Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cricula trifenestrata
(tea flush worm)

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Datasheet

Cricula trifenestrata (tea flush worm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cricula trifenestrata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tea flush worm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. trifenestrata adult female. Wingspan approximately 80 mm.
TitleAdult
CaptionC. trifenestrata adult female. Wingspan approximately 80 mm.
CopyrightDenver Museum of Natural History
C. trifenestrata adult female. Wingspan approximately 80 mm.
AdultC. trifenestrata adult female. Wingspan approximately 80 mm.Denver Museum of Natural History
Eggs of C. trifenestrata laid in one or two parallel longitudinal rows along dorsal margin of mango leaves.
TitleEggs on leaf
CaptionEggs of C. trifenestrata laid in one or two parallel longitudinal rows along dorsal margin of mango leaves.
CopyrightM.Z. Alam
Eggs of C. trifenestrata laid in one or two parallel longitudinal rows along dorsal margin of mango leaves.
Eggs on leafEggs of C. trifenestrata laid in one or two parallel longitudinal rows along dorsal margin of mango leaves.M.Z. Alam
Second-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata feeding gregariously in clusters on mango leaves.
TitleSecond-instar larvae
CaptionSecond-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata feeding gregariously in clusters on mango leaves.
CopyrightM.Z. Alam
Second-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata feeding gregariously in clusters on mango leaves.
Second-instar larvaeSecond-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata feeding gregariously in clusters on mango leaves.M.Z. Alam
Third- and fourth-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata feeding gregariously on leaves of a mango twig.
TitleThird- and fourth-instar larvae
CaptionThird- and fourth-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata feeding gregariously on leaves of a mango twig.
CopyrightM.Z. Alam
Third- and fourth-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata feeding gregariously on leaves of a mango twig.
Third- and fourth-instar larvaeThird- and fourth-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata feeding gregariously on leaves of a mango twig.M.Z. Alam
Early fifth-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata consuming the leaf lamina leaving the mid-ribs of the mango leaves.
TitleEarly fifth-instar larvae
CaptionEarly fifth-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata consuming the leaf lamina leaving the mid-ribs of the mango leaves.
CopyrightM.A. Karim
Early fifth-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata consuming the leaf lamina leaving the mid-ribs of the mango leaves.
Early fifth-instar larvaeEarly fifth-instar larvae of C. trifenestrata consuming the leaf lamina leaving the mid-ribs of the mango leaves.M.A. Karim
The prepupal larva of C. trifenestrata under the mango leaf is preparing its cocoon while a mature larva is approaching the site.
TitlePrepupal larva
CaptionThe prepupal larva of C. trifenestrata under the mango leaf is preparing its cocoon while a mature larva is approaching the site.
CopyrightM.Z. Alam
The prepupal larva of C. trifenestrata under the mango leaf is preparing its cocoon while a mature larva is approaching the site.
Prepupal larvaThe prepupal larva of C. trifenestrata under the mango leaf is preparing its cocoon while a mature larva is approaching the site.M.Z. Alam
Pupae of C. trifenestrata collected from mango trees for laboratory observation of moth and parasitoid emergence.
TitlePupae
CaptionPupae of C. trifenestrata collected from mango trees for laboratory observation of moth and parasitoid emergence.
CopyrightM.Z. Alam
Pupae of C. trifenestrata collected from mango trees for laboratory observation of moth and parasitoid emergence.
PupaePupae of C. trifenestrata collected from mango trees for laboratory observation of moth and parasitoid emergence.M.Z. Alam
Cluster of cocoons formed by C. trifenestrata among healthy leaves of an infested mango tree.
TitleCluster of cocoons
CaptionCluster of cocoons formed by C. trifenestrata among healthy leaves of an infested mango tree.
CopyrightM.Z. Alam
Cluster of cocoons formed by C. trifenestrata among healthy leaves of an infested mango tree.
Cluster of cocoonsCluster of cocoons formed by C. trifenestrata among healthy leaves of an infested mango tree.M.Z. Alam
Adult Brachymeria criculae, the pupal parasitoid of C. trifenestrata.
TitleParasitoid
CaptionAdult Brachymeria criculae, the pupal parasitoid of C. trifenestrata.
CopyrightM.Z. Alam
Adult Brachymeria criculae, the pupal parasitoid of C. trifenestrata.
ParasitoidAdult Brachymeria criculae, the pupal parasitoid of C. trifenestrata.M.Z. Alam
Brachymeria criculae, pupal parasitoid of C. trifenestrata emerging from parasitized pupae.
TitleParasitoid
CaptionBrachymeria criculae, pupal parasitoid of C. trifenestrata emerging from parasitized pupae.
CopyrightM.Z. Alam
Brachymeria criculae, pupal parasitoid of C. trifenestrata emerging from parasitized pupae.
ParasitoidBrachymeria criculae, pupal parasitoid of C. trifenestrata emerging from parasitized pupae.M.Z. Alam

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cricula trifenestrata (Helfer)

Preferred Common Name

  • tea flush worm

Other Scientific Names

  • Cricula trifenestrata javana (Watson)
  • Cricula trifenestrata kransi (Jurriaanse & Lindemans)

International Common Names

  • English: flush worm, tea; mango hairy caterpillar (Myanmar (Burma)); wild silk moth (India)

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: am patar bichcha poka; amer pata kheko shua poka; mango defoliator (translation); mango leaf-eating caterpillar (translation)
  • Netherlands: Kanarie rups

EPPO code

  • CRILTR (Cricula trifenestrata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Saturniidae
  •                             Genus: Cricula
  •                                 Species: Cricula trifenestrata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresentHampson (1892); Ghosh (1940); Alam and Hazarika (1953); Ahmed and Alam (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
CambodiaPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2000)
IndiaPresentHampson (1892); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentHampson (1892); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
-AssamPresentGhosh (1925); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentFletcher (1914); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
-MeghalayaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
-Tamil NaduPresentSingh (1992); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-West BengalPresentPal and Medda (2006)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000);
-Irian JayaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
-JavaPresentHampson (1892); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2000); CABI (Undated)
-Maluku IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
-SulawesiPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
-SumatraPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2000)
LaosPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
MalaysiaPresentAlam and Hazarika (1953); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
MyanmarPresentHampson (1892); Lefroy (1909); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2000)
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
PhilippinesPresentGabriel (1980); CABI and EPPO (2000)
Sri LankaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Hampson (1892)
ThailandPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2000)
VietnamPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2000)

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / shredding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Brachymeria criculae Parasite Pupae
Brachymeria tibialis Parasite Pupae Tikader, 2012
Exorista bombycis Parasite Sarma et al., 2006
Mesocomys orientalis Parasite Pupae
Pediobius Parasite Pupae
Telenomus Parasite Eggs
Theronia zebra Parasite Pupae
Xanthopimpla brullei Parasite Pupae
Xanthopimpla konowi Parasite Pupae
Xanthopimpla lepcha Parasite Pupae

References

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Ahmad M; Ahmad M, 1991. A new host plant record for the mango defoliator, Cricula trifenestrata, from Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Entomology, 1:89; 6 ref.

Ahmed F; Alam MZ, 1994. Biology of mango defoliator, Cricula trifenestrata Helfer (Saturniidae: Lepidoptera). Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research, 12(2):151-156.

Alam MZ, 1967. A report on the survey of insect and mite fauna of East Pakistan. Ayubnagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh: East Pakistan Agricultural Research Institute, 151 p.

Alam MZ, 1974. Insect and mite pests of fruits and fruit trees in Bangladesh and their control (revised ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, 120 p.

Alam MZ; Ahmed A; Alam S; Islam MA; eds, 1965. A review of research Division of Entomology (1947-1964). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Agric. Inf. Serv. & Bangladesh Agric. Res. Inst.

Alam MZ; Ahmed F, 1992. Parasitoids associated with different stages of Cricula trifenestrata Helfer (Saturniidae: Lepidoptera). Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture, 2(2):69-74; 8 ref.

Alam MZ; Hazarika SH, 1953. Biology of mango defoliator Cricula trifenestrata Helfer (Saturnidae: Lepidoptera) in East Pakistan. Scientist Pakistan, 1(2-3):55-64.

Ali MI; Karim MA, 1991. Notes on the biology, behaviour and biocontrol agents of mango defoliator Cricula trifenestrata (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Bangladesh Journal of Entomology, 1:83-87; 8 ref.

Ayyar TVR, 1929. Notes on some Indian lepidoptera with abnormal habits. Journal of the Bombay National History Society, 33(3):668-678.

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Cricula trifenestrata. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 601. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Choudhury SN, 1981. Muga silk industry. Shillong, Assam, India: Directorate of Sericulture and Weaving, 40 pp.

Clausen CP, 1940. Entomophagous Insects. London, UK: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Deshmukh PB, 1992. Efficacy of two insecticide treatments against aphid, Toxoptera avrantii, and caterpillar, Circula trifenesirata, on groundnut, Arachis hypogea L. International Pest Control, 34(5):153

Fletcher TB, 1914. Some South Indian insects and other animals of importance considered specially from an economic point of view. Madras, India 565 pp.

Gabriel BP, 1980. Prospects for industrial entomology in the Philippines. Philippine Entomologist, 4(6):525-534

Ghosh CC, 1925. Report of the Entomologist, Mandalay, and Sericultural Work for the Year ended 30th June 1925. Rangoon, Myanmar.

Ghosh CC, 1940. Insect pests of Burma. Rangoon, Myanmar: Supt. Government Printing and Stationery Office.

Gupta VK, 1987. The Ichneumonidae of the Indo-Australian area (Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 41(1-2):1210 pp.

Hall CJJ van, 1916. Diseases and pests of cultivated plants in the Dutch East Indies. Meded Laboratorium Voor Plantenzekten, Buitenzorg. No. 29, 30 pp.

Hampson GF, 1892. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths. Volume 1. London, UK: Taylor and Francis, 527 pp.

Hazarika SH, 1951. Destructive Insects of Eastern Pakistan and their Control. Dhaka, Bangladesh: East Bengal Government Press, 98 pp.

Huq SB; Hossain M; Khan AB, 1991. Biology of Cricula trifenestrata (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), a leaf eating caterpillar of mango. Bangladesh Journal of Entomology, 1:19-26; 4 ref.

Jolly MS; Sen SK; Ahsan MM, 1974. Tasar Culture. Bombay, India: Ambika publishers, 266 pp.

Jurriaanse JH; Lindemans J, 1920. Indo-Australische Attacus-vormen. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 63:87-95.

Kalshoven LGE; Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp.

Karim MA, 1989. Mango defoliator. In: Hossain AKMA, ed. A Field Guide on Insect Pests and Diseases of Mango in Bangladesh and their Control. Horticulture Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute and FAO/UNDP Mango Improvement and Development (BGD/81/022), pp. 14-16.

Lefroy HM, 1909. Indian Insect Life. New Delhi, India: Today and Tomorrow's Printers and publishers, (1971 reprint).

Munaan A, 1986. Controlling Cricula trifenestrata Helf. on cashew trees. Pemberitaan Penelitian Tanaman Industri, 12(1-2):36-40

Narang RC; Gupta ML, 1979. Chromosome number of Cricula trifenestrata Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Current Science, 48(10):465-466

Negi BK; Barah A; Siddiqui AA; Sengupta AK, 1993. Cricula trifenestrata (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) - a new alternate host of Blepharipa zebina (Diptera: Tachinidae). Recent advances in uzi fly research: Proceedings of the National Seminar on Uzi Fly and Its Control, 16-17 January, 1992 [edited by ChannaBasavanna, G. P.; Veeranna, G.; Dandin, S. B.] Bangalore, India; Karnataka State Sericulture Development Institute, 269-271

Packard AS, 1914. Monograph of the Bombycine moths of North America. (Edited by TDA Cockerell). Memoirs of the National Academy of Science, 12:IX+1-516.

Pal S; Medda PS, 2006. Occurrence of wild silk moth, Cricula trifenestrata (Helfer) on cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. under terai conditions of West Bengal. Orissa Journal of Horticulture, 34(1):117.

Paukstadt U; Paukstadt LH, 1990. Beitrag zur kenntnis von Cricula trifenestrata javana Watson 1913 aus westjavanischen populationen (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Galathea (Nurnberg), 6:90-100.

Peigler RS, 1989. A revision of the Indo-Australian genus Attacus. Beverly Hills, California, USA: Lepidoptera Research Foundation.

Peigler RS, 1996. Catalogue of parasitoids of Saturniidae of the world. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, 33:1-122.

Pierce NE, 1995. Predatory and parasitic Lepidoptera: carnivores living on plants. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 49(4):412-453; 12 pp. of ref.

Rohwer SA, 1914. Description notes on some Ichneumon flies from Java. Proceedings of the USNM, Washington, DC, pp. 563-570.

Sarma AK; Gupta MK; Singh KM, 2006. New record of a dipteran endoparasitoid of Cricula trifenestrata Helfer on Som, Machilus bombycina. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 3(1):143-144.

Singh SP, 1992. Frequent outbreaks of Cricula trifenestrata Helfer (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) on mango. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 20(1):114-115

Thompson WR, 1945. A catalogue of the parasites and predators of insect pests. Section I. Parasitic host catalogue, Part 6. Parasities of Lepidoptera. Belleville, Ontario, Canada: Imperial Parasite Service.

Tikader A, 2012. New record of Brachymeria tibialis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) on Cricula trifenestrata (Helfer) from India. Munis Entomology & Zoology, 7(1):222-225. http://www.munisentzool.org

Townes H; Chiu SC, 1970. The Indo-Australian species of Xanthopimpla (Ichneumonidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 14:372.

Townes H; Gupta VK, 1961. A catalogue and reclassification of the Indo-Australian Ichneumonidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 1:522.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Distribution References

Ahmed F, Alam MZ, 1994. Biology of mango defoliator, Cricula trifenestrata Helfer (Saturniidae: Lepidoptera). In: Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research, 12 (2) 151-156.

Alam M Z, Hazarika S H, 1953. Biology of mango defoliator Cricula trifenestrata Helfer (Saturnidae: Lepidoptera) in East Pakistan. Scientist Pakistan. 1 (2-3), 55-64.

CABI, EPPO, 2000. Cricula trifenestrata. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 601.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Fletcher T B, 1914. Some South Indian insects and other animals of importance considered specially from an economic point of view. Madras, India: 565 pp.

Gabriel B P, 1980. Prospects for industrial entomology in the Philippines. Philippine Entomologist. 4 (6), 525-534.

Ghosh C C, 1925. Report of the Entomologist, Mandalay, and Sericultural Work for the Year ended 30th June 1925. Rangoon, Burma:

Ghosh C C, 1940. Insect Pests of Burma. Rangoon, Burma: Supt. Government Printing and Stationery Office.

Hampson G F, 1892. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths. Volume 1. London, UK: Taylor and Francis. 527 pp.

Lefroy H M, 1909. Indian Insect Life. New Delhi, India: Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers.

Pal S, Medda P S, 2006. Occurrence of wild silk moth, Cricula trifenestrata (Helfer) on cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. under terai conditions of West Bengal. Orissa Journal of Horticulture. 34 (1), 117.

Singh S P, 1992. Frequent outbreaks of Cricula trifenestrata Helfer (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) on mango. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 20 (1), 114-115.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Distribution Maps

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