Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Crassocephalum crepidioides
(redflower ragleaf)

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Datasheet

Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Crassocephalum crepidioides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • redflower ragleaf
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. crepidiodes is an invasive herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds and classified as one of the most aggressive weeds occurring in tropical and subtropical regions (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. crepidioides seedling.
TitleSeedling
CaptionC. crepidioides seedling.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
C. crepidioides seedling.
SeedlingC. crepidioides seedling.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
The leaves of C. crepidioides are 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm.
TitleLeaves
CaptionThe leaves of C. crepidioides are 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm.
CopyrightRoss Lubigan/IRRI
The leaves of C. crepidioides are 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm.
LeavesThe leaves of C. crepidioides are 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm.Ross Lubigan/IRRI
Flowering shoot of C. crepidioides.
TitleFlowering shoot
CaptionFlowering shoot of C. crepidioides.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Flowering shoot of C. crepidioides.
Flowering shootFlowering shoot of C. crepidioides.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
TitleFlowering plants
Caption
CopyrightMaritz Galinato/IRRI
Flowering plantsMaritz Galinato/IRRI
Flowers are yellow to reddish-brown; pappus is white.
TitleFlowers (detail)
CaptionFlowers are yellow to reddish-brown; pappus is white.
CopyrightMaritz Galinato/IRRI
Flowers are yellow to reddish-brown; pappus is white.
Flowers (detail)Flowers are yellow to reddish-brown; pappus is white.Maritz Galinato/IRRI
An erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. (a) Achene with pappus.
TitleWhole plant - line drawing
CaptionAn erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. (a) Achene with pappus.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
An erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. (a) Achene with pappus.
Whole plant - line drawingAn erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. (a) Achene with pappus.SEAMEO-BIOTROP

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore

Preferred Common Name

  • redflower ragleaf

Other Scientific Names

  • Crassocephalum crepidioides f. luteum (Steen.) Belcher
  • Crassocephalum crepidioides var. lutea Steen
  • Gynura crepidioides Benth. (1849)
  • Gynura diversifolia Sch.Bip. ex Asch.
  • Gynura microcephala Vatke
  • Gynura polycephala Benth.
  • Senecio crepidioides Benth

International Common Names

  • English: ebolo; fireweed; thickhead
  • Chinese: ye tong hao

Local Common Names

  • Fiji: pua lele; se vuka
  • Indonesia: jukut jamalok
  • Indonesia/Java: jewor; sintrong
  • Japan: benibanaborogiku
  • Papua New Guinea: thick head
  • Philippines: bulak manok
  • Samoa: fua lele; vao lele
  • Thailand: phak pet maeo
  • Tonga: fisi puna

EPPO code

  • CRSCR (Crassocephalum crepidioides)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. crepidiodes is an invasive herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds and classified as one of the most aggressive weeds occurring in tropical and subtropical regions (Randall, 2012). It is a pioneer species with the capability to produce large amounts of hairy wind-dispersed seeds. However, Chen et al. (2009) suggest that seed dispersal ability is limited. Chen et al. (2009) report that the species has only a moderate invasive capacity and that its wide distribution in China possibly correlates with its cultivation.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Crassocephalum
  •                                 Species: Crassocephalum crepidioides

Description

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C. crepidioides is an erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. Stem rather stout, soft, ribbed, apically with short, thick hairs, lower down glabrescent; branches densely pubescent. Leaves helically arranged, elliptic, oblong or obovate-elliptic, acute or acuminate, pinnately lobed or pinnatifid, irregularly serrate, very thinly pubescent or glabrous, 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm; base tapered and often long-decurrent into the petiole; uppermost leaves smaller, sessile. Heads in terminal, rather small corymbs, homogamous, many-flowered, cylindrical, 13-16 x 5-6 mm, nodding during anthesis, afterwards erect; bracts linear, 0.5-10 cm long, peduncles densely pubescent; outer involucral bracts free, linear, 1-4 mm long, unequal, inner ones subequal, 1-2 seriate, green with dark-brown, acute, papillose tops, lanceolate, 8-12 mm long, thinly hairy, erect during anthesis, pellucid-marginate, cohering into a cylindrical tube, ultimately spreading, reflexed; hypanthium flat, epaleate, alveolate, alveoles with membranous rim. Flowers equal, bisexual; corolla yellow throughout, 9-11 mm long, tubular; tube long, very slender, funnel-shaped, circa 1 mm long, 5-fid limb. Anthers with entire or shallowly incised base, purple, apex acute. Style bifid, arms long, thin, their truncate, more or less penicilliate top tipped by a subulate appendix. Achenes cylindric-linear, ribbed, dark-brown with paler base and apex, thinly pubescent, 2 mm long; pappus hairs numerous, thin, silky, minutely toothed, white, caducous, 9-10 mm long (Kostermans et al., 1987).

Distribution

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C. crepidioides is native to tropical Africa. It has become widely distributed eastwards out of Africa and Madagascar into the East Indies, India, South-East Asia and the Philippines, and it is still actively spreading, with a first record as a weed in Peninsular Malaysia published in 2009 (Kiew, 2009). It was first recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Japan) in 1955 (Belcher, 1955).

Because this weed is often confused with Erechtites valerianaefolia, the full extent of its spread into the Orient may not be appreciated.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedParker, 1992; USDA-ARS, 2012
CambodiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
ChinaPresentIntroducedBelcher, 1955
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-HubeiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-HunanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced Invasive Dong et al., 2010; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-ShaanxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-SichuanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-TibetPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-YunnanPresentIntroducedChen et al., 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive Swarbrick, 1997
IndiaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; USDA-ARS, 2012
-AssamPresentRushulo Kemp, 2003
-MeghalayaPresentPatel et al., 2005
-Tamil NaduPresentIlango and Sreedhar, 2001
-UttarakhandPresentVimla et al., 2007
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedTjitrosoedirdjo, 1991; USDA-ARS, 2012
-JavaPresentTjitrosoedirdjo, 1987
-KalimantanPresentTjitrosoedirdjo, 1987
-MoluccasPresentTjitrosoedirdjo, 1987
-SulawesiPresentTjitrosoedirdjo, 1987
-SumatraPresentTjitrosoedirdjo, 1987
IranPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
JapanPresentIntroducedBelcher, 1955; USDA-ARS, 2012
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentBelcher, 1955
LaosPresentIntroducedRoder et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2012
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedTjitrosoedirdjo, 1991; USDA-ARS, 2012
MyanmarPresentIntroducedBelcher, 1955; USDA-ARS, 2012
NepalPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
PakistanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedTjitrosoedirdjo, 1991; USDA-ARS, 2012
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Chong et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedLuxmei de Silva & Ranamukaarachchi, 1994; USDA-ARS, 2012
TaiwanPresentIntroducedSu and Kao, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2012
ThailandPresentIntroducedTjitrosoedirdjo, 1991; USDA-ARS, 2012
TurkeyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2013
VietnamPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
YemenPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
BeninPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
BurundiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
CameroonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeAdams, 1963; USDA-ARS, 2012
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EthiopiaPresentNativeStroud and Parker, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2012
GabonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
GhanaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; USDA-ARS, 2012
GuineaPresentNativeAdams, 1963; USDA-ARS, 2012
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
LiberiaPresentAdams, 1963; USDA-ARS, 2012
MadagascarPresentNativeBelcher, 1955; USDA-ARS, 2012
MalawiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
MauritiusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
NigeriaPresentNativeAdams, 1963; USDA-ARS, 2012
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentNativeAdams, 1963; USDA-ARS, 2012
Sierra LeonePresentNativeAdams, 1963; USDA-ARS, 2012
South AfricaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SudanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SwazilandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
UgandaPresentNativeNamaganda et al., 2000; USDA-ARS, 2012
ZambiaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; USDA-ARS, 2012
ZimbabwePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen, 2008
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chacón and Saborío, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2000
AustraliaPresentIntroducedHenderson, 1973; Holm et al., 1979; USDA-ARS, 2012
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McCormack, 2013
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1991
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2011
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive Fosberg et al., 1979
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Herrera et al., 2010
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2004
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedRaulerson, 2006
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive Waterhouse, 1997
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2001; Space and Flynn, 2001
VanuatuPresentIntroduced Invasive Shine et al., 2003
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Meyer, 2007

Habitat

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C. crepidioides is found mainly in the humid tropics at altitudes from 15-200 m up to 2500 m above sea level. It invades bare areas but disappears under shaded conditions. Soerjani et al. (1987) list it from arable land, by rivers and roadsides, on tea and chinchoma plantations, particularly in wet localities, and in upland ricefields. It occurs in newly opened or existing shifting cultivation fields, open areas of upland fields, waste places, orchards, coffee plantations, and newly sown pastures (Tjitrosoedirdjo, 1991).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. crepidioides may be found infesting young tea plantations (Sastroutomo and Pandegirot, 1988), in rice, taro, coffee, citrus, sweet potatoes, vegetable crops, orchards and pastures.

Growth Stages

Top of page Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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The chromosome number in C. crepidiodes is 2n = 40 (Henderson, 1973; Vanijajiva and Kadereit, 2009). Hybrids with C. rubens have been recorded in north Thailand (Vanijajiva and Kadereit, 2009).

C. crepidioides is an annual weed that flowers all year round with a high seed production capacity. It is able to produce 29 flowers with approximately 4379 seeds per plant, reaching a plant density of 70.5 individuals per square metre in tea plantations. The seeds have a pappus of 10-11 mm and are therefore easily blown by wind soon after they have become detached from the mature inflorescence. The many seeds that are produced are thus spread rapidly.

Sauerborn and Koch (1988) found that C. crepidioides germinated at temperatures between 10 and 40°C: the lower limit of germination temperature explains the incidence at high altitudes. Nakamura and Hossain (2009) report a germination range of 10-30°C, with an optimum of 15-20°C. Seeds germinate over a wide pH range (2-12), with the highest germination rate at between pH 4 and 10. Germination rate was drastically reduced after one year, and emergence is high on the soil surface while no seedlings emerged from a depth of over 1 cm (Nakamura and Hossainm 2009). Chen et al. (2009) report that seeds have no apparent dormancy and retain high viability after room storage for 10 months.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5001500mm; lower/upper limits

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Apety (1994) noted the action of a beetle Neolamprina (=Lamprina) sp. in Papua New Guinea. This weed is also attacked by Pseudomonas solanacearum in Australia (Pegg and Moffett, 1971).

Yogesh Kumar et al. (2011) report vein yellowing disease on C. crepidiodes growing as a weed in subtemperate northern India. The disease was associated with Ageratum enation virus (AEV), along with a nanovirus like satellite DNA 1.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. crepidiodes produces seeds with silky pappus hairs (plumed seeds) that can be easily dispersed by wind and/or water (Denton, 2004).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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C. crepidioides is described as the most common weed in higher-altitude tea in Sri Lanka (Luxmei de Silva and Ranamukaarachchi, 1994) and as an inportant weed of tea in Indonesia (Tjitrosoedirdjo, 1987). It can also occur in a range of other crops, including rice, taro, coffee, citrus, sweet potatoes, orchards and pastures. It may act as an alternative host for the ginger strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum (Pegg and Moffett, 1971).

Environmental Impact

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Once established, C. crepidiodes seedlings grow fast and have the potential to form dense thickets displacing native vegetation. C. crepidiodes is also a common weed in abandoned and active agricultural lands, waste places, plantations, and gardens. Although C. crepidiodes is a pioneer species, it grows well under shaded conditions in the understory of the forests and plantations (Denton, 2004; PIER, 2012).

Uses

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C. crepidiodes is eaten by humans in many countries in Africa. Succulent leaves and stems are used as a vegetable in soups and stews, especially in West and Central Africa. In Sierra Leone the leaves are also popular and are made into a sauce with groundnut paste. In Australia this species is eaten as a salad green, either cooked or raw.

C. crepidiodes is also used in traditional African medicine to treat indigestion, stomach ache, epilepsy, sleeping sickness, and swollen lips. Tomimori et al. (2012) report antitumour activity associated with nitric oxide production. Aniya et al. (2005) found that it is a potent antioxidant and protects against hepatotoxicity.

C. crepidiodes is also used as green fodder for poultry and livestock (Denton, 2004).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In parts of Asia where both species have been introduced, there has been frequent confusion between C. crepidioides and Erechtites valerianaefolia, of American origin. Tjitrosoedirdjo (1987) provides useful guidance to their separation. The leaves of C. crepidioides are lobed at the base but the upper half of the leaf is undivided whereas those of E. valerianaefolia are deeply and regularly pinnatifid for most of their length. In C. crepidioides the involucral bracts are green and brown (versus green only), the flowers yellow to reddish brown (versus yellow to reddish violet), achenes 2 mm long (versus 3 mm) and pappus white (versus reddish violet in the upper half). C. crepidioides rarely exceeds 1 m high (versus up to 2 m).

There can also be confusion with other Crassocephalum species.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Manual Control

C. crepidioides may be found infesting young tea plantations (Sastroutomo and Pandegirot, 1988), where it is usually associated with relatively wide open spaces between young trees, growing together with other annual weeds such as Ageratum conyzoides and Galinsoga parviflora that can be controlled manually through light soil cultivation. However, manual weeding is labour intensive: 8-12 weedings are needed each year, with 15-20 people working per hectare for each session (Sanusi, 1977).

Chemical Control

C. crepidioides is susceptible to glyphosate and to glufosinate, but is not successfully controlled by paraquat beyond the seedling stage. Conversely, 2,4-D may be more effective on more mature plants (Laxmei de Silva and Ranamukaarachchi, 1994). Pre-emergence, oxyfluorfen is more effective than either linuron or diuron (Sanusi and Sabur, 1987; Laxmei de Silva and Ranamukaarachchi, 1994). Performance of paraquat may be improved by mixture with diuron (Isdiyanto and Pasaribu, 1988), but in some localities (for example, the highlands of Malaysia), where paraquat has been used repeatedly, highly paraquat-resistant biotypes have now developed (Itoh et al., 1992; Itoh, 1994).  Ismail et al. (2001a) report paraquat resistance in C. crepidioides growing in tomato and cabbage fields in the Cameron Highlands of Malaysia. Resistance may be associated with differential translocation of paraquat in resistant and susceptible biotypes, and with superoxide disumtase activity (Ismail et al., 2001a,b).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Aniya Y; Koyama T; Miyagi C; Miyahira M; Inomata C; Kinoshita S; Ichiba T, 2005. Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective actions of the medicinal herb, Crassocephalum crepidioides from the Okinawa Islands. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28(1):19-23.

Belcher RO, 1955. The Typification of Crassocephalum Moench and Gynura Cass. Kew Bulletin, 3:455-465.

Chacón E; Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Chen GuoQi; Guo ShuiLiang; Huang QiuSheng, 2009. Invasiveness evaluation of fireweed (Crassocephalum crepidioides) based on its seed germination features. Weed Biology and Management, 9(2):123-128. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/wbm

Chen JingLan; Li Fan; Li Yue; Yi ShouXin; Guo Jun; Chen HaiRu, 2008. Molecular identification of geminiviruses inducing vein yellowing in Crassocephalum crepidioides. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 23(1):29-32.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

DAISIE, 2013. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Denton OA, 2004. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore. Record from Protabase. PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa [ed. by Grubben, G. J. H. \Denton, O. A.]. Wageningen, Netherlands. http://database.prota.org/search.htm

Dong HongYun; Li Ya; Wang Qing; Yao Gan, 2010. Investigation and analysis on alien invasive plants in three nature reserves of Jiangsu Province. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment, 19(1):86-91.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer JY, 2011. [English title not available]. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP).) . http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR; Sachet MH; Oliver RL, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:222.

Henderson RJF, 1973. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore in Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 84(4):55-60.

Henderson RJF, 1973. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore in Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 84(4):55-60.

Herrera K; Lorence DH; Flynn T; Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Ilango RVJ; Sreedhar C, 2001. Evaluation of glufosinate ammonium - a contact herbicide for weed control in tea (Camellia spp. L.). Indian Journal of Weed Science, 33(1/2):79-80.

Isdiyanto; Pasaribu EH, 1988. Glyphosate application using low volume nozzle fitted on MICRON HERBI on young tea plantation. Proceedings 9th Conference Indonesian Weed Science Society, 2:159-166.

Ismail BS; Chuah TS; Hussin KH, 2001. Paraquat resistance in the broadleaf weed Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore from the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Plant Protection Quarterly, 16(1):44-46.

Ismail BS; Chuah TS; Khatijah HH, 2001. Metabolism, uptake and translocation of 14C-paraquat in resistant and susceptible biotypes of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore. Weed Biology and Management, 1(3):176-181.

Ismail BS; Chuah TS; Salmijah S; Hussin KH, 2001. Role of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in paraquat-resistant redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 52(5):583-586.

Itoh K, 1994. Weed ecology and its control in south-east tropical countries. Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 38(4):369-373.

Itoh K; Azmi M; Ahmad A, 1992. Paraquat resistance in Solanum nigrum, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Amaranthus lividus and Conyza sumatrensis in Malaysia. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress. Melbourne, Australia; Weed Science Society of Victoria, 2:224-228

Kiew R, 2009. Additions to the weed flora of Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal, 61(2):133-142.

Kostermans AJGH; Wirjahardja S; Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565

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26/07/13 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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