Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cronartium comandrae
(comandra blister rust)

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Datasheet

Cronartium comandrae (comandra blister rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cronartium comandrae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • comandra blister rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Signs and symptoms of C. comandrae on Pinus contorta.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSigns and symptoms of C. comandrae on Pinus contorta.
CopyrightYazuyuki Hiratsuka
Signs and symptoms of C. comandrae on Pinus contorta.
SymptomsSigns and symptoms of C. comandrae on Pinus contorta.Yazuyuki Hiratsuka

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cronartium comandrae Peck 1879

Preferred Common Name

  • comandra blister rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Cronartium pyriforme Hedgc. & Long 1914
  • Peridermium bethelii Hedgc.& Long 1913
  • Peridermium pyriforme Peck 1875

International Common Names

  • English: comandra blister: pine rust; stem: pine rust
  • Spanish: roya del pino
  • French: rouille du pin

EPPO code

  • CRONCO (Cronartium comandrae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Cronartiaceae
  •                             Genus: Cronartium
  •                                 Species: Cronartium comandrae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SloveniaAbsent

North America

CanadaPresent, Widespread
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Northwest TerritoriesPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
-YukonPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VermontPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Growth Stages

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Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / gummosis or resinosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Epuraea obliquus Predator Fungi|Spores
Erethizon dorsatum Predator Fungi|Hyphae
Lepus americanus Predator Fungi|Hyphae
Paracacoxenus guttatus Predator Fungi|Spores
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Predator Fungi|Hyphae
Tuberculina maxima Hyperparasite Fungi|Hyphae; Fungi|Spores

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants fungi/hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Applegate HW; Seay T, 1971. Two new hosts for comandra blister rust. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:697.

Bergdahl D; French DW, 1974. Pinus nigra, a new host for comandra blister rust. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:616.

Boyce JS, 1961. Forest Pathology. 3rd edition. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Chang KF; Blenis PV, 1989. Survival of Endocronartium harknessii teliospores in a simulated airborne state. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67(3):928-932

CMI, 1982. Cronartium comandrae. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases No. 444, edition 2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Davidson AG; Prentice RM, 1967. Important forest insects and diseases of mutual concern to Canada, the United States and Mexico. Department of Forest and Rural Development, Canada Publication No. 1180.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Geils BW; Jacobi WR, 1990. Development of comandra blister rust on lodgepole pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20(2):159-165

Geils BW; Jacobi WR, 1993. Effects of comandra blister rust on growth and survival of lodgepole pine. Phytopathology, 83(6):638-644

Gross HL; Ek AR; Patton RF, 1983. Site character and infection hazard for the sweetfern rust disease in northern Ontario. Forest Science, 29:771-778.

Hepting GH, 1957. A rust on Virginia pine and Buckleya. Mycologia, 49: 896-899.

HEPTING GH, 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United States., USA: USDA, 658 pp. [Agricultural Handbook, No. 386.]

Hiratsuka Y, 1971. Spore surface morphology of pine stem rusts of Canada as observed under a scanning electron microscope. Canadian Journal of Botany, 49:371-372.

Hiratsuka Y, 1987. Forest tree diseases of the prairie provinces. Information Report - Northern Forestry Centre, Canadian Forestry Service Canadian Forestry Service, No. NOR-X-286:142 pp.

Hiratsuka Y; Powell JM, 1976. Pine stem rusts of Canada. Forestry Technical Report, 83(4):83 pp.

Hiratsuka Y; Powell JM; Sickle GAvan, 1988. Impact of pine stem rusts of hard pines in Alberta and the Northwest Territories. Information Report - Northern Forestry Centre, Canadian Forestry Service, No. NOR-X-299:vi + 9 pp.

Jacobi WR; Geils BW; Taylor JE; Zentz WR, 1993. Predicting the incidence of comandra blister rust on lodgepole pine: site, stand, and alternate-host influences. Phytopathology, 83(6):630-637

Mielke JL, 1957. The comandra blister rust in lodgepole pine. Research Notes, Intermountain Forest Experimental Station No. 46, 1-8.

Mielke JL; Krebill RG, Powers HR Jr. , 1968. Comandra blister rust of hard pines. USDA Forestry Service, Forest Pest Leaflet No. 62.

Mordue JEM and Gibson IAS, 1978. Cronartium comandrae. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 578. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Nebeker TE; Schmitz RF; Tisdale RA; Hobson KR, 1995. Chemical and nutritional status of dwarf mistletoe, armillaria root rot, and comandra blister rust infected trees which may influence tree susceptibility to bark beetle attack. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73(3):360-369

OEPP/EPPO, 1979. Data sheets on quarantine organisms No. 4 Angiosorus solani. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 9(2).

Peterson RS, 1967. The Peridermium species on pine stems. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 94:511-542.

Peterson RS, 1973. Studies of Cronartium (Uredinales). Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute, 10:203-223.

Peterson RS; Jewell RR, 1968. Status of American rusts of pine. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 6:23-40.

Phillips DH, 1988. Cronartium ribicola. In: Smith IM, Dunez J, Lelliot RA, Phillips DH, Archer SA, eds. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 477-478.

Powell JM, 1974. The role of natural biological agents in controlling a pine stem rust (Cronartium comandrae). Blue Jay, 32(2):75-79

Powell JM, 1982. Rodent and lagomorph damage to pine stem rusts with special mention of studies in Alberta. Canadian Field Naturalist, 96(3):287-294

Powell JM; Skaley LS, 1975. Arthropods from forest litter under lodgepole pine infected with the Comandra blister rust. Information Report, Northern Forest Research Centre, Canadian Forestry Service, NOR-X-130:[4+]33pp.

Sinclair WA; Lyon HH; Johnson WT, 1987. Diseases of trees and shrubs. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 574 pp.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Spaulding P, 1956. Diseases of North American forest trees planted abroad. An annotated list. Agricultural Handbook, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture No. 100: 11.

Spaulding P, 1961. Foreign Diseases of Forest Trees of the World: An annotated list. USDA, Agricultural Handbook, No. 197.

USDA, 1963. Internationally dangerous forest tree diseases. Miscellaneous Publications, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture No. 939: 54, 56-57, 73-74, 92-96.

Van der Kamp BJ, 1994. Lodgepole pine stem diseases and management of stand density in the British Columbia interior. Forestry Chronicle, 70:773-779.

Woods AJ; Nussbaum A; Golding B, 2000. Predicted impacts of hard pine stem rusts on lodgepole pine dominated stands in central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30(3):476-481; 13 ref.

Ziller WG, 1974. The tree rusts of Western Canada. Victoria, BC, Canada: Canadian Forestry Service, 272 pp.

Distribution Maps

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