have been proposed to indicate infectability of different hosts. However, f.sp. pedicularis can infect both Ribes and Pedicularis (Yokota and Uozumi, 1976; Shi, 1991). Successful inoculations of Castilleja miniata using aeciospores from infected pines were obtained by Hiratsuka and Maruyama (1976) and Patton and Spear (1989). The latter also infected Pedicularis resupinata and P. canadensis, and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, Hunt (1984) did not obtain infection (visible to the eye) of Castilleja hispida or C. miniata, Pedicularis species or Rhinanthus crista-galli. Hunt (1984) and Patton and Spear (1989), inoculated Ribes species successfully. Hiratsuka and Maruyama (1976) reported telia on Castilleja stems, whereas Patton and Spear (1989) found extensive mycelia in leaves, but no spore production from any Castilleja, Pedicularis or Phaseolus plants. Yi and Kim (1983) successfully inoculated native Pedicularis and Ribes montigenum from Pinus koraensis, but not R. nigrum or R. grossularia [R. uva-crispa] or two native Ribes species. Kovaleva and Natal'ina (1968) determined that two 'forms' of C. ribicola existed due to spore morphology and reported the incapacity of spores from currant to infect gooseberry. Therefore, 'specialized' C. ribicola populations may exist, but apparently not to the degree of separation needed to qualify as formae speciales.

There are some indications that geographic speciation is currently taking place. Genetic drift in eastern and western populations of North America and restriction in gene flow are possible mechanisms of geographic speciation. Recent spread and intensification in new hosts or geographic regions, e.g., in the southwest (P. strobiformis), at high elevation (P. albicaulis), and in eastern stands of limber pine (P. flexilis) could result in a genetic bridge between eastern and western C. ribicola (Hamelin, 2003).

Description

Top of page After Laundon and Rainbow (1971):

Heteroecious, macrocyclic. Pycnia caulicolous, appearing as low yellowish blisters towards the edge of the cankers, becoming irregular, ill defined and dark coloured, gradually destroyed or disrupted by the enlarging aecia, of indeterminate type, subcortical, flat, ca 50 µm deep and 0.5-3 mm diameter. Aecia caulicolous, peridermioid, more or less circular and ca 2-5 mm diameter or transversely elongated and up to 10 x 5 mm, opening irregularly or around the sides; peridia smooth, several cells thick; cells elongated, strongly verrucose. Aeciospores globose to ellipsoid, 16-30 µm diameter (20-34 x 13-25 µm on Pinus pumila; Imazu and Kakashima, 1995); wall hyaline, 2-4.5 µm thick, often slightly thicker at the smooth spot than around rest of the spore, strongly verrucose, except for the well-defined smooth spot, the warts 1-2 µm diameter x 1-2 µm high. Uredinia hypophyllous, on angular brownish or dark spots, often profuse, yellowish, bullate, circular, minute, 0.15-0.25 mm diameter, peridiate with a central pore. Urediniospores ellipsoid to obovoid, 19-30 x 13-20 µm (21-32 x 13-22 µm on Pinus pumila; Imazu and Kakashima, 1995); wall hyaline, 1-2 µm thick, finely echinulate with spines 2-3 µm apart x 1 µm high, pores apparently absent. Telia appearing in the uredinia and producing spore columns up to 2 mm long and 0.1-0.2 mm wide, orange to cinnamon brown, often profuse and like a coarse felt on the leaf undersurface. Teliospores somewhat cemented together, ellipsoid at apex of the telial columns, cylindric below, rounded or truncate ends, 28-60 x 15-23 µm; wall hyaline, pale yellowish to golden, 1-2 µm thick, often thickened at ends or corners to 4-6 µm, smooth. The Aeciospores measure 14.4-28.8x22.8-33.6 µm and Urediospores measure 13.1-20.6x15.6-30 µm (Chen, 2004).

Distribution

Top of page The rust is found in a circumpolar belt in the northern hemisphere wherever susceptible hosts occur within range of spores from the other. Aeciospores seem more durable than other spores and may account for most reports of infected Ribes beyond the range of susceptible pines.

The distribution table contains details of specimens held in herb. IMI (CABI, Egham, UK).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentEPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionCheng et al., 1998a; IMI Herbarium, unda; Tai, 1979; Song, 1988; Guo, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-GansuPresentJing et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentCheng et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentShao et al., 1980; Cheng et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentCheng et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentJing et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentNativeSawada, 1942; Yang, 2002; Chen, 2004
-XinjiangPresentJing et al., 1995; Yao et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentChen et al., 2006
IndiaRestricted distributionAnon., 1961; IMI Herbarium, unda; Arthur and Cummins, 1933; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentKhabiri, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentWicker & Yokota, 1976; Saho, 1972; Hobayashi, 1976; Yokota and Uozumi, 1976; Hiratsuka et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentImazu and Kakishima, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentHama, 1987; Imazu and Kakishima, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentHyun and Koo, 1981; Kim et al., 1982; Yi, 1982; Yi and Kim, 1983; La and Yi, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentDurrieu, 1980; Ono et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentAhmad, 1956; Zakaullaii, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentSawada, 1942; Anon., 1979; Hiratsuka and Chen, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaWidespreadIMI Herbarium, unda; Hiratsuka and Powell, 1976; Ginns, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Hilton, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentSmith, 1971; Ziller, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentZiller, 1974; Wood, 1986; Allen et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Campbell and Antos, 2000; Zeglen, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentGinns, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentMagasi, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentMagasi, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentBérube & Plourde, 1995; Zsuffa, 1985; Hodge et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentMagasi, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentBérube & Plourde, 1995; Lavalée, 1974; Lavalée, 1986; Therrriault 1993; Corriveau and Lamontagne, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentGinns, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadIMI Herbarium, unda; Anon., 1960; Boyce, 1961; Neuenschwander et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Smith and Hoffman, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentFairweather and Geils, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentNativeByler & Parmeter, 1979; Miller, 1968; Kinloch and Comstock, 1981; Samman, 1982; Chen et al., 1985; Kliejunas, 1985; French, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Smith and Hoffman, 2000; Chen, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; Hummer, 2000; Johnson and Jacobi, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; Frederick et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentAnon., 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentHepting and Toole, 1950; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentKrebill, 1964; Shaw, 1973; Bingham, 1983; Tomback et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Smith and Hoffman, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentEmmons et al., 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MainePresentOstrofsky el al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentMiller, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentvan Ardsel & Krebill, 1995; King, 1958; Anderson, 1973; Robbins et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Ostry, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentvan Ardsel & Krebill, 1995; King, 1958; Anderson, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Ostry, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaPresentBrown, 1970; Shaw, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-NevadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; Hummer, 2000; Smith and Hoffman, 2000; Smith et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentMiller, 1973; Lombard and Bofinger, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentMiller, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoPresentHawksworth, 1990; Conklin, 1994; van Ardsel et al., 1998; Geils et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentMiller, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentHepting and Toole, 1950; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentDraper and Walla, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentShaw, 1973; Samman, 1982; McDonald et al., 1984; Sniezko, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentMiller, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentMiller, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-South DakotaPresentLundquist et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; Smith and Hoffman, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Vogler et al., 2017
-VermontPresentMiller, 1973; Bergdahl and Teillon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentStipes and Davis, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentShaw, 1973; Samman, 1982; Sniezko, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentNativeVan Ardsel & Krebill, 1995; King, 1958; Greene, 1960; Anderson, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Meier, 2000; Ostry, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentHarris, 1999a; Harris, 1999b; Brown, 1978; Lundquist, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Smith and Hoffman, 2000; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaWidespread****Glaeser, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentDarozhkin & Federau, 1976; Gryshanocivh, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentSpaulding, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicRestricted distribution****Tubeuf, 1936; Jankovsky, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)Restricted distribution****IMI Herbarium, unda; Tubeuf, 1936
DenmarkPresentPeterson, 1978; Nielsen and Kirknel, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentLepik, 1937; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
FinlandWidespreadIMI Herbarium, unda; Kari, 1957; Kurkela and Jalkanen, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadIMI Herbarium, unda; Arnaud and Arnaud, 1931; Monnet, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresent, few occurrences****IMI Herbarium, unda; Braun, 1982; Muller, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
HungaryRestricted distribution****IMI Herbarium, unda; Szabo, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
IrelandWidespreadMcKay et al., 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentAnon., 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentMinkevicius & Ignataviciute, 1991; Brundza, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
NorwayRestricted distribution****Jorstad & Gjaerum, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; Tylus et al., 1981; Nowacka et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; Blada, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionKuprevich and Transhel, 1957; Spaulding, 1961; Kuminova, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Eastern SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentAblakatova, 1965; Kakishima et al., 1995; Gjaerum, 1996; Imazu et al., 1998; Azbukina, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentHrubik, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentTorres, 1959; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SwedenRestricted distribution****IMI Herbarium, unda; Spaulding, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandWidespread****IMI Herbarium, unda; Darbellay, 1939; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
UKRestricted distribution****IMI Herbarium, unda; Spaulding, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesRestricted distributionIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ScotlandRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentSherengovyi, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2000

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page Accidentally introduced to North America in 1910, white pine blister rust has spread across the range of the five-needled white pines. All eight of the western North American species of white pines are susceptible to this pathogen. These pines occur in ecosystems from near sea level to the tree-line. Six of these eight species have already been affected, several severely. Prior to 2003 there were no known cases of bristlecone (Pinus aristata, P. longaeva) with blister rust infection in natural stands, but blister rust was known to occur dangerously close to both the ancient Great Basin bristlecone pines (P. longaeva) in California, USA, and the Rocky Mountain bristlecones (P. aristata) in Colorado, USA. In 2003, a Rocky Mountain bristlecone with infection was discovered (J Blodgett, USDA Forest Service, USA, personal communication, 2004).

Non-native invasive pathogens such as white pine blister rust (C. ribicola) are killing trees and disrupting forest ecosystems in western North America. Populations of western white pine (P. monticola), sugar pine (P. lambertiana), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis), and limber pine (P. flexilis) are declining precipitously from damage by blister rust (Sniezko et al., 2004).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Ribes cultivation is banned in some states of the USA (McKay, 2000). Importation of Ribes plants to North America is banned (Dale, 2000). Phytosanitary certification is required for shipments between Canada and the USA of Ribes plants and foliage or seedlings of susceptible pines. West Virginia, USA, prohibits cultivation of Ribes nigrum throughout the State, and of any Ribes species in 23 named counties (Gibson, 2000). Quarantine and Ribes eradication laws also exist in Pennsylvania (Hall, 2000); in New York State Ribes cultivation is regulated (Denham, 2000). Quarantines against importing the rust are established in Turkey, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and the USA (EPPO, 1999). Although not found in Macedonia, C. ribicola is listed as 'economically important' and a separation of 2 km is suggested for the planting of Ribes and susceptible pines (Pinus peuce and P. strobus) (Papazov et al., 2000).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The centre of origin of C. ribicola is believed to be central-eastern Eurasia with Ribes and Pedicularis as alternate hosts (Millar and Kinloch, 1991) and pines in the subsections Cembrae and Strobi as additional hosts (Little and Critchfield, 1969). The rust was found on pines and currants in Europe in the 1800s (Hummer, 2000). It was transported to eastern North America on infected pine seedlings in the late 1800s and to the west coast in 1910 (Hummer, 2000). Now it occurs throughout the range of susceptible hosts, including two species in subsection Balfourianae, and seems to be expanding southward on pines in western USA (Hawksworth, 1990). It occurs on Ribes beyond the range of susceptible pines (for example in Saskatchewan, Canada; Ginns, 1986).

In addition to the main hosts listed, C. ribicola has been reported by various researchers from another 14 species of Pinus species and over 40 other species of Ribes. In inoculation trials, C. ribicola formed uredinia or telia on seven species of Ribes, Pedicularis palustris subsp. palustris, Bartsia alpina and Loasa triphylla (Kaitera et al., 2012). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Castilleja (paintbrushes)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
Castilleja miniataScrophulariaceaeWild host
Pedicularis (lousewort)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
Pedicularis bracteosaPediculidaeWild host
Pedicularis racemosaScrophulariaceaeWild host
Pinus (pines)PinaceaeMain
Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus aristata (bristle-cone pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus aristata var. longaevaPinaceaeMain
Pinus aristata var. longaevaPinaceaeOther
Pinus flexilis (limber pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus koraiensis (fruit pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus lambertiana (big pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus monticola (western white pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus parviflora (Japanese white pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus parviflora var. pentaphyllaPinaceaeMain
Pinus pumila (Dwarf Siberian pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)PinaceaeMain
Ribes (currants)GrossulariaceaeMain
Ribes alpinum (alpine current)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes americanum (American black currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes aureum (golden currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes bracteosum (Stink currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes cereum (Wax currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes divaricatumGrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes glandulosum (Skunk currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes hirtellum (Hairystem gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes hudsonianum var. petiolare (Western black currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes lacustre (Swamp black currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes laxiflorum (Trailing black currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes lobbii (Lobbs gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes montigenum (Mountain gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes nevadense (Sierra currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant)GrossulariaceaeMain
Ribes oxyacanthoides (Northern gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes roezlii (Sierra gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes rubrum (red currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes sanguineum (Flowering currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes speciosum (Fuchsia-flowered gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes triste (Swamp red currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes uva-crispa (gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page On Pines: 'flagged' branches (with dead foliage) or tops distal to swollen, rough-barked branches or stems producing resin flow from an orange-margined canker. Young trees may be stunted and discoloured prior to death. Younger cankers are elongated and spindle-shaped on branches and diamond-shaped on stems within the orange margin. Conspicuous, orange, aecia develop in spring, followed by oozing pycnia.

On Ribes: orange-yellow spots appear on leaves in early summer; mycelia are visible from the under surface. In late summer, leaves show more-developed spots and necrotic areas, and may be curled. Telial columns are visible to the eye in brownish spots on the under surface.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / external feeding
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / ooze
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Life Cycle

Peterson (1974) classified C. ribicola as macrocyclic since it produces five spore forms, which differ in the distribution of chitin on cell surfaces (Ekramoddoullah et al., 2000).

Inoculation of Pinus species by basidiospores generally requires cool temperatures (9-15°C; Hansen and Patton, 1975; Yokota, 1983b). Moist air is critical, but droplets on leaf surfaces can cause spore clumping and bursting (Hansen and Patton, 1977). Spore germination is affected by pH (Bega, 1960). Tube growth is directionless, but the tube must enter stomates and proliferate in the sub-stomatal chamber (Patton and Spear, 1978). Light to maintain open stomata may be helpful. Blockage of pine stomata by wax may be a 'defence mechanism' (Patton et al., 1980). Fungal hyphae may employ proteins to overcome defence responses (Ekramodoullah et al., 1999) or enzymes (pectinase) to break down cell walls and facilitate penetration (Martin, 1980) once hyphae are through the stoma. Infected pines express defence-responsive PR-10 genes (Yu et al., 2000). Catabolic effects in the host tissue several millimetres from mycelia produce tannins in the cytoplasm and vacuoles (Robb et al., 1975a, b). Changes may occur also in RNase (Harvey, 1979), and in cytokinins, Ca and K contents and glycine-2-C14 in the host (Lee, 1975).

Macro symptoms (needle spots) appear the following spring, or earlier in greenhouses. Extension to the bark, producing an orange spot at the base of a leaf cluster, may occur the same year. Mycelia may be found in the bark up to 12 cm beyond the orange band (Harvey and Cohen, 1958). Pycnia may emerge from inside the orange margin of the swelling canker the first or second year following infection reaching the bark. Insects, slugs and squirrels are attracted to pycnia (Powell, 1982; Hunt, 1985); the fluid contains many sugars, including high concentrations of glucitol and ribitol (Wicker et al., 1976). Insects may effect cross-transfer of genetic material (Hunt, 1985), producing multi-genotype cankers (McDonald, 1978; Hamelin, 1996). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of alleles in basidiospores implies random transfer of genetic material among pycnia (Gitzendanner et al., 1996).

Aeciospores develop the second or subsequent years after infection and spread to alternate hosts in the spring. 'Dormant' Ribes buds may be more susceptible than expanding leaves (Harvey, 1972). Infected Ribes leaves develop chlorotic spots that produce urediniospores from late spring to late summer, leading to increased and intensified infection by cycles of urediniospores. Telial columns develop by early summer to late autumn. Haploid basidiospores are produced during that time, infecting susceptible pines under favourable conditions: usually cool, moist air with gentle winds in late summer to early autumn. However, more-successful early-season infection has been found (Hunt and Jensen, 2000). Spaulding (1922) found viable spores shed into late autumn.

Epidemiology

The fungus overwinters as hyphae from new infections in intact pine foliage and in bark from established infections. The infection on Ribes ends with leaf drop. Temperature and moisture are both important to rust spread (van Ardsel et al., 1956; van Ardsel, 1965b). Spore spread from pine occurs in spring via aeciospore release on wind, matching a linear prediction (Burleigh et al., 1978). Although aeciospores can travel several kilometres, unlike basidiospores (Buller, 1950), spread of a new virulent rust allele vs. sugar pine has been slow (Kinloch and Dupper, 1987) and seems vulnerable to loss via genetic drift (Kinloch et al., 1998a). Intensification of an outbreak depends on the local climate (Song, 1988; van Ardsel and Krebill, 1995) and the distribution, density and susceptibility of the alternate hosts (Kim et al., 1982). Differences in Ribes susceptibility have been documented (McDonald and Andrews, 1981; Maloy, 1997). Pines generally differ in susceptibility relative to their proximity to the apparent centre of rust origin: Asiatic species are generally the least susceptible, European species more so, and North American species the most susceptible (Bingham, 1972). A similar trend exists in European vs. North American species of Ribes (Maloy, 1997).

Some reduction in aeciospore production may result from feeding by slugs (Hunt, 1978), and mice, squirrels, hares and porcupines (Powell, 1982). Several fungi are associated with C. ribicola cankers on pines (Williams, 1972). The associated fungus Tuberculina maxima, which capitalizes on tissue invaded by C. ribicola (Wicker and Woo, 1973), has been found with inactive rust cankers on Pinus monticola (Kimmey, 1969; Hungerford, 1977; Wicker, 1981), but not in Japan (Wicker and Yokota, 1982). T. maxima showed no evidence of antibiosis, lysis or parasitism of C. ribicola in a co-culture trial (Wicker, 1979). Its biocontrol potential seems limited (Wicker et al., 1980).

'High' infection caused Ribes mortality in a study by Mielke (1937) in British Columbia, Canada. Merrill (1991) summarized rust-intensification rates for several outbreaks in North America. The trend of rate of increase per unit per year was logarithmic at low disease incidence, but logistic at high levels. A model of rust epidemics has been created (MacDonald et al., 1981).

C. ribicola, introduced to Minnesota, USA, around 1914, is the cause of a decline in the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) population of the north-east of that state over the past 100 years. Along with other factors, such as herbivore browsing, C. ribicola now poses a major challenge to the reestablishment of white pines in the region. White pine regeneration may be possible with modern geographical information system techniques and readily available spatial databases, which show that climate, topographic characteristics, distances from water bodies and wetlands have had a strong influence on the white pine blister rust infection hazard (White et al., 2002).

A major survey of white bark pines (P. albicaulis) was conducted throughout its range in British Columbia, Canada. Over 3 years, 24,070 trees were examined for cause of death. Thirty-one percent had active blister rust infections. Finding relationships between the proportion of healthy, infected, or dead trees and elevation, latitude, and longitude produced mixed results. Rust infection occurred 4% of the time in larger trees (Zeglen, 2002).
In northern Wisconsin, USA, a survey showed the topographic position, aspect, slope, tree density, habitat type, and the presence or absence of bole cankers, at each plot. The mean incidence of infection was 7.2%. Mean incidence of canker-infected trees at this site was 15.9%. Incidence was almost three times higher on ridge tops and shoulders (12.3%) than on flat or bottomland (4.7%). The mean incidence of infection was 7.2% for all study sites, and 5.9% excluding data from Bayfield Peninsula. Incidences were almost three times higher on ridge tops and shoulders (12.3%) than on flat or bottomland (4.7%). Habitat type was correlated with disease incidence only at the Bayfield Peninsula site, and slope was not significantly correlated with rust levels on any of the plots (Dahir and Carlson, 2001).

Information about effects of plant spacing on growth and development of western white pine (P. monticola) is scant, because C. ribicola has severely limited the survival of trees in young plantations. The plots were measured again at ages 11 and 16. 16 years after planting, survival averaged 80%. 71% of the planted trees were free of blister rust at age 16. We believe that rust-resistant stock of western white pine merits greater consideration for planting in the Douglas-fir region. (Bishaw et al., 2003).

C. ribicola has been found on P. armandii (alternate host: Ribes glaciale var. laciniatum) in Sichuan, China. It was a localized, serious epidemic rust in the south and south-west and also in the Himalayas of China (Chen, 2004, Yang ZZ, 2002).

In China, the Chinese five needles pine blister rust attacks the Chinese red pine (P. koraiensis), the alternate hosts are Ribes and Pedicularis (Chen, 2004).

Genetic Variation

Genetic variation in C. ribicola has been inferred from sudden increases in pine infection in the USA (Kinloch and Comstock, 1981; McDonald et al., 1984) and in Pakistan (Zakaullaii, 1994). Differences in pine infection developed in trials using different rust sources (Stephan and Hyun, 1983; Meagher and Hunt, 1999). Differences in spore germination between Idaho and California collections may indicate ecotypes adapted to those environments (McDonald, 1996).

Intra-population variation in rust, causing different spot colours on a tree, have been found (McDonald and Hoff, 1972). Such studies are summarized to 1992 by Hoff and McDonald (1993). More recent work has employed isoenzyme, RAPD and RFLP techniques, and DNA mapping (White et al., 1996; Cheng et al., 1998b; Kinloch et al., 1998b, 1999). Uniformity in rust from north-east China suggested its recent arrival (Cheng et al., 1998a). In North America, studies have found much intra-population variation, but no clear geographic pattern (Bérube and Plourde, 1995; Hamelin et al., 1995, 1998). Different genotypes (Hamelin, 1996) or ribosomal intergenic spacer lengths (White et al., 1996) were found in a single canker. Rusts from eastern vs. western North America may show little genetic differentiation (Kinloch et al., 1998b) or clear differences (Hamelin et al., 1998). Cytoplasmic control of a gene virulent to a single defence gene in Pinus lambertiana is reported (Kinloch and Dupper, 1999).

A gene 'Cr' has been found in Ribes nigrum that resists C. ribicola (Ogol'tsova, 1979). This gene, dominant in Ribes ussuriense, conferred immunity to R. nigrum cultivars against North American strains of blister rust (Zambino, 2000).

Relatively high levels of blister rust infection (caused by C. ribicola) in some stands of genetically improved western white pine (P. monticola) raised concerns that resistance may fail under field conditions. Surveys show that infection and mortality are consistently lower in genetically improved white pine as compared to unimproved stock. In order to restore white pine populations and help alleviate forest health problems in the Inland Northwest forests of the USA, it is recommended that breeding for high levels of rust resistance continues, and planting of resistant seedlings increases, along with other silvicultural treatments (Fin et al., 2002).

The antigen reaction to an anti mab 7 suggests a constitutive role for Cro r II in fungus as an antibody in engineered C. ribicola-resistant white pines (Yu, Xueshu et al., 2002).

Hypersensitive reactions (HR) were observed in south-western white pines (P. strobiformis), as it was previously in sugar pine (P. lambertiana, Cr1) and western white pine (P. monticola, Cr2), at frequencies ranging from very low to moderate, which indicates a single dominant allele for resistance (Cr3). HR was present at a relatively high frequency (19%). HR was not found in whitebark pine (P. albicaulis), Mexican white pine (P. ayacahuite), foxtail pine (P. balfouriana), or Great Basin bristlecone pine (P. longaeva). A very important point is made by Kinloch et al. (2002): "Although blister rust traditionally is considered an exotic disease in North America, these results, typical of classic gene-for-gene interactions, suggest that genetic memory of similar encounters in past epochs has been retained in this pathosystem". Chen (2004) wrote: "Although it has been suggested that white pine blister rust is introduced from outside of [the USA] in a portion of its current range, the occurrence of white pine blister rust floras in virgin forests indicates the WPBR has evolved as part of the indigenous ecosystem in each region".

The interaction of resistance and virulence in C. ribicola suggests that some populations are locally adapted. Knowledge of population genetic structure and host specialization will be useful for host resistance screening, gene deployment, and predicting pathogen adoption (Richardson, 2003).

The black currant clone, 'Farleigh,' was susceptible to C. ribicola, which occurred every year. 'Titania' and 'Intercontinental' had the best field resistance to diseases. (Pedersen, 2001). Ribes clones, treated for developed infection, showed Blackcurrant cultivars with the Cr gene for white pine blister rust-immune genotypes (Hummer et al., 2002).

'Ben Alder' was the most affected by the disease with 63% of the underleaf surface covered with uredinia by mid-August, a few days following harvest. 'Ben Lomond' showed an intermediate susceptibility with 24% of the leaves affected. 'Ben Nevis' and 'Ben Sarek' expressed a high level of resistance with only 5% of the leaves affected. 'Titania' was rust resistant (Rousseau et al., 2001).

Two new black currant cultivars, 'Tiben' (from 'Titania' crossed with 'Ben Nevis') and 'Tisel' (from self-pollination of 'Titania') are resistant to C. ribicola (Pluta et al., 2002).

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page On pines, feeding on cankers has been recorded by Powell (1982) and ascribed to chipmunks, porcupines and squirrels. Following observations of chewed cankers on infected Pinus strobus, feeding trials of red-backed vole (Clethrionomys andersoni) in Hokkaido, Japan, showed a preference for materials containing infected pine shoots or rust aeciospores (Maeda and Uozumi, 1981). Hunt (1978) reported feeding by slugs on the pycnial area of pine cankers. The main effect of this feeding was to reduce spore production, possibly slowing rust intensification. Insects attracted to pycnia may be feeders and may create heterothallic cankers by transfer of Cronartium genes (Hunt, 1985).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Long-distance transfer of aeciospores seems responsible for reports of infection well beyond the range of susceptible pine species (Boyce, 1961; Smith, 1971; Ginns, 1986). Aeciospores are more durable and less-responsive to drying and heat shock than urediniospores and teliospores (Zambino et al., 1997) although urediniospores are fairly durable (Spaulding and Rathbun-Gravatt, 1925). Basidiospores are more susceptible to drying and solar damage (Spaulding, 1926). Night breezes are important in transferring basidiospores under conditions favouring inoculation (van Ardsel, 1965a).

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsAeciospores Yes
Containers and packaging - woodAeciospores Yes
Land vehiclesAeciospores Yes
MailAeciospores Yes
Plants or parts of plantsAeciospores Yes
Soil, sand and gravelAeciospores Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page The identification of C. ribicola as the same rust as that infecting cultivated Ribes virtually eliminated cultivation of Pinus strobus in Europe after 150 years (Laundon and Rainbow, 1971). In North America, its impact on all susceptible pine species has been severe The identification of C. ribicola as the same rust as that infecting cultivated Ribes virtually eliminated cultivation of Pinus strobus in Europe after 150 years (Laundon and Rainbow, 1971). In North America, its impact on all susceptible pine species has been severe (Boyce, 1961; Kliejunas, 1985; Hummer, 2000; Smith and Hoffman, 2000). Bega and Scharpf (1993) declared that white pine blister rust caused more damage and cost more to control than any other conifer disease in North America. The epidemic on Pinus monticola (Neuenschwander et al., 1999) was described as 'the world's most spectacular epiphytotic' (Bingham, 1983), causing a reduction of the gene pool of P. monticola (Hunt et al., 1985) and decimating regeneration of the threatened P. albicaulis (Tomback et al., 1995). However, Harvey (1967) found that branch cankers on P. lambertiana grew slower and died earlier, creating a lesser threat to survival, than similar cankers on P. monticola. Its impact on P. albicaulis and P. strobiformis is under recent study (Brown, 1978; Keane and Arno, 1993; Smith and Hoffman, 1998; Campbell and Antos, 2000; Zeglen, 2000). However, in mid-1980s C. ribicola caused trunk cankers in a sugar pine (P. lambertiana) plantation in the mid-Sierra Nevada mountains, killing 95% of the total number of trees (Chen, 2004). Susceptible Ribes species, especially R. nigrum, suffer reduced vigour and fruit yields.

Environmental Impact

Top of page As the white pines of the western USA are killed, the associated ecosystems also decline, altering the forest landscapes. In addition, these white pines are all moderately to greatly fire dependent, and have declined from past fire exclusion policies and the resulting successional replacement (Sniezko et al., 2004).

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page East Asia and North America were seriously attacked by C. ribicola during the 20th century, especially the western USA. There are nine white pine species native to the USA that are at risk and these include some of the oldest, and ecologically or culturally significant pine species in the USA. C. ribicola threatens the stability and survival of white pine ecosystems in 40 states of the USA. Without white pines, these forest communities would be altered dramatically (USDA-FS, 2004).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA candidate species USA ESA candidate speciesCalifornia; Montana; Oregon; WyomingPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact mechanisms
  • Pathogenic

Diagnosis

Top of page Spore morphology can separate C. ribicola from C. occidentale (Colley, 1925; Colley et al., 1927), and from C. quercuum (Liu and Teng, 1986; Cheng et al., 1998b), but not according to Kasanen (1997). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (Cheng et al., 1998b) and monoclonal antibodies (Ekramoddoullah and Taylor, 1996) have been identified; the latter confirm C. ribicola in infected pines (Ekramoddoullah and Tan, 1998).

Recently, during the molecular analysis of the proteins and genes involved in the host-pathogen interaction, the C. ribicola fungal protein Cro rI was identified in infected white pine tissues. The C. ribicola genome contained at least two copies of the cro rI gene. The translocation of Cro rI was only found to occur in cankered trees, and not in the young infected seedlings. The implications of Cro rI in pathogenesis are discussed by Yu et al. (2002).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Pines: examine plants for spotted second-year or older foliage, swollen branches or stems inside an orange margin, pycnial ooze or orange aecial structures in a spindle-shaped swelling. Trees show dying branches or tops distal to cankers; stems may be greatly enlarged above the canker and cankers may produce heavy resinosis (Hoff, 1992; Hunt and Meagher, 1992).

Ribes: leaves show yellow-brown spots above and mycelia or brownish telial columns below. Leaves may curl conspicuously and drop early.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page On Pinus monticola, Atropellis pinicola forms cankers on branches. They differ from C. ribicola cankers in being flattened and not cracked through aecial production, but show darkened circular cups from the fruiting bodies. Wood under the cankers is stained black; C. ribicola causes no staining (Hunt and Meagher, 1992).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Introduction

Where the alternate hosts exist, control is necessary. Control measures differ to protect the most-important hosts.

Genetic resistance and species selection can be used as a means to control some rusts, and infected branches can be eliminated by pruning. Site hazard ratings based on habitat type and elevation are available. Ongoing research is evaluating ways to manage rust diseases in ways that maximize their benefit to forest ecosystems while limiting their detrimental effects on forest resources (Parks and Flanagan, 2001).

Because resistant individuals in all these species are rare, genetic variation may be reduced to the point where future populations may not be viable without active management (Sniezko, 2004).

Host-Plant Resistance

Understanding host-pathogen interactions is important in managing yield loss and can aid in the identification of disease-resistant trees. Several resistance mechanisms to C. ribicola have been identified in pine. At the molecular level, several defence responsive proteins and their genes have been characterized. Some of these are identified to be potential candidates for markers associated with resistance or susceptibility (Ekramoddoullah and Hunt, 2002).

Programmes of screening and genetic improvement of pines are active in Canada (Corriveau and Lamontagne, 1977; Meagher and Hunt, 1985; Zsuffa, 1985; Hunt, 1999), the USA (Miller,1973; Hoff and McDonald, 1980; Murphy, 1982; Samman, 1982; Franc, 1988; Eramian, 1999; Kitzmiller and Samman, 1999; Sniezko, 1999; Meier, 2000), Romania (Blada, 1994) and Korea (Hyun and Koo, 1981). Field testing of second-generation Pinus monticola seedlings has begun (McDonald et al., 1994). North American trials of species from Asia and Europe indicated potential gain in rust resistance (Heimburger, 1972), but eventual problems with adaptation to climatic differences. Rust resistance generally was higher in species closer to the Asian centre of the rust and least in North American species (Bingham, 1972), whether conducted in Europe (Søegaard, 1972) or North America (Bingham, 1972). Most activity now is in North America, mainly in P. strobus, P. monticola and P. lambertiana.

Heritability and gain estimates have been developed: for example, "spots only" (McDonald and Hoff, 1971), reduced needle-lesion frequency (Meagher and Hunt, 1996), leaf shed (of infected leaves) (Hoff and McDonald, 1971), bark reaction (Hoff, 1986b), and tolerance (Hoff, 1986a; Hunt, 1997) in Pinus monticola. Rust-resistance heritability estimates have been determined for Pinus wallichiana in Romania (Blada, 1994). Dominant genes stopping rust in pine foliage are identified (Kinloch et al., 1999; Kinloch, 2000) and a linkage map is constructed to facilitate cloning (Harkins et al., 1998). Laboratory techniques have identified a protein associated with defence in pines (Ekramoddoullah et al., 1998), and cloned a resistance gene analogue (Kim and Brunsfeld, 2000). Peptides with a potential for use in genetic engineering have affected spore germination and morphology (Jacobi et al., 2000; Rioux et al., 2000).

The aim of the pine genetic improvement programmes is generally to reduce the impact of the disease so that commercially-useful wood can be obtained without exerting such selective pressure on the rust's gene pool that would increase the frequency of rare alleles (Samman, 1982; Meagher and Hunt, 1985).

Ribes hybrids and cultivars are being screened in Russia (Ravkin and Litvinova, 1976), Siberia (Kuminova, 1980), Ukraine (Sherengovyi, 1979), Slovakia (Kozmenko and Invanicka, 1994), Poland (Tylus et al., 1981; Zurawicz et al., 1996; Pluta and Broniarek-Niemiec, 2000), Denmark (Pedersen, 1998) and the USA (Keep et al., 1975; Hummer, 1997; Dorrance and Bergdahl, 1990). Some estimates of genetic resistance are determined for R. nigrum in Poland (Pluta et al., 1993, Zurawicz et al., 1996). Canada has produced immune and highly-resistant clones that produced too little fruit (Luffman, 2000).

Picton (2002) has used marker-assisted selection to screen cultivated or wild currants for rust-immunity. Ribes improvement programmes usually combine rust resistance with resistance to other pests, such as powdery mildew and leaf spot (Zurawicz et al., 1996; Dale, 2000). During the last half of the 20th century, development of genetic resistance superseded other direct control measures such as, Ribes spp. eradication and antibiotics, which proved either ineffective or unfeasible, in large areas of the white pine range (Kinloch, 2003a).

The distribution and frequency of the Cr2 gene for resistance to C. ribicola in western white pine (P. monticola) was surveyed in natural populations of the host. Because Cr2 is dominant and results in a conspicuous hypersensitive reaction (HR) in pine needles, the phenotype can readily be detected in offspring of susceptible seed parents fertilized by unknown Cr2 donors in the ambient pollen cloud. The diminishing frequency of Cr2 from the southern and central Sierra Nevada, USA, northward mirrors that of Cr1 in sugar pine (P. lambertiana) and points to this region as the origin of both genes (Kinloch, 2003b).

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

Eradication of Ribes to reduce infection of pines has been successful in some cases (van Ardsel, 1980; Ostrofsky et al., 1988), but not in Pennsylvania, USA (Hall, 2000), and generally not in the Pinus monticola zone, where there are more native species of Ribes (Toko et al., 1967; Carlson, 1978; Maloy et al., 1994; Maloy, 1997). Europe mainly eliminated cultivation of susceptible pines to protect the more-valuable Ribes fruit crops (Laundon and Rainbow, 1971), whereas some US states banned Ribes cultivation to protect pines (McKay, 2000). Pruning and scribing stem cankers in pine stands can reduce rust successfully if started early (Hungerford et al., 1982; Lehrer, 1982; Lavallée, 1991; Schwandt et al., 1994; Hunt, 1998), although thinning of pines can increase rust by facilitating spore travel (Hunt, 1998). Integration of Ribes control and other options have been developed (Hagle et al., 1989). Silvicultural control of rust on pines is outlined by Yi (1982).

Analysis of rust presence and severity has permitted the definition of hazard zones (Hunt, 1983; Lavallée, 1986) to aid allocation of the most-suited pine stock (Goddard et al., 1985) because predictions of field performance of improved stock have been incorrect in some cases (Hunt and Meagher, 1989; Hunt, 1994). Integrated control using the most-appropriate resistance level is being developed (McDonald, 1979). Model-based predictions of rust hazard and pine stock type have been developed (Rust, 1988; Geils et al., 1999).

Labour-intensive efforts were conducted in the Rocky Mountains, USA, to restore the habitat of whitebark pine (P. albicaulis) by using controlled burning and silvicultural treatments. These measures were used to counteract forest decline due to C. ribicola, and a native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (Keane, 2001).

Hunt (2002) experimented with solid deer protectors to prevent blister rust from attacking white pines, and found that rust prevention using barriers is promising and warrants further testing.

Chemical Control

Application of pesticides to pines is limited by logistics in rough terrain and the difficulty in hitting all the foliage or cankers on tall trees, plus irregular absorption due to moisture on the target, etc. (Maloy, 1997). Stem application of cycloheximide entails bark removal before spraying (Moss, 1957) and may result in only reducing spore production (Powers and Steagall, 1965). Aerial sprays of phytoactin were employed on Pinus monticola stands, but the results were difficult to assess (Dimond, 1966) and the programme was cancelled (Benedict, 1966; Maloy, 1997). Spraying triadimefon on pine seedlings in a nursery can give protection in plantations (Bérube, 1996). Fungal sprays to protect pine seedlings and to reduce C. ribicola on Ribes are being tested (Johnson et al., 1992; Bérube et al., 1998).

Ribes crops are protected by sprays in Denmark (Nielsen and Kirknel, 1986), Norway (Gjaerum and Langnes, 1984), Netherlands (Wilson, 1978), Germany (Bomeke, 1972), Poland (Mrozowska et al., 1973; Profic-Alwasiak et al., 1973; Nowacka et al., 1990; Cimanowski et al., 1995) and Romania (Vonica and Minoiu, 1977), but not in British Columbia, Canada (Anon., 1998).

References

Top of page

abanowska BH, Czuba S, 1989. Black currant pests and diseases control using low volume (spray) technique. Fruit Science Reports, 16(2):87-98

Ablakatova, AA, 1965. Mycoflora and principal fungus diseases of fruit and berry plants in the south of the Soviet Far East. Izdatel'stvo Nauka. Moscow and Leningrad.

Ahmad S, 1956. Uredinales of West Pakistan. Biologia, 2:27-101.

Allen E, Morrison D, Wallis G, 1996. Common Tree Diseases of British Columbia. Victoria, Canada: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service.

Allen EA, Humble LM, 2002. Nonindigenous species introductions: a threat to Canada's forests and forest economy. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 24(2):103-110; 37 ref.

Anderson R, 2003. Changing forests and forest management policy in relation to dealing with forest diseases. Phytopathology, 93(8):1041-1043.

Anderson RL, 1973. A summary of white pine blister rust research in the Lake States. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report. No. NC-6.

Anon., 1956. Material of the first conference on problems of plant protection (Riga, March 1956). Plant Protection Bulletin. Riga, Latvia: Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences Publishers.

Anon., 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 165. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Anon., 1979. List of plant diseases in Taiwan. List of plant diseases in Taiwan. Plant Protection Society. Taichung Taiwan, 404 pp.

Anon., 1998. Currants & Gooseberries. Pest Management Guide for BC Commercial Growers. Aug. 1998 Edition. Victoria, BC, Canada: British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Food.

Arnaud G, Arnaud M, 1931. TraitT de pathologie vTgTtale, In: Lechevalier P, ed. EncyclopTdie de Mycologie Tome I, 4:1558-1562.

Arthur JC, Cummins GB, 1933. Rusts of the northwest Himalayas. Mycologia, 25:397-406.

Azbukina ZM, 2000. Cronartium in the Russian Far East. HortTechnology, 10(3):547.

Bega RV, 1960. The effect of environment on germination of sporidia in Cronartium ribicola. Phytopathology, 50:61-69.

Bega RV, Scharpf RF, 1993. Rusts on pines. In: Diseases of Pacific Coast Conifers. USDA, Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 521:199 pp.

Benedict WV, 1966. Experience with antibiotics to control white pine blister rust. Journal of Forestry, 64:382-384.

Bergdahl DR, Teillon HB, 2000. White pine blister rust in Vermont: past, present, and concerns for the future. HortTechnology, 10(3):537-541; 18 ref.

Bingham RT, 1972. Taxonomy, crossability and relative blister rust resistance of 5-needled white pines. USDA, Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication, 1221:271-278.

Bingham RT, 1983. Blister rust resistant western white pine for the Inland Empire: the story of the first 25 years of the research and development program. General Technical Report, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. INT-146. USA: USDA, Forest Service, 45 pp.

Bishaw B, DeBell DS, Harrington CA, 2003. Patterns of survival, damage, and growth for western white pine in a 16-year-old spacing trial in Western Washington. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 18(1):35-43; 27 ref.

Blada I, 1990. Blister rust in Romania. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 20(1):55-58

Blada I, 1994. Performance of open-pollinated progenies of blue pine in Romania. Silvae Genetica, 43(4):231-238

Bomeke H, 1972. Mildew and rust control in black currants. Mitteilungen des Obstbauversuchsringes des Alten Landes, 27(5):138-148

Boyce JS, 1961. Forest Pathology. 3rd edition. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

Braun U, 1982. Rust fungi (Uredinales) of the German Democratic Republic. Feddes Repertorium, 93(3/4):213-333

Brennan RM, 1996. Currants and gooseberries III. In: Janick J, Moore JN, eds. Fruit Breeding Vol. 2. Small Fruits and Vine Crops. New York, USA: Wiley, 191-295.

Brown DH, 1970. Recent discoveries extend distribution range of two destructive diseases of timber pine in southeastern Montana. Plant Disease Reporter, 54:441.

Brown DH, 1978. Extension of the known distribution of Cronartium ribicola and Arceuthobium cyanocarpum on limber pine in Wyoming. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(10):905

Brundza K, 1961. Parasitic fungi of cultivated plants in the Lithuanian SSR and some problems of the biology of parasitic fungi. Vilnius, Lithuania: Academy of Science of Lithuanian SSR.

BTrube JA, Trudelle JG, Carisse O, Desserault M, 1998. Endophytic fungal flora from eastern white pine needles and apple tree leaves as a means of biological control for white pine blister rust. In: Proceedings of the First IUFRO Rust of Forest Trees Working Party Conference, 2-7 Aug. 1998, Saariselka, Finland. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Research Papers, 712:305-309.

BTrubT JA, 1996. Use of triadimefon to control white pine blister rust. Forestry Chronicle, 72(6):637-638; 5 ref.

BTrubT JA, Plourde A, 1995. Isoenzyme structure of Cronartium ribicola in eastern Canada. Shoot and foliage diseases in forest trees. Proceedings of a Joint Meeting of the IUFRO Working Parties S2.06.02 and S2.06.04, Vallombrosa, Firenze, Italy 6-11 June 1994., 298-304; 19 ref.

Buller AHR, 1950. Researches on Fungi. Volume VII. The Sexual Process in the Uredinales. Chapter IX, Cronartium ribicola and its sexual process. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 321-343.

Burleigh JR, Sebesta PD, Wood WA, 1978. Predicting dispersal of aeciospores and urediospores of Cronartium ribicola Fischer from a line source. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 1977 4:112.

Byler JW, Parmenter JR Jr, 1979. An evaluation of white pine blister rust in the Sierra Nevada. USDA, Forest Service Region 5, Forest and Disease Management, San Fancisco. Report 79-3, 19 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Cronartium ribicola. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 6. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Campbell EM, Antos JA, 2000. Distribution and severity of white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetle on whitebark pine in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30(7):1051-1059; 77 ref.

Carlson CE, 1978. Noneffectiveness of Ribes eradication as a control of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) in Yellowstone National Park. USDA, Forest Service, Northern Region, State and Private Forestry, Report 78-18.

Chen MM, 2004. Forest Fungi Phytogeography. University of California at Berkeley, USA: Jepson and University Herbaria.

Chen MM, Cobb FW, Jr, Heald R, 1985. White pine blister rust in young sugar pine plantations in the mid-elevation Sierra Nevada. Phytopathology, 75:1367.

Chen YuHui, Yang YanHong, Li YongHe, Lin HongYi, 2006. Destructive effects of three strains of Trichoderma spp. on the aeciospores of Cronartium ribicola. Plant Protection, 32(6):62-65.

Cheng DS, Xue Y, Liang H, Pan X, Li W, 1998. Variation in isozymes, RAPDs, and SEM-based morphology among three species of pine stem rust fungi from China. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Research Papers, 712:261-268.

Cheng DS, Xue Y, Pan XR, Li WH, 1998. Population genetic structures of three Cronartium species from China based upon allozyme analysis. Mycosystema, 17(1):32-39.

Cheng DS, Xue Y, Shao LP, 1995. Differentiation among Cronartium species from northeast China by isozyme analysis. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Rusts of Pines Working Party Conference, Tsukuba. Tsukuba, Japan: Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Tsukuba, 71-75.

Cimanowski J, Rejnus M, Bielenin A, 1995. Effectiveness of systemic fungicides used in different programmes in the control of black currant diseases. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 3(4):177-186; 14 ref.

Colley RH, 1925. A biometric comparison of the urediniospores of Cronartium ribicola and Cronartium occidentale. Journal of Agricultural Research, 30:283-291.

Colley RH, Hartley C, Taylor MW, 1927. A morphologic and biometric comparison of Cronartium ribicola and Cronartium occidentale in the aecial stage. Journal of Agricultural Research, 34:511-531.

Conklin DA, 1994. White pine blister rust outbreak on the Lincoln National Forest and Mescalero-Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico. USDA, Forest Service, Forest Pest Management Report, R3-94-2.

Corriveau AG, Lamontagne Y, 1977. Genetic improvement of eastern white pine in Quebec. Canadian Forestry Service, Rapport d'Information, Centre de Recherches Forestieres des Laurentides, QuTbec, PQ, Canada. No. LAU-X-31.

Dahir SE, Carlson JEC, 2001. Incidence of white pine blister rust in a high-hazard region of Wisconsin. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 18(3):81-86; 19 ref.

Dale A, 2000. Potential for Ribes cultivation in North America. HortTechnology, 10(3):548-554; 15 ref.

Darbellay J, 1939. Constatations et rTflexions sur le pin Weymouth. Journal Forestier Suisse, XC(2):25-29.

Darozhkin MA, Fedarau VM, 1976. Fungus diseases of conifers introduced in the Central Botanical Gardens of the Byelorussian Academy of Sciences. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR, Biyalagichnykh Navuk, No. 3:47-50

Dimond AE, 1966. Effectiveness of antibiotics against forest tree rusts: A summary of present status. Journal of Forestry, 64:379-382.

Dorrance AE, Bergdahl DR, 1990. Screening of commercial cultivars of Ribes spp. for susceptibility to Cronartium ribicola. Phytopathology, 80:118-119.

Draper MA, Walla JA, 1993. First report of Cronartium ribicola in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 77(9):952

Durrieu G, 1980. Uredinales of Nepal. Cryptogamie Mycologie (formerly Revue de Mycologie), 1(1):33-68

Ekramoddoullah AKM, Davidson JJ, Taylor DW, 1998. A protein associated with frost hardiness of western white pine is up-regulated by infection in the white pine blister rust pathosystem. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28(3):412-417; 31 ref.

Ekramoddoullah AKM, Hunt RS, 2002. Challenges and opportunities in studies of host-pathogen interactions in forest tree species. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 24(4):408-415; 41 ref.

Ekramoddoullah AKM, Jensen GD, Manning LE, 2000. Ultrastructural localization of chitin in the five spore stages of the blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola. Mycological Research, 104(11):1384-1388; 15 ref.

Ekramoddoullah AKM, Tan Y, 1998. Differential accumulation of proteins in resistant and susceptible sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) seedlings inoculated with the white pine blister rust fungus (Cronartium ribicola). Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 20(3):308-318; 22 ref.

Ekramoddoullah AKM, Tan YingChun, Yu XueShu, Taylor DW, Santosh Misra, 1999. Identification of a protein secreted by the blister rust fungus Cronartium ribicola in infected white pines and its cDNA cloning and characterization. Canadian Journal of Botany, 77(6):800-808; 31 ref.

Ekramoddoullah AKM, Taylor DW, 1996. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(1):14-18; 20 ref.

Emmons CW, Cummins GB, Cooke WB, 1960. The 1958 foray of the Mycological Society of America. Mycologia, 52:808-817.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Eramian A, 1999. Blister rust resistance program for the Inland Empire (USDA Forest Service). Genetic Forest, c/o Daniels & Associates Inc., Portland OR, USA. 6:1.

Fairweather ML, Geils BW, 2011. First report of the white pine blister rust pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, in Arizona. Plant Disease, 95(4):494. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Fins L, Byler J, Ferguson D, Harvey A, Mahalovich MF, McDonald G, Miller D, Schwandt J, Zack A, 2001. Return of the giants: restoring white pine ecosystems by breeding and aggressive planting of blister rust-resistant white pines. Station Bulletin - Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, No.72:21 pp.; 19 ref.

Franc GC, 1988. The white pine program in the Northern Region. In: Proceedings of a Western White Pine Management Symposium, Nakusp, British Columbia, (Canada) May 2-5, 1988. Victoria, BC, Canada: Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forestry Service, 21-26.

Frederick ZA, Villani S, Cox KD, Los L, Allen J, 2011. First report of white pine blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola on immune black currant Ribes nigrum cv. titania in Preston, Connecticut. Plant Disease, 95(12):1589. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

French AM, 1987. California Plant Disease Host Index. Part I: Fruits and Nuts. Sacramento, USA: California Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.

Geils BW, Conklin DA, van Ardsel EP, 1999. A preliminary hazard model of white pine blister rust for the Sacramento Ranger District, Lincoln National Forest. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Research Note RMRS-RN-6.

Ginns JH, 1986. Compendium of Plant Disease and Decay Fungi in Canada 1960-1980. Ottawa, Canada: Research Branch Agriculture Canada Publication 1813.

Gitzendanner MA, White EE, Foord BM, Dupper GE, Hodgskiss PD, Kinloch BBJr, 1996. Genetics of Cronartium ribicola. III. Mating system. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74(11):1852-1859; 22 ref.

Gjaerum HB, 1996. Rust fungi (Uredinales) from Khabarovsk, Russia. Lidia, 3(6):173-194.

Gjprum HB, Langnes R, 1984. Trials of fungicides against mildew on black currants. Gartneryrket, 74(16):376-377

Glpser G, 1974. The occurrence of important causes of injury to cultivated plants in Austria in 1972. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 44(5/7):87-100

Goddard RE, McDonald GI, Steinhoff RJ, 1985. Measurement of field resistance, rust hazard, and deployment of blister rust-resistant western white pine. Research Paper, Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-358:8pp.

Greene HC, 1960. Notes on Wisconsin parasitic fungi. XXXVI Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, 49:85-111.

Gryshanovich AK, 1976. Diseases of currant in Byelorussia. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR, Biyalagichnykh Navuk, No. 3:56-59

Guo L, 1989. Uredinales of Shennongjia, China. In: Fungi and Lichens of Shennongjia. Mycological and Lichenological Expedition to Shennongjia. Beijing, China: Academica Sinica.

Hagle SK, McDonald GI, Norby EA, 1989. White pine blister rust in northern Idaho and western Montana: alternatives for integrated management. General Technical Report - Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-261:35 pp.

Hama T, 1987. Studies on the important rust diseases of some conifers in the central mountainous region of Japan. Bulletin of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan, No. 343:1-118 + 20 pl.

Hamelin RC, 1996. Genetic diversity between and within cankers of the white pine blister rust. Phytopathology, 86(8):875-879; 30 ref.

Hamelin RC, 2003. Barriers to gene flow and speciation mechanism in Cronartium. Phytopathology, 93(6): S98.

Hamelin RC, Beaulieu J, Plourde A, 1995. Genetic diversity in populations of Cronartium ribicola in plantations and natural stands of Pinus strobus. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 91(8):1214-1221; 53 ref.

Hamelin RC, Dusabenyagasani M, Et-touil K, 1998. Fine-level genetic structure of white pine blister rust populations. Phytopathology, 88(11):1187-1191; 38 ref.

Hansen EM, Patton RF, 1975. Types of germination and differentiation of vesicles by basidiospores of Cronartium ribicola. Phytopathology, 65(10):1061-1071

Hansen EM, Patton RF, 1977. Factors important in artificial inoculation of Pinus strobus with Cronartium ribicola. Phytopathology, 67(9):1108-1112

Harkins DM, Johnson GN, Skaggs PA, Mix AD, Dupper GE, Devey ME, Kinloch BBJr, Neale DB, 1998. Saturation mapping of a major gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 97(8):1355-1360; 35 ref.

Harris JL, 1999. Evaluation of white pine blister rust disease on the Shoshone National Forest. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Renewable Resources, Golden, Colorado, Biological Evaluation R2-99-05.

Harris JL, 1999. White pine blister rust disease of limber pine in the Bighorn and Medicine Bow National Forests. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Renewable Resources, Golden, Colorado, Biological Evaluation R2000-02.

Harvey AE, 1972. Influence of host dormancy and temperature on teliospore induction by Cronartium ribicola. Forest Science, 18(4):321-323.

Harvey GM, 1967. Growth and survival probability of blister rust cankers on sugar pine branches. USDA, Forest Service, Research Note, PNW-54.

Harvey GM, Cohen LI, 1958. The extent of blister rust mycelia beyond bark discolorations of sugar pine. USDA, Forest Service Research Note, PNW-159.

Harvey p, 1979. Pine tissue affected by blister rust despite dialysis barrier between the organisms in culture. USDA Forest Service Research Note, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. INT-265:7 pp.

Hawksworth FG, 1990. White pine blister rust in southern New Mexico. Plant Disease, 74(11):938

Heimburger C, 1972. Relative blister rust resistance of native and introduced white pines in eastern North America. USDA, Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication No. 1221:257-269.

Hepting GH, Toole ER, 1950. Some southeastern tree diseases - 1948 & 1949. Plant Disease Reporter, 34:135-137.

Hilton S, 2000. Canadian Plant Disease Survey. Ottawa, Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 80:151.

Hiratsuka N, Chen ZC, 1991. A list of Uredinales collected from Taiwan. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 32:3-22.

Hiratsuka N, Sato S, Katsuya K, Kakishima M, Hiratsuka Y, Kaneko S, Ono Y, Sato T, Harada Y, Hiratsuka T, Nakayama K, 1992. The rust flora of Japan. Takezono, Ibaraki, Japan: Tsukuba Shuppankai.

Hiratsuka Y, 1995. Nomenclature and authorship of white pine blister rust. In: Proceedings of the Fourth IUFRO Rusts of Pines Working Party Conference, Tsukuba. Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan: Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Tsukuba, 77-80.

Hiratsuka Y, Maruyama PJ, 1976. Castilleja miniata, a new alternate host of Cronartium ribicola. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(3):241

Hiratsuka Y, Powell JM, 1976. Pine stem rusts of Canada. Forestry Technical Report, 83(4):83 pp.

Hobayashi T, 1976. Important forest diseases and their control measures in Japan. Plant Protection, 1976:270-280.

Hodge JC, Juzwik J, Gross HL, Retnakaran A, 1990. White pine blister rust and white pine weevil management: Guidelines for Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Sainte Marie, Ontario, Canada. Pest Management Section Report, PM-36.

Hoff R, Bingham RT, McDonald GI, 1980. Relative blister rust resistance of white pines. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 10(5):307-316

Hoff RJ, 1984. Resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus monticola: higher survival of infected trees. Research Note, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-343:6pp.

Hoff RJ, 1986. Inheritance of the bark reaction resistance mechanism in Pinus monticola infected by Cronartium ribicola. Research Note, Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-361:8 pp.

Hoff RJ, 1992. How to recognize blister rust infection on whitebark pine. Research Note - Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-406:7 pp.

Hoff RJ, McDonald GI, 1971. Resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus monticola: short-shoot fungicidal reaction. Canadian Journal of Botany, 49:1235-1239.

Hoff RJ, McDonald GI, 1980. Improving rust-resistant strains of inland western white pine. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, No. INT-245:13 pp.

Hoff RJ, McDonald GI, 1993. Variation of virulence of white pine blister rust. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 23(2):103-109

Hrubik P, 1972. Harmful agencies affecting Pinus strobus (in Slovakia). Casopis Slezskeho Muzea C, No. 1:71-74.

Hummer KE, 1997. Diamonds in the rust: Ribes resistance to white pine blister rust. Fruit Varieties Journal, 51(2):112-117; 11 ref.

Hummer KE, 2000. History of the origin and dispersal of white pine blister rust. HortTechnology, 10(3):515-517; 15 ref.

Hummer KE, Picton DD, 2002. Pine blister rust resistance screening in Ribes germplasm. Acta Horticulturae, No.585:287-291; 14 ref.

Hungerford RD, 1977. Natural inactivation of blister rust cankers on western white pine. Forest Science, 23(3):343-350

Hungerford RD, Williams RE, Marsden MA, 1982. Thinning and pruning western white pine: a potential for reducing mortality due to blister rust. USDA, Forest Service. Research Note, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. INT-322.

Hunt RS, 1978. Slugs feeding on Cronartium in British Columbia. Forestry Canada, Pacific Forest Research Centre, Victoria, BC, Canada. Bi-monthly Research Notes, 34(4):21.

Hunt RS, 1983. White pine blister rust in British Columbia II. Can stands be hazard rated? Forestry Chronicle, 59(1):30-33.

Hunt RS, 1984. Inoculations of Scrophulariaceae with Cronartium ribicola. Canadian Journal of Botany, 62(12):2523-2524

Hunt RS, 1985. Experimental evidence of heterothallism in Cronartium ribicola. Canadian Journal of Botany, 63(6):1086-1088

Hunt RS, 1994. Transferability of western white pine within and to British Columbia - blister rust resistance. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16(4):273-278

Hunt RS, 1997. Relative value of slow-canker growth and bark reactions as resistance responses to white pine blister rust. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 19(4):352-357.

Hunt RS, 1998. Pruning western white pine in British Columbia to reduce white pine blister rust losses: 10-year results. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 13(2):60-63; 11 ref.

Hunt RS, 1999. Blister rust resistance program for British Columbia. Genetic Forest c/o Daniels & Associates Inc., Portland, USA, 6:8.

Hunt RS, 2002. Can solid deer protectors prevent blister rust from attacking white pines?. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 24(1):74-76; 16 ref.

Hunt RS, 2002. Major gene resistance to white pine blister rust in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 24(3):388-389.

Hunt RS, Jensen GD, 2000. Long infection period for white pine blister rust in coastal British Columbia. HortTechnology, 10(3):530-532; 23 ref.

Hunt RS, Jensen GD, 2001. Frequency of resistant western white pine seedlings from parents of different phenotypes. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 16(4):149-152; 22 ref.

Hunt RS, Meagher MD, 1989. Incidence of blister rust on "resistant" white pine (Pinus monticola and P. strobus) in coastal British Columbia plantations. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(4):419-423

Hunt RS, Meagher MD, 1992. How to recognize white pine blister rust cankers. Fact Sheet. Victoria, Canada: Forestry Canada, Pacific Forestry Centre.

Hunt RS, Rudloff E von, Lapp MS, Manville JF, 1985. White pine blister rust in British Columbia III. Effects on the gene pool of western white pine. Forestry Chronicle, 61(6):484-488

Hyun SK, Koo YB, 1981. Breeding of blister rust [Cronartium ribicola] resistant synthetic clones of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis S. et Z.). Institute of Forest Genetics, Suweon, Korea, Research Report, No. 17:3-23.

Imazu M, Azbukina ZM, Kakishima M, Ono Y, Kaneko S, 1998. Taxonomic reconsideration of Cronartium ribicola and Peridermium kurilense in the Russian Far East. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Finland. Research Papers, 712:253.

Imazu M, Kakishima M, 1995. The blister rusts on Pinus pumila in Japan. In: Kaneko S, Katsuya K, Kakishima M, Ono Y, eds. Proceedings of the Fourth IUFRO Rusts of Pines Working Party Conference, Tsukuba. Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan: Laboratory of Plant Pathology & Mycology, University of Tsukuba, 27-36.

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

J°rstad I, Gjaerum H, 1964. Recent Norwegian finds of Uredinales and Ustilaginales. Nytt Magasin for Botanikk, 12:55-77.

Jacobi V, Plourde A, Charest PJ, Hamelin RC, 2000. In vitro toxicity of natural and designed peptides to tree pathogens and pollen. Canadian Journal of Botany, 78(4):455-461; 23 ref.

Jankovsky L, 1998. Diseases of quarantine significance for tree species and plant protection in the Czech Republic. Lesnicka^acute~ Pra^acute~ce, 77(10):371-373.

Jing Y, Li WH, Zhao SG, 1995. Study on pine rusts in Northwest China. In: Kaneko S, Katsuya K, Kakishima M, Ono Y, eds. Proceedings of the Fourth IUFRO Rusts of Pines Working Party Conference, Tsukuba. Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan: Laboratory of Plant Pathology & Mycology, University of Tsukuba, 37-41.

Johnson DR, Kinloch BB Jr, McCain AH, 1992. Triadimefon controls white pine blister rust on sugar pine in a greenhouse test. Tree Planters' Notes, 43(1):7-10

Johnson DW, Jacobi WR, 2000. First report of white pine blister rust in Colorado. Plant Disease, 84(5):595; 1 ref.

Joly DL, 2003. Genomic diversity among pine rusts. Phytopathology, 93(6):S134.

Joly DL, Bernier L, 2003. Assessing the population genetic structure of Cronartium ribicola among multiple hosts and environments. Phytopathology, 93(6):S41.

Kaitera J, Hiltunen R, Samils B, 2012. Alternate host ranges of Cronartium flaccidum and Cronartium ribicola in northern Europe. Botany, 90(8):694-703. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/b2012-039

Kakishima M, Imazu M, Katsuya K, Azbukina ZM, Ono Y, Kaneko S, Hiratsuka Y, Sato S, 1995. Preliminary survey of pine blister rusts in the Russian Far East. In: Kaneko S, Katsuya K, Kakishima M, Ono Y, eds. Proceedings of the Fourth IUFRO Rusts of Pines Working Party Conference, Tsukuba. Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan: Laboratory of Plant Pathology & Mycology, University of Tsukuba, 49-63.

Kari LE, 1957. Fungi Exiccati Fennici. Turku, Finland: Instituto Botanica, Universitatis Turkuensis.

Kasanen R, 1997. Aeciospores of Cronartium flaccidum, C. ribicola and Endocronartium pini show no differences in morphology. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(4):251-260; 21 ref.

Keane RE, 2001. Can the fire-dependent whitebark pine be saved?. Fire Management Today, 61(3):17-20; 14 ref.

Keane RE, Arno SF, 1993. Rapid decline of whitebark pine in western Montana: evidence from 20-year remeasurements. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 8(2):44-47

Keep E, Janick J, Moore JN, 1975. Currants and gooseberries. In: Advances in Fruit Breeding. Temperate Fruits. West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Purdue University Press, 197-268.

Kegley S, Schwandt J, Gibson K, 2003. Forest health assessment of whitebark pine on Pyramid Pass, Russell Mountain, and Burton Ridge in the Selkirk Mountains on the Idaho Panhandle National Forests. Forest Health Protection Report Northern Region, USDA Forest Service. No. 01-8, 11 pp.

Khabiri E, 1962. Les Tallophytes. II Les Champignons. Publications, University of Teheran, Iran, 753.

Kim HJ, Yi CK, La YJ, 1982. Present status of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) blister rust, and relative resistance of three species of five-needle pines (P. strobus, P. parviflora and P. koraiensis) to Cronartium ribicola. Research Reports of the Forest Research Institute, Korea Republic, Seoul, 29:239-252.

Kim MS, Brunsfeld SJ, 2000. Rust gene homolog isolated from western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.). In: Proceedings of the Northwest Scientific Association, 2000 Annual Meeting, March 17-18, 2000. Moscow, Idaho, USA: University of Idaho.

Kim MS, Brunsfeld SJ, McDonald GI, Klopfenstein NB, 2003. Effect of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and rust-resistance breeding on genetic variation in western white pine (Pinus monticola). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 106(6):1004-1010; 50 ref.

Kimmey JW, 1969. Inactivation of lethal-type blister rust cankers on western white pine. Journal of Forestry, 67:296-299.

King DB, 1958. Incidence of white pine blister rust infection in the Lake States. USDA, Forest Service, Lake States Forest Experiment Station. Station Paper, No. 64.

Kinloch BB Jr, 2003. Origin and distribution of Cr2, a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in natural populations of western white pine. Phytopathology, 93(6):691-694.

Kinloch BB Jr, 2003. White pine blister rust in North America: Past and prognosis. Phytopathology. 93(8):1044-1047.

Kinloch BB Jr, Dupper GE, 1987. Restricted distribution of a virulent race of the white pine blister rust pathogen in the western United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17(5):448-451

Kinloch BB Jr, Dupper GE, 2002. Genetic specificity in the white pine-blister rust pathosystem. Phytopathology, 92(3):278-280; 17 ref.

Kinloch BB Jr, Westfall RD, Dupper GE, 1998. Gene flow in Cronartium ribicola. Finnish Forest Research Institute Research Papers, 712:269-274.

Kinloch BB, Comstock M, 1981. Race of Cronartium ribicola virulent to major gene resistance in sugar pine. Plant Disease, 65(7):604-605

Kinloch BBJr, 2000. Developing blister rust resistance in white pines. HortTechnology, 10(3):546.

Kinloch BBJr, Dupper GE, 1999. Evidence of cytoplasmic inheritance of virulence in Cronartium ribicola to major gene resistance in sugar pine. Phytopathology, 89(3):192-196; 16 ref.

Kinloch BBJr, Sniezko RA, Barnes GD, Greathouse TE, 1999. A major gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in western white pine from the Western Cascade Range. Phytopathology, 89(10):861-867; 22 ref.

Kinloch BBJr, Westfall RD, White EE, Gitzendanner MA, Dupper GE, Foord BM, Hodgskiss PD, 1998. Genetics of Cronartium ribicola. IV. Population structure in western north America. Canadian Journal of Botany, 76(1):91-98; 36 ref.

Kitzmiller J, Samman S, 1999. Blister rust resistance program for California (USDA Forest Service). Genetic Forest c/o Daniels & Assoc. Inc., Portland, USA, 6:7-8.

Kliejunas J, 1985. Spread and intensification of white pine blister rust in the southern Sierra Nevada. Phytopathology, 75:1367.

Kovaleva ES, Natal'ina OB, 1968. Study on specialization of the causal agent of blister rust - C. ribicola. Trudy saratov. Sel'.-khoz. Institute, 17(1):253-256.

Kozmenko H, Ivanicka J, 1994. Resistance of cultivars and hybrids of currants to the economically important parasites in natural conditions. Roc^hacek~enka - Geneticke^acute~ zdroje rastli^acute~n., 43-46; 6 ref.

Krebill RG, 1964. Blister rust found on limber pine in northern Wasatch Mountains. Plant Disease Reporter, 48:532.

Kuminova EP, 1980. Evaluation of black currant breeding material for resistance to Sphaerotheca mors-uvae and Cronartium ribicola. Sadovod. Vost. Siberia, 25-35.

Kuprevich V, Transhel V, 1957. Cryptogamic Plants of the USSR, Vol. IV, Rust Fungi. No. 1. Family Melampsoraceae. Moscow, USSR: Izd-vo Akademii Nauk SSSR.

Kurkela T, Jalkanen R, 1998. Checklist of the rust species recorded on trees in Finland. In: Jalkanen R, Crane PE, Walla JA, Aalto T, eds. Proceedings of the first IUFRO Rusts of Forest Trees Working Party Conference 2-7 Aug. 1998, Saariselka, Finland. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Research Papers, 712. 1998. Pp. 15-18.

La YJ, Yi CK, 1995. Occurrence and management of Korean pine blister rust in Korea. In: Kaneko S, Katsuya K, Kakishima M, Ono Y, eds. Proceedings of the Fourth IUFRO Rusts of Pines Working Party Conference, Tsukuba. Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan: Laboratory of Plant Pathology & Mycology, University of Tsukuba, 171-175.

Laundon GF, Rainbow AF, 1971. Cronartium ribicola. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 283. Wallingford,UK: CAB International.

Lavallee A, 1974. A re-evaluation of the incidence of Cronartium ribicola on Pinus strobus in Quebec. Forestry Chronicle, 50(6):228-232

LavallTe A, 1986. Zones of vulnerability of white pine to blister rust in QuTbec. (Zones de vulnerabilitT du pin blanc ß la rouille vesiculeuse au QuTbec.) Forestry Chronicle, 62(1):24-28.

LavallTe A, 1991. White pine blister rust control in a 5-year-old eastern white pine plantation at Vercheres, Quebec (1984-88 results). Forestry Canada Information Report NOR-X-317:378-384.

Lee MJ, 1975. Isolation of races and physiological study of western white pine blister rust. Dissertation Abstracts International B, 35(8):3690-3691.

Lehrer GF, 1982. Pathological pruning: a useful tool in white pine blister rust control. Plant Disease, 66(12):1138-1139.

Lepik E, 1937. Pine rusts and their distribution. Eesti metsanduse aastaraamat, 8:177-196.

Little EL, Critchfield WB, 1969. Subdivisions of the Genus Pinus (Pines). USDA, Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication, No. 1144.

Liu SC, Teng HM, 1986. pciospore surface morphology of pine blister rusts of China as observed under a scanning electron microscope. Acta Mycologica Sinica, 5(1):7-9

Lombard K, Bofinger J, 1999. White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, Infestation incidence for selected areas of New Hampshire. Durham, NH, USA: New Hampshire Department of Resources and Development, New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands.

Luffman M, 2000. Canadian breeding program for white pine resistance in black currants. HortTechnology, 10(3):555-561.

Lundquist JE, 1993. Large scale spatial patterns of conifer diseases in the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming. Research Note - Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. RM-523:8 pp.; 24 ref.

Lundquist JE, Geils BW, Johnson DW, 1992. White pine blister rust on limber pine in South Dakota. Plant Disease, 76(5):538

MacDonald W, 2003. Dominating North American forest pathology issues of the 20th century. Phytopathology, 93(8):1039-1040.

Maeda M, Uozumi T, 1981. On the palatability of blister rust-infected eastern white pine to the red-backed vole in Hokkaido. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 63(10):377-378.

Magasi LP, 1991. Forest pest conditions in the Maritimes in 1990. Information Report - Forestry Canada, Maritimes, No. M-X-178:68 pp.

Maloy OC, 1997. White pine blister rust control in North America: a case history. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 35:87-109; 135 ref.

Maloy OC, Baumgartner DM, Lotan JE, Tonn JR, 1994. Politics and science of the white pine blister rust program. In: Baumgartner DM, Lotan JE, eds. Interior Cedar-Hemlock-White Pine Forests: Ecology and Management. Symposium proceedings, The Ridpath Hotel, Spokane, Washington, USA 2-4 March, 1993. Pullman, Washington, USA: Washington State University Cooperative Extension, 119-122.

Martin NE, 1980. Interactions of pectins and tissues of Cronartium ribicola and Pinus monticola in culture. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, No. INT-250:5 pp.

McDonald GI, 1978. Segregation of "red" and "yellow" needle lesion types among monopciospore lines of Cronartium ribicola. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 20(3):313-324

McDonald GI, 1979. Resistance of western white pine to blister rust: a foundation for integrated control. USDA, Forest Service, Research Note, No. INT 252.

McDonald GI, 1996. Ecotypes of blister rust and management of sugar pine in California. In: Kinloch BB, Jr, Morosy M, Huddleston ME, eds. Sugar Pine: Status, Values and Roles in Ecosystems. Proceedings of a symposium presented by the California Sugar Pine Management Committee. Davis, California, USA: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Publication 3362:137-147.

McDonald GI, Andrews DS, 1981. Genetic interaction of Cronartium ribicola and Ribes hudsonianum var. petiolare. Forest Science, 27(4):758-763.

McDonald GI, Hansen EM, Osterhaus CA, Samman S, 1984. Initial characterization of a new strain of Cronartium ribicola from the Cascade mountains of Oregon. Plant Disease, 68(9):800-804

McDonald GI, Hoff RJ, 1971. Resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus monticola: genetic control of needle-spots-only resistance factors. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research, 1(4):197-202

McDonald GI, Hoff RJ, 1972. Racial variation of Cronartium ribicola on Pinus monticola. Phytopathology, 62(7):777.

McDonald GI, Hoff RJ, Rice TM, Mathiasen R, Baumgartner DM, Lotan JE, Tonn JR, 1994. Measuring early performance of second generation resistance to blister rust in western white pine. In: Baumgartner DM, Lotan JE, eds. Interior Cedar-Hemlock-White Pine Forests: Ecology and Management. Symposium Proceedings, The Ridpath Hotel, Spokane, Washington, USA. 2-4 March, 1993. Pullman, Washington, USA: Washington State University Cooperative Extension, 133-150.

McDonald GI, Hoff RJ, Wycoff WR, 1981. Computer simulation of white pine blister rust epidemics: I. Model formulation. USDA, Forest Service. Intermountain Forest & Range Experiment Station (Ogden, Utah), Research Paper, INT-258.

McKay R, Loughnane JB, Barry PJ, 1951. Observations on plant diseases in 1951. Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Eire, 48:184-192.

McKay S, 2000. State regulation of Ribes to control white pine blister rust. HortTechnology, 10(3):562-564; 1 ref.

Meagher MD, Hunt RS, 1985. Western white pine tree-improvement program for British Columbia. Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forest Research Centre, Victoria BC, 32 pp.

Meagher MD, Hunt RS, 1996. Heritability and gain of reduced spotting vs. blister rust on western white pine in British Columbia, Canada. Silvae Genetica, 45(2/3):75-81; 30 ref.

Meagher MD, Hunt RS, 1999. Blister rust testing in British Columbia: choosing inoculum sources and a screening site. Northwest Science, 73(3):225-234; 21 ref.

Meier RJ, 2000. White pine blister rust program in the USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region. USDA, Forest Service, Lake States Research Center, Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA.

Merrill W, 1991. Rate of development of white pine blister rust epidemics in North America. In: Hiratsuka Y, Samoil JK, Blenis PV, Crane PE, Laishley BL, eds. Rusts of pine: Proceedings of the IUFRO Rusts of Pine Working Party Conference, September 18-22, 1989, Banff, Alberta, Canada. Information Report NOR-X-317. Edmonton, AB, USA: Forestry Canada - Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, 164-169.

Mielke JL, 1937. An example of the ability of Ribes lacustre to intensify Cronartium ribicola on Pinus monticola. Journal of Agricultural Research, 55:873-882.

Millar CI, Kinloch BB, 1991. Taxonomy, phylogeny and coevolution of pines and their stem rusts. In: Rusts of Pine. Proceedings of the IUFRO Working Party Conference, September 18-22, 1989, Banff, Alberta, Canada. Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Information Report NOR-X-317:1-38.

Miller DR, 1968. White pine blister rust found on foxtail pine in northwestern California. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:391-392.

Miller RG, 1973. The eastern white pine cooperative blister-rust resistant development program. In: Proceedings of the twentieth northeastern forest tree improvement conference, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA. 31 July-2 August, 1972, 115-120.

Minkevióius A, Ignatavióiute M, 1991. Mycota Lithuaniae, Volume V. Uredinales, Part I. Institutum Botanicae Academiae Scientiarum Lithuaniae, Universitatis Vilnensis, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Mladin P, 2002. Progress in blackcurrant and raspberry breeding in Romania. Acta Horticulturae, No.585:149-154; 8 ref.

Monnet Y, 1989. The principal phytosanitary problems of blackcurrants. Phytoma, 404:44-45, 47-48

Moss VD, 1957. Acti-dione treatment of blister rust cankers on western white pine. Plant Disease Reporter, 41(8):709-714.

Mrozowska T, Borecki Z, Masternak H, Puchala Z, 1973. The application of benomyl and thiophanate as protection for orchard trees. Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa w Skierniewicach, 17:233-246

Muller R, 1989. Currant rust (Cronartium ribicola Fisch.). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 43(10):inside back cover

Murphy JD, 1982. Eastern white pine blister-rust resistance development program in Region 9. In: Breeding Insect and Disease Resistant Forest Trees. Proceedings of a Servicewide Genetics Workshop, Eugene, Oregon, USA, July 19-23, 1982. USA: USDA, Forest Service, 189-200.

Neuenschwander LF, Byler JW, Harvey AE, McDonald GI, Ortiz DS, Osborne HL, Snyder GC, Zack A, 1999. White pine in the American west: a vanishing species - can we save it?. General Technical Report - Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. RMRS-GTR-35:21 pp.; 18 ref.

Nielsen SL, Kirknel E, 1986. Mist spraying with low spray volumes and reduced dosage of pesticides against American mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvp) and rust (Cronartium ribicola) on black currant (Ribes nigrum). Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 90(4):377-384

Nowacka H, Cimanowski J, Bachnacki R, Brozbar J, 1990. Evaluation of several new fungicides for the control of black currant diseases. Fruit Science Reports, 17(3):149-154

Ogol'tsova TP, 1979. The genetical role in the breeding of black currant. Sadovodstvo, 1:35-37

Ono Y, Adhikari MK, Rajbhandari KR, 1990. Uredinales of Nepal. Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute, 28:57-75.

Ostrofsky WD, Rumpf T, Struble D, Bradbury R, 1988. Incidence of white pine blister rust in Maine after 70 years of a Ribes eradication program. Plant Disease, 72(11):967-970

Ostry ME, 2000. Restoration of white pine in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. HortTechnology, 10(3):542-543; 7 ref.

Parks CG, Flanagan PT, 2001. Dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp.), rust diseases, and stem decays in Eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science, 75(Special issue):31-37; 46 ref.

Patton RF, Spear RN, 1978. Stomatal influences on infection by Cronartium ribicola. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 1977(4):85.

Patton RF, Spear RN, 1989. Histopathology of colonization in leaf tissue of Castilleja, Pedicularis, Phaseolus, and Ribes species by Cronartium ribicola. Phytopathology, 79(5):539-547

Patton RF, Spear RN, Powers HR, Grasso V, Raddi P, 1980. Stomatal influences on white pine blister rust infection. In: Powers HR, Grasso V, eds. Rusts of Hard Pines. Proceedings of the Meeting of IUFRO Working Group S2.06.10, September 5-7, 1979, Florence, Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 19:1-7.

Pedersen HL, 1998. Field resistance of black currant cultivars (Ribes nigrum L.) to diseases and pests. Fruit Varieties Journal, 52(1):6-10.

Pedersen HL, 2002. Covercrops in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum). Acta Horticulturae, No.585:633-638; 4 ref.

Petersen HI(Director), 1978. Plant diseases in Denmark in 1977. 94th annual survey. Plantesygdomme i Danmark 1977. 94 Arsoversigt. State Plant Pathology Inst. Lyngby Denmark, 69 pp.

Petersen RH, 1974. The rust fungus life cycle. Botanical Review, 40(4):453-513

Picton DD, 2001. RAPD markers linked to the Cr gene conferring resistance to White Pine Blister Rust in black currant. Hortscience, 36(3):489.

Picton DD, 2002. RAPD markers for the Cr gene for resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Ribes nigrum. Phytopathology, 92(6):S65.

Pijut PM, 2002. Eastern white pine flowering in response to spray application of gibberellin A4/7 or ProconeTM. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 19(2): 68-72.

Pike CC, Robison DJ, Maynard CA, Abrahamson LP, 2003. Evaluating growth and resistance of eastern and western white pine to white pine weevil and blister rust in the northeast. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 20(1):19-26; 50 ref.

Pluta S, Broniarek-Niemiec A, 2000. Field evaluation of resistance to white pine blister rust of selected blackcurrant genotypes in Poland. HortTechnology, 10(3):567-569; 6 ref.

Pluta S, Zurawicz E, Brennan RM ed, Gordon SL ed, Williamson B, 2002. 'Tiben' and 'Tisel' -- New blackcurrant cultivars released in Poland. Acta-Horticulturae No.585:221-223.

Pluta S, Zurawicz E, Madry W, 1993. Phenotypic and breeding values of few black currant cultivars in central Poland. Acta Horticulturae, No. 352:455-462; 6 ref.

Powell JM, 1982. Rodent and lagomorph damage to pine stem rusts with special mention of studies in Alberta. Canadian Field Naturalist, 96(3):287-294

Powers HR, Steagall WA, 1965. An evaluation of cycloheximide (actidione) for control of white pine blister rust in the southeast. Plant Disease Reporter, 49(4):342-346.

Profic-Alwasiak H, Lenartowicz T, Puchala Z, 1973. Control of black currant diseases. Part II. Control of blister rust disease (Cronartium ribicola). Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa w Skierniewicach, 17:197-202

Pryor AJ, 2001. Plant promoter activated by fungal infection. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents, [e-file] 1253(2): No Pagination.

Ravkin AS, Litvinova VM, 1976. Manifestation of resistance to leaf spot and rust in the hybrid progeny of black currant. Doklady TSKhA (USSR), No. 216:143-147.

Richardson BA, 2002. Population genetic structure of white pines: Implications for blister rust management. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts.

Richardson BA, Klopfenstein NB, et al. , 2003. Assessing the population genetic structure of Cronartium ribicola among multiple hosts and environments. Phytopathology, 93(6):S73-S74.

Rioux D, Jacobi V, Simard M, Hamelin RC, 2000. Structural changes of spores of tree fungal pathogens after treatment with the designed antimicrobial peptide D2A21. Canadian Journal of Botany, 78(4):463-471; 24 ref.

Robb J, Harvey AE, Shaw M, 1975. Ultrastructure of tissue cultures of Pinus monticola infected by Cronartium ribicola. I. Prepenetration host changes. Physiological Plant Pathology, 5(1):1-8

Robb J, Harvey AE, Shaw M, 1975. Ultrastructure of tissue cultures of Pinus monticola infected by Cronartium ribicola. II. Penetration and post-penetration. Physiological Plant Pathology, 5(1):9-18.

Robbins K, Jackson WA, McRoberts RE, 1988. White pine blister rust in the eastern Upper Peninsular of Michigan. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 5(4):263-264

Rousseau H, Roy M, Coulombe J, Brennan RM ed, Gordon SL ed, Williamson B, 2001. Blackcurrant research trials in the province of Quebec, Canada with special reference to foliar diseases. Proceedings of the Eighth International Rubus and Ribes Symposium, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK, 4-12 July 2001, volume 1. Acta Horticulturae, 585:225-230.

Rust M, 1988. White pine blister rust hazard rating: an expert systems approach. AI Applications in Natural Resource Management, 2(2-3):47-50

S°egaard BF, 1972. Relative blister rust resistance of native and introduced white pine species in Europe. USDA, Forest Service. Miscellaneous Publication, No. 1221: 233-239.

Saho H, 1972. White pines of Japan. USDA, Forest Service. Miscellaneous Publication, No. 1221:179-197.

Samman S, 1982. The white pine blister rust program. Pacific Northwest Region, USDA, Forest Service. In: Breeding Insect and Disease Resistant Forest Trees. Proceedings of a Servicewide Genetics Workshop, Eugene, Oregon, USA, July 19-23, 1982. USA: USDA, Forest Service, 132-183.

Sawada K, 1942. Descriptive Catalogue of the Formosan Fungi Part 7. Taipei, Formosa: Department of Agriculture, Government Research Institute, Report No. 83.

Schwandt JW, Marsden MA, McDonald GI, Baumgartner DM, Lotan JE, Tonn JR, 1994. Pruning and thinning effects on white pine survival and volume in northern Idaho. In: Baumgartner DM, Lotan JE, eds. Interior Cedar-hemlock-white Pine Forests: Ecology and Management. Symposium proceedings, The Ridpath Hotel, Spokane, Washington, USA 2-4 March, 1993. Pullman, Washington, USA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension, 167-172.

Shao LP, Jiang ZG, Zhang LY, 1980. A study of the host range of blister rust on Pinus koraiensis. Scientia Silvp Sinicp, 16(4):279-282

Shaw CG, 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest. I. Hosts. Bulletin, Washington Agricultural Experimental Station, No. 765.

Sherengovyi PZ, 1979. Resistance of black currant to Mycosphaerella ribis, Pseudopeziza ribis, Cronartium ribicola, Sphaerotheca mors-uvae and milky shine. (Ukraine) Nauch. tr. Ukr. s. kh. akad., No. 222:161-166.

Shi FZ, 1991. A specific form of Cronartium ribicola, the pathogen of Korean pine blister rust. Forest Pest and Disease, No. 1:12-13

Smith GJ, 1971. Distribution of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Canada Department of Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Bi-Monthly Research Notes, 27(6):43.

Smith J, Hoffman J, 1998. Status of white pine blister rust in Intermountain region white pines. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, State and Private Forestry, Forest Health Protection Report, R4-98-02.

Smith JP, Hoffman JT, 2000. Status of white pine blister rust in the Intermountain West. Western North American Naturalist, 60(2):165-179; 34 ref.

Smith JP, Hoffman JT, 2001. Site and stand characteristics related to white pine blister rust in high-elevation forests of Southern Idaho and Western Wyoming. Western North American Naturalist, 61(4):409-416; 33 ref.

Smith JP, Hoffman JT, Sullivan KF, van Ardsel EP, Vogler D, 2000. First report of white pine blister rust in Nevada. Plant Disease, 84(5):594.

Sniezko R, 1999. Blister rust resistance program for Oregon & Washington (USDA Forest Service). Portland, USA: Genetic Forest c/o Daniels & Assoc. Inc., 6:4.

Sniezko R, et al. , 2004. Exotic pathogens, resistant seed and restoration of forest tree species in western North America.

Sniezko RA, 1994. Developing resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine in Oregon. In: Kinloch BB, Marosy M, Huddelston ME, eds. Proceedings of a Symposium presented by the California Sugar pine Management Committee: Sugar Pine Status, Values and Roles in Ecosystems. Davis, USA: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3362:171-178.

Sniezko RA, Danchok R, Savin DP, Liu JunJun, Kegley A, 2016. Genetic resistance to white pine blister rust in limber pine (Pinus flexilis): major gene resistance in a northern population. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 46(9):1173-1178. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/cjfr-2016-0128#.V9o-B2fr0m8

Song YS, 1988. Analysis of epidemic conditions of blister rust on five-needle pines in China. Forest Pest and Disease, No. 2:27-30

Spaulding P, 1922. Viability of telia of Cronartium ribicola in early winter. Phytopathology, 12:221-224.

Spaulding P, 1926. The influence of physical factors on the viability of sporidia of Cronartium ribicola Fischer. Journal of Agricultural Research, 33(5):397-433.

Spaulding P, 1961. Foreign Diseases of Forest Trees of the World: An annotated list. USDA, Agricultural Handbook, No. 197.

Spaulding P, Rathbun-Gravatt A, 1925. Longevity of the teliospores and accompanying uredospores of Cronartium ribicola Fischer in 1923. Journal of Agricultural Research, 31(10):901-916.

Stephan BR, Hyun SK, 1983. Studies on the specialization of Cronartium ribicola and its differentiation on the alternate hosts Ribes and Pedicalaris. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 90(6):670-678

Stipes RJ, Davis TC, 1972. Diseases of landscape trees observed in Virginia. Plant Disease Reporter, 56:108-111.

Szabo I, 1998. Occurrence and importance of rust fungi in Hungarian forests. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Research Paper, 712:9-13.

Tai FL, 1979. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Peking, China: Science Press, Academia Sinica, 1527 pp.

Therriault G, 1993. Blister rust on white pine. Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fish. Insectes et maladies des arbres: Quebec 1993 Sainte-Foy, Canada; Ministry of Natural Resources, Quebec Region, 23-24

Toko EV, Graham DA, Carlson CE, Ketcham DE, 1967. Effects of past Ribes eradication on controlling white pine blister rust in northern Idaho. Phytopathology, 57:1010.

Tomback DF, 2002. A century of blister rust and fire suppression in white pine ecosystems: Biodiversity consequences. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts.

Tomback DF, Clary JK, Koehler J, Hoff RJ, Arno SF, 1995. The effects of blister rust on post-fire regeneration of whitebark pine: the Sundance Burn of northern Idaho (U.S.A.). Conservation Biology, 9(3):654-664

Torres Juan J, 1959. Rusts of Spanish pines. Boletfn del Servicio de Plagas Forestales, 2(3):37-40.

Tubeuf C von, 1936. The program and outcome of research on blister rust of Pinus strobus from 1887 to 1936. Zeitschrift fnr Pflanzenkrankenheit, xlvi (2):49-103, (3-4):113-171.

Tylus K, Cimanowski J, Rejman S, 1981. Evaluation of susceptibility of 12 cultivars of black currants to the most important fungal diseases. Fruit Science Reports, 8(4):189-196

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Pinus albicaulis. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 36 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r6/R00E_P01.pdf

USDA Forest Service. Report, 2003. White Pine Ecosystems in the United States to Reduce the Impacts of White Pine Blister Rust. Report R1-03-118.

van Ardsel EP, 1965. Micrometerology and plant disease epidemiology. Phytopathology, 55:945-950.

van Ardsel EP, 1965. Relationships between night breezes and blister rust spread. USDA, Forest Service, Lake States Experiment Station, Research Note, 60.

van Ardsel EP, Conklin DA, Popp JB, Geils BW, 1998. The distribution of white pine blister rust in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Research Paper, 712:275-283.

van Ardsel EP, Krebill RG, 1995. Climatic distribution of blister rusts on pinyon and white pines in the USA. In: Proceedings of the 4th IUFRO Rusts of Pines Working Party Conference, Tsukuba. Tsukuba, Japan: Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Tsukuba, 127-133.

van Ardsel EP, Riker AJ, Patton RF, 1956. The effects of temperature and moisture on the spread of white pine blister rust. Phytopathology, 46:307-318.

van Arsdel EP, 1980. Infection decline rates in alternate host eradication rust control. Phytopathology, 70(6):572.

Vogler DR, Geils BW, Coats K, 2017. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Ribes inerme in north-central Utah. Plant Disease, 101(2):386. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Vonica I, Minoiu N, 1977. Notes on the preventive and control treatment of currant against rust caused by Cronartium ribicola (Lasch.) Fischer de Waldh. Productia Vegetala, Horticultura, 26(8):28-31

White EE, Foord BM, Kinloch BBJr, 1996. Genetics of Cronartium ribicola. II. Variation in the ribosomal gene cluster. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74(3):461-468; 55 ref.

White MA, Brown TN, Host GE, 2002. Landscape analysis of risk factors for white pine blister rust in the Mixed Forest Province of Minnesota, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32(9):1639-1650; 44 ref.

Wicker EF, 1979. In vitro dual culture of Tuberculina maxima and Cronartium ribicola. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 96(2):185-189

Wicker EF, 1981. Natural control of white pine blister rust by Tuberculina maxima. Phytopathology, 71(9):997-1000

Wicker EF, Mosher OP, Wells JM, 1976. Organic constituents of Cronartium ribicola pycnical fluid. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 87(2):100-105.

Wicker EF, Powers HR, Grasso V, Raddi P, 1980. Biocontrol of conifer stem rusts: the purple mold. In: Powers HR, Grasso V, eds. Rusts of Hard Pines. Proceedings of the meeting of IUFRO working group S2.06.10, September 5-7, 1979, Florence, Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 19:21-26.

Wicker EF, Woo JY, 1973. Histology of blister rust cankers parasitized by Tuberculina maxima. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 76(4):356-366.

Wicker EF, Yokota SI, 1982. Fungi associated with blister rust cankers on Pinus strobus and P. pumila in Japan. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 23(2):143-148

Williams RE, 1972. Fungi associated with blister rust cankers on Western White Pine. Dissertation Abstracts International B, 33(6):2434.

Wilson D, 1978. Control of several important diseases by chlorothalonil in fruit and vegetable crops where MBC tolerance is occurring. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 43(2, II):943-949

Woo KS, 2002. Relationship between physiological differences of western white pine seedlings and infection levels of Cronartium ribicola. Journal of Korean Forestry Society, 91(4):490-498.

Woo KS, Fins L, McDonald GI, Wenny DL, Eramian A, 2002. Effects of nursery environment on needle morphology of Pinus monticola Dougl. and implications for tree improvement programs. New Forests, 24(2):113-129; 46 ref.

Woo KS, Fins L, McDonald GI, Wiese MV, 2001. Differences in needle morphology between blister rust resistant and susceptible western white pine stocks. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31(11):1880-1886; 41 ref.

Wood C, 1986. Distribution maps of common tree diseases in British Columbia. Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Information Report, BC-X-281.

Yanchuk AD, Hoff RJ, McDonald G, Baumgartner DM, Lotan JE, Tonn JR, 1994. Blister rust resistance in western white pine: does it have a future? In: Baumgartner DM, Lotan JE, eds. Interior Cedar-hemlock-white Pine Forests: Ecology and Management. Symposium proceedings, The Ridpath Hotel, Spokane, Washington, USA 2-4 March, 1993. Pullman, Washington, USA: Washington State University Cooperative Extension, 123-132.

Yang ZZ, 2002. Alternate host of armand pine blister rust in China. 2002. Proceedings of the second IUFRO Rusts of Forest Trees Working Party Conference, 19-23 Aug 2002. 99-101.

Yao J, Wu-Han L, Shi-Guang Zhao, 1995. Study on pine rusts in Northwest China. In: Proceedings of the 4th IUFRO Rusts of Pines Working Party Conference, Tsukuba. Tsukuba, Japan: Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Tsukuba, 37-41.

Yi CK, 1982. Silvicultural control of pine blister rust. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 21(3):167-174

Yi CK, Kim HJ, 1983. Studies on the host selectivity and pathogenicity of white pine blister fungus (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer ex Rabenhorst) in Korea. Journal of Korean Forestry Society, No. 62:76-81

Yokota S, 1983. Resistance of improved Pinus monticola and some other white pines to the blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, of Hokkaido, Japan. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 13(7):389-402

Yokota S, 1983. Studies on pciospore germination, and casting and germination of sporidia of the white pine blister rust fungus. Bulletin of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, No. 321:39-49

Yokota S, Uozumi T, 1976. New developments in white pine blister rusts in Japan. In: Proceedings of the XVI World Forestry Congress, June 20-July 27, 1976, Oslo, Norway. IUFRO Congress Committee. Aas, Norway: Norwegian Forest Research Institute, 330-313.

Yu XueShu, Ekramoddoullah AKM, Santosh Misra, 2000. Characterization of Pin m III cDNA in western white pine. Tree Physiology, 20(10):663-671; 40 ref.

Yu Xueshu, Ekramoddoullah AKM, Sturrock RN, Zamani A, 2001. The antigen reactive to an anti-white pine blister rust fungal monoclonal antibody (Mab 7) is a homologue of 70-kDa heat shock proteins (a BiP protein). Mycologia, 93(6):1174-1185; 33 ref.

Yu XueShu, Ekramoddoullah AKM, Taylor DW, Piggott N, 2002. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA of cro rI from the white pine blister rust fungus Cronartium ribicola. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 35(1):53-66; 27 ref.

Zakaullaii, 1994. A note on first time widespread attack of stem blister rust in young blue pine plantations in Naran, Upper Kagan forests. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 44(1):38-39; 8 ref.

Zambino PJ, 2000. Evaluating white pine blister rust resistance in ribes after artificial inoculation. HortTechnology, 10(3):544-545; 5 ref.

Zambino PJ, Echt C, Pijut P, Michler C, 1997. Desiccation, storage temperature, and heat shock affect germination of Cronartium ribicola urediniospores, aeciospores, and teliospores. Inoculum, 48:42.

Zambino PJ, Hamelin R, McDonald GI, 2002. Genetic variation and potential for adaptation and gene flow in Cronartium ribicola. Phytopathology, 92(6):S95.

Zeglen S, 2000. Whitebark pine and white pine blister rust in British Columbia. Interim Report, British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Vancouver Region, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada.

Zeglen S, 2002. Whitebark pine and white pine blister rust in British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32(7):1265-1274; 28 ref.

Ziller WG, 1974. The tree rusts of western Canada. Canadian Forest Service, Department of Environment, Pacific Forest Research Centre, Victoria, BC., Canada. Publication No. 1329.

Zsuffa L, 1985. The genetic improvement of eastern white pine in Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 116(supplement):91-94

Zurawicz E, Madry W, Pluta S, 1996. Variation and heritability of economically important traits in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) evaluated in a diallel cross design. Euphytica, 91(2):219-224; 22 ref.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map