Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cronartium quercuum
(pine-oak rust)

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Datasheet

Cronartium quercuum (pine-oak rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cronartium quercuum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pine-oak rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Five-year-old P. elliottii with a severe infestation of Cronartium fusiforme. Such heavy infestation will cause mortality.
TitleCronartium fusiforme infestation.
CaptionFive-year-old P. elliottii with a severe infestation of Cronartium fusiforme. Such heavy infestation will cause mortality.
CopyrightJames P. Barnett
Five-year-old P. elliottii with a severe infestation of Cronartium fusiforme. Such heavy infestation will cause mortality.
Cronartium fusiforme infestation.Five-year-old P. elliottii with a severe infestation of Cronartium fusiforme. Such heavy infestation will cause mortality.James P. Barnett

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miyabe ex Shirai 1899

Preferred Common Name

  • pine-oak rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Cronartium asclepiadeum var. quercuum Berk. 1874
  • Cronartium cerebrum (Peck) Hedgc. & Long 1914
  • Peridermium cerebrum Peck 1873
  • Peridermium giganteum (Mayr) Tubeuf 1895
  • Peridermium mexicanum Arthur & F. Kern 1906
  • Peridermium strobi Kleb. 1888

International Common Names

  • English: blister: pine rust; blister: white pine rust; eastern gall rust; eastern gall: pine rust
  • Spanish: roya del grosellero negro
  • French: chancre du pin Weymouth; rouille asiatique du groseillier; rouille du pin a cinq feuilles; rouille du pin du lord; rouille du pin Weymouth; rouille vesiculeuse du pin blanc sur groseillier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blasen-: Weymouthskiefer Rost; Gallen-: Kiefer Rost
  • USA: eastern pine gall rust

EPPO code

  • CRONQU (Cronartium quercuum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Cronartiaceae
  •                             Genus: Cronartium
  •                                 Species: Cronartium quercuum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
JapanPresent
North KoreaPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
TurkeyPresent

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Russian Far EastPresent
SloveniaAbsent

North America

BelizePresent
CanadaPresent, Widespread
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
El SalvadorPresent
HondurasPresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

South America

GuyanaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / wilt
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / fasciation
Stems / galls
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / necrosis
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark fruiting bodies Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Growing medium accompanying plants fruiting bodies Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Alfieri SA Jr, Linderman KR, Wehlburg C, Kimbrough JW, 1984. Index of Plant Diseases in Florida. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. Bulletin No. II (revised). 389 pp

Allen JE, et al. , 1994. Relation of mechanical site preparation to oak abundance, pine growth, and fusiform rust incidence in a slash pine plantation. Proceedings of the Eighth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference, Auburn, Alabama

Anderson NA, 1963. Eastern Gall Rust. USDA Forest Service, Pest Leaflet 80

Anon., 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 165. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Anon., 1970. California Fungi (Exsiccati set), Nos. 1-1325. Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.

Anon., 1971. The Handbook of Forest Protection. Chinese Agriculture Publishing House, 1-466.

Anon., 1976. The catalogue of flora of Chinese forests species. Unpublished manuscript.

Arabatzis AA, Gregoire TG, Lenhart JD, 1991. Fusiform rust incidence in loblolly and slash pine plantations in east Texas. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 15(2):79-84; 26 ref

Bagyanarayana G, 1989. Rusts of pine from India. In: Hiratsuka Y, Samoil JK, Blenis PV, Crane PE, Laishley BL, eds. Rusts of Pine. Proceedings of the IUFRO Rusts of Pine Working Party Conference, Canada. Forestry Canada, 333-337

Bakshi BK, 1976. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry. Controller of Publications. New Delhi India, 400 pp

Belanger RP, et al. , 1995. Relation of mechanical site preparation to oak abundance, pine growth, and fusiform rust incidence in a slash pine plantation. Integrat. For. Pest Manage. Coop., Sch. For. Resourc. Conserv., Univ. Fla., Gainesville, Interim Res. Rept. 34

Belanger RP, Miller T, Godbee JF, 1991. Fusiform rust aeciospore production after thinning in Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and Pinus taeda. Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 358-370

Bergdahl DR, French DW, 1991. Basidiospore Infection Periods for Cronartium Rusts on Jack Pine in Minnesota. Minister of Supply and Service Canada, 149-157

Boyce JS, 1961. Forest Pathology. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 201-217

Bridgwater FE, Smith WD, 1997. Economic impact of fusiform rust on the value of loblolly pine plantations. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 21(4):187-192; 25 ref

Burdsall HH Jr, Snow GA, 1977. Taxonomy of Cronartium quercuum and C. fusiforme. Mycologia, 69(3):503-508

Burnes TA, Blanchette RA, Stewart WK, Mohn CA, 1989. Screening jack pine seedlings for resistance to Cronartium quercuum f.sp. banksianae and Endocronartium harknessii. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 19(12):1642-1644

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

Cao ZM, Li ZQ, 1999. Rust Fungi of Qinling Mountains. Chinese Forestry Publish House

Chang KF, Blenis PV, 1989. Survival of Endocronartium harknessii teliospores in a simulated airborne state. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67(3):928-932

Chen MM, 2003. Forest Fungi Phytogeography. Jepson and University Herbaria, University of California at Berkeley

Chen SW, 2001. The publication collection of Chen Shouchang. Sichuan University Publish House

Cheng DS, Han XY, Xue Y, Pan XR, Li WH, 1997. Isozymic variation among and within species of pine stem rust fungi in China. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 33(4):330-337

Cheng DS, Lian HY, Xue Y, Pan XR, Li WH, 1998. Genetic differentiation among three pine stem rust fungi from China as estimated by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Scientia Silvae Sinicae. 34(5):53-60

Cheng DS, Xue Y, Pan XR, Li WH, 1998. Population genetic structures of three Cronartium species from China based upon allozyme analysis. Mycosystema, 17(1):32-39

Cooke WB, 1980. The 1976 Louisiana foray. Mycologia, 72:1047-1053

Dai FL, 1937. A list of fungi hitherto known from China. Sci. Rept. Nat. Tsing Hua Univ., Ser. B, 2, 137-165, 191-639

Dai FL, 1947. Uredinales of western China. Farlowia. 3:95-139

Davidson AG, Prentice RM, 1967. Important forest insects and diseases of mutual concern to Canada, the United States and Mexico. Department of Forest and Rural Development, Canada Publication No. 1180

Doggett C, Rogers D, Smith J, Barron H, 1991. Within tree distribution of fusiform rust on loblolly pine. Forestry Note - Division of Forest Resources, North Carolina, No. 63:14 pp.; 5 ref

Dwinell LD, 1974. Susceptibility of southern oaks to Cronartium fusiforme and Cronartium quercuum. Phytopathology, 64:400-403

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 1997. Flora of North America, Vol 3. New York, USA: Oxford University Press

Fountain MS, Kronard GD, Lenhard JD, 1993. Comparison of planted loblolly and slash pine performance in southeast Texas. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 17(1):26-31

Froelich RC, Schmidtling RC, 1998. Survival of slash pine having fusiform rust disease varies with year of first stem infection and severity. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 22(2):96-100; 15 ref

Grand LF, 1985. North Carolina Plant Disease Index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin, 240:1-157

Grand LF, Menge JA, Bond JJ, 1975. Partial checklist of fungi from Highlands, North Carolina and vicinity. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 91:221-229

Gregoire TG, Schabenberger O, 1995. A conspectus on Estimating Function Theory and its applicability to recurrent modeling issues in forest biometry. Silva Fennica, 29(1):49-70

Gross HL, 1983. Negligible cull and growth loss of jack pine associated with globose gall rust. Forestry Chronicle, 59:308-311

Gross HL, Ek AR, Patton RF, 1983. Site character and infection hazard for the sweetfern rust disease in northern Ontario. Forest Science, 29:771-778

Hanlin RT, 1966. Host index to the Basidiomycetes of Georgia. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station Mimeo Ser. n.s. 260:1-30

Hart JH, Mosher DG, Ajewole R, 1978. Occurrence of Endocronartium harknessii and Cronartium quercuum on Scots and jack pine in Michigan's lower peninsula. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(9):779-782

Haywood JD, Tiarks AE, Snow GA, 1994. Combinations of fungicide and cultural practices influence the incidence and impact of fusiform rust in slash pine plantations. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 18(2):53-59; 22 ref

Hedden RL, Belanger RP, Powers HR, Miller T, 1991. Relation of Nantucket pine tip moth attack and fusiform rust infection in loblolly pine families. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 15(4):204-208; 9 ref

Hepting GH, 1971. Diseases of Forest and Shade Trees of the United States. Agricultural Handbook No. 386. Washington, USA: Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, 287-370

Hiratsuka N, Sato S, 1973. Conclusive summary of the positive results of the inoculation experiments with heteroecious species of the Japanese rust fungi (1937-1973). Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute (Japan), 10:141-154

Hiratsuka Y, 1991. A new strategy of the biological control of pine stem rusts. In: Proceedings of the 3rd IUFRO Rusts of Pine Working Party Conference. Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Information Report, NOR-X-317, 371-377

Hodge GR, White TL, Schmidt RA, Allen JE, 1993. Stability of rust infection ratios for resistant and susceptible slash and loblolly pine across rust hazard levels. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 17(4):188-192

IMI, 1996. Cronartium quercuum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases , (December (Edition 1)) Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Map 708.

Ito S, 1938. Mycological flora of Japan. Vol. 2. Basidiomycetes. No. 2. Uredinales - Melampsoraceae. Tokyo, Japan: Yokendo (in Japanese)

Jewell FF, Walker NM, 1967. Histology of Cronartium quercuum galls on shortleaf pine. Phytopathology, 57:545-550

Kaneko S, 2000. Cronartium orientale, sp. nov., segregation of the pine gall rust in eastern Asia from Cronartium quercuum. Mycoscience, 41(2):115-122; 44 ref

Kaneko S, Powers HR, 1991. Morphological and Physiological difference in the Cronartium quercuum complex. Minister of Supply and Service Canada, 69-75

Kelley WD, Runion GB, 1991. Control of Fusiform rust on loblolly and slash pine seedlings in forest nurseries in the southeastern United States. Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 338-340

Kondo H, 1975. Studies on eastern gall rust of pines (Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miyabe ex Shirai), with special reference to the life cycle, the infection period to pines, and pathogenic variability to alternate hosts of the causal fungus. Bulletin of the Ibaraki Prefectural Forest Experiment Station, No.8:107 pp

Kuhlman EG, Kaneko S, 1991. Comparisons of basidiospores and urediniospores of formae speciales of Cronartium quercuum. Mycologia, 83(4):440-445

Lamb H, 1937. Rust canker diseases of southern pines. USDA Forest Service, SE Forest Experiment Station Occasional Paper, 72:1-7

Lamb H, Sleeth B, 1940. Distribution and suggested control measures for the southern pine fusiforme rust. USDA Forest Service, SE Forest Experiment Station Occasional Paper, 91:1-5

Lin Li, 1948. Host index of the parasitic fungi of Szechwan, China. Plant Disease Reporter (USDA) Suppl., 173:1-38

Millspaugh CF, Nutall LW, 1923. Flora of Santa Catalina Island. Field Museum of Natural History, Bot. Ser., 5:314-357

Nighswander JE, Patton RF, 1965. The epidemiology of the jack pine-oak gall rust (Cronartium quercuum) in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Botany, 43:1561-1581

OEPP/EPPO, 1979. Data sheets on quarantine organisms No. 4 Angiosorus solani. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 9(2)

Parris GK, 1959. A revised host index of Mississippi plant diseases. Miscellaneous Publication, Botany Department, University of Mississippi, 1, 146 pp

Pei MH, Gibbs JN, 1991. Peridermium pini (Pers.) Lev.: Axenic Culture and Inoculation of Pine seedlings and Callus Cultures. Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 291-301

Peterson RS, 1967. The Peridermium species on pine stems. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 94:511-542

Peterson RS, 1973. Studies of Cronartium (Uredinales). Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute, 10:203-223

Peterson RS, Jewell RR, 1968. Status of American rusts of pine. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 6:23-40

Phillips DH, 1988. Cronartium ribicola. In: Smith IM, Dunez J, Lelliot RA, Phillips DH, Archer SA, eds. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 477-478

Powers HR, et al. , 1991. Susceptibility of Asian and American Oaks and Pines to Cronartium quercuum. Minister of Supply and Services Canada. 313-318

Powers HR, Lin D, Hubbes M, 1989. Interspecific and intraspecific differentiation within the genus Cronartium by isozyme and protein pattern analysis. Plant Disease, 73:691-694

Powers HR, Miller T, Belanger RP, 1993. Management strategies to reduce losses from fusiform rust. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 17:146-149

Preston DA, 1945. Host index of Oklahoma plant diseases. Oklahoma Agricultural College, Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin (suppl.), T-21:1-39

Preston DA, 1947. Host Index of Oklahoma plant diseases, supplement, 1947. Oklahoma Agricultural Mechanical College, Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin (supplement), T-21:1-39

Pye JM, Wagner JE, Holmes TP, Cubbage FW, 1997. Positive returns from investment in fusiform rust research. Research Paper - Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. SRS-4:55 pp.; 42 ref

Raddi P, Powers HR Jr, 1982. Relative susceptibility of several European species of pine to fusiform rust. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 12(6/7):442-447

Ragazzi A, 1998. Oak species and the urban environment: advice for correct use and analysis of health problems. Informatore Fitopatologico, 48(6):41-44; 10 ref

Rowan SJ, 1984. Bayleton seed treatment combined with foliar spray improves fusiform rust control in nurseries. So. J. Appl. For., 8:51-54

Schmidt RA, 2003. Fusiform Rust Disease of Southern Pines: Biology, Ecology and Management School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida. World Wide Web page at http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/Extension/bul903.htm

Schmidt RA, Allen JE, 1991. Temporal and Spatial Variation Affecting Fusiform Rust Hazard Prediction in Slash Pine Plantations in the Southeastern United States. Minister of Supply and Service Canada, 139-148

Schmidt RA, Miller T, 1999. Influence of inoculum concentration on production of r and aecia on pine seedlings infected by basidiospores of Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme. Plant Disease, 83(4):367-370; 27 ref

Sert H, Sümbül H, Isilogu M, 2004. A new host and two new genera for the fungal flora of Turkey. Australasian Plant Pathology, 33(2):323-324

Shao LP, Xue Y, Wang ZH, Chai M, Wang JC, 1989. Study on the losses of Xingkai lake pine gall rust. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 17(2):1-5

Siggers PV, 1951. Spray control of the fusiforme rust in forest tree nurseries. J. For., 49:350-352

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Sleeth B, 1943. Fusiform rust control in forest tree nurseries. Phytopathology, 33:33-44

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Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Davidson AG, Prentice RM, 1967. Important forest insects and diseases of mutual concern to Canada, the United States and Mexico. In: Department of Forest and Rural Development, Canada Publication No. 1180,

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Sert H, Sümbül H, Ișİloğu M, 2004. A new host and two new genera for the fungal flora of Turkey. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (2), 323-324. DOI:10.1071/AP04009

UK, CAB International, 1996. Cronartium quercuum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 708. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20056500708

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