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Datasheet

Crassocephalum crepidioides
(redflower ragleaf)

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Datasheet

Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Crassocephalum crepidioides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • redflower ragleaf
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. crepidiodes is an invasive herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds and classified as one of the most aggressive weeds occurring in tropical and subtropical regions (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. crepidioides seedling.
TitleSeedling
CaptionC. crepidioides seedling.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
C. crepidioides seedling.
SeedlingC. crepidioides seedling.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
The leaves of C. crepidioides are 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm.
TitleLeaves
CaptionThe leaves of C. crepidioides are 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm.
CopyrightRoss Lubigan/IRRI
The leaves of C. crepidioides are 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm.
LeavesThe leaves of C. crepidioides are 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm.Ross Lubigan/IRRI
Flowering shoot of C. crepidioides.
TitleFlowering shoot
CaptionFlowering shoot of C. crepidioides.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Flowering shoot of C. crepidioides.
Flowering shootFlowering shoot of C. crepidioides.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
TitleFlowering plants
Caption
CopyrightMaritz Galinato/IRRI
Flowering plantsMaritz Galinato/IRRI
Flowers are yellow to reddish-brown; pappus is white.
TitleFlowers (detail)
CaptionFlowers are yellow to reddish-brown; pappus is white.
CopyrightMaritz Galinato/IRRI
Flowers are yellow to reddish-brown; pappus is white.
Flowers (detail)Flowers are yellow to reddish-brown; pappus is white.Maritz Galinato/IRRI
An erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. (a) Achene with pappus.
TitleWhole plant - line drawing
CaptionAn erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. (a) Achene with pappus.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
An erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. (a) Achene with pappus.
Whole plant - line drawingAn erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. (a) Achene with pappus.SEAMEO-BIOTROP

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore

Preferred Common Name

  • redflower ragleaf

Other Scientific Names

  • Crassocephalum crepidioides f. luteum (Steen.) Belcher
  • Crassocephalum crepidioides var. lutea Steen
  • Gynura crepidioides Benth. (1849)
  • Gynura diversifolia Sch.Bip. ex Asch.
  • Gynura microcephala Vatke
  • Gynura polycephala Benth.
  • Senecio crepidioides Benth

International Common Names

  • English: ebolo; fireweed; thickhead
  • Chinese: ye tong hao

Local Common Names

  • Fiji: pua lele; se vuka
  • Indonesia: jukut jamalok
  • Indonesia/Java: jewor; sintrong
  • Japan: benibanaborogiku
  • Papua New Guinea: thick head
  • Philippines: bulak manok
  • Samoa: fua lele; vao lele
  • Thailand: phak pet maeo
  • Tonga: fisi puna

EPPO code

  • CRSCR (Crassocephalum crepidioides)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. crepidiodes is an invasive herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds and classified as one of the most aggressive weeds occurring in tropical and subtropical regions (Randall, 2012). It is a pioneer species with the capability to produce large amounts of hairy wind-dispersed seeds. However, Chen et al. (2009) suggest that seed dispersal ability is limited. Chen et al. (2009) report that the species has only a moderate invasive capacity and that its wide distribution in China possibly correlates with its cultivation.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Crassocephalum
  •                                 Species: Crassocephalum crepidioides

Description

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C. crepidioides is an erect, sparingly branched aromatic annual herb, 40-100 cm tall. Stem rather stout, soft, ribbed, apically with short, thick hairs, lower down glabrescent; branches densely pubescent. Leaves helically arranged, elliptic, oblong or obovate-elliptic, acute or acuminate, pinnately lobed or pinnatifid, irregularly serrate, very thinly pubescent or glabrous, 8-18 x 2-5.5 cm; base tapered and often long-decurrent into the petiole; uppermost leaves smaller, sessile. Heads in terminal, rather small corymbs, homogamous, many-flowered, cylindrical, 13-16 x 5-6 mm, nodding during anthesis, afterwards erect; bracts linear, 0.5-10 cm long, peduncles densely pubescent; outer involucral bracts free, linear, 1-4 mm long, unequal, inner ones subequal, 1-2 seriate, green with dark-brown, acute, papillose tops, lanceolate, 8-12 mm long, thinly hairy, erect during anthesis, pellucid-marginate, cohering into a cylindrical tube, ultimately spreading, reflexed; hypanthium flat, epaleate, alveolate, alveoles with membranous rim. Flowers equal, bisexual; corolla yellow throughout, 9-11 mm long, tubular; tube long, very slender, funnel-shaped, circa 1 mm long, 5-fid limb. Anthers with entire or shallowly incised base, purple, apex acute. Style bifid, arms long, thin, their truncate, more or less penicilliate top tipped by a subulate appendix. Achenes cylindric-linear, ribbed, dark-brown with paler base and apex, thinly pubescent, 2 mm long; pappus hairs numerous, thin, silky, minutely toothed, white, caducous, 9-10 mm long (Kostermans et al., 1987).

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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C. crepidioides is native to tropical Africa. It has become widely distributed eastwards out of Africa and Madagascar into the East Indies, India, South-East Asia and the Philippines, and it is still actively spreading, with a first record as a weed in Peninsular Malaysia published in 2009 (Kiew, 2009). It was first recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Japan) in 1955 (Belcher, 1955).

Because this weed is often confused with Erechtites valerianaefolia, the full extent of its spread into the Orient may not be appreciated.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 14 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BeninPresentIntroduced
BurundiPresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
Equatorial GuineaPresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GabonPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
GuineaPresentNative
Guinea-BissauPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
LiberiaPresentOriginal citation: Adams, 1963
MadagascarPresentNative
MalawiPresentNative
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
São Tomé and PríncipePresentNative
Sierra LeonePresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroduced1963
CambodiaPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 1930*
-AnhuiPresentIntroduced
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
-HubeiPresentIntroduced
-HunanPresentIntroduced
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedInvasive
-JiangxiPresentIntroduced
-ShaanxiPresentIntroduced
-SichuanPresentIntroduced
-TibetPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced
Hong KongPresentIntroduced1953
IndiaPresentIntroduced
-AssamPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
-JavaPresent
-Maluku IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroduced1946
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
LaosPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
South KoreaPresentIntroduced1984
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroduced1982
ThailandPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresentIntroduced1980
VietnamPresentIntroduced
YemenPresentNative

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
AustraliaPresentIntroduced1955
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Space and Flynn (2002)
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive
VanuatuPresentIntroducedInvasive
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedInvasive

Habitat

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C. crepidioides is found mainly in the humid tropics at altitudes from 15-200 m up to 2500 m above sea level. It invades bare areas but disappears under shaded conditions. Soerjani et al. (1987) list it from arable land, by rivers and roadsides, on tea and chinchoma plantations, particularly in wet localities, and in upland ricefields. It occurs in newly opened or existing shifting cultivation fields, open areas of upland fields, waste places, orchards, coffee plantations, and newly sown pastures (Tjitrosoedirdjo, 1991).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. crepidioides may be found infesting young tea plantations (Sastroutomo and Pandegirot, 1988), in rice, taro, coffee, citrus, sweet potatoes, vegetable crops, orchards and pastures.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

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Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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The chromosome number in C. crepidiodes is 2n = 40 (Henderson, 1973; Vanijajiva and Kadereit, 2009). Hybrids with C. rubens have been recorded in north Thailand (Vanijajiva and Kadereit, 2009).

C. crepidioides is an annual weed that flowers all year round with a high seed production capacity. It is able to produce 29 flowers with approximately 4379 seeds per plant, reaching a plant density of 70.5 individuals per square metre in tea plantations. The seeds have a pappus of 10-11 mm and are therefore easily blown by wind soon after they have become detached from the mature inflorescence. The many seeds that are produced are thus spread rapidly.

Sauerborn and Koch (1988) found that C. crepidioides germinated at temperatures between 10 and 40°C: the lower limit of germination temperature explains the incidence at high altitudes. Nakamura and Hossain (2009) report a germination range of 10-30°C, with an optimum of 15-20°C. Seeds germinate over a wide pH range (2-12), with the highest germination rate at between pH 4 and 10. Germination rate was drastically reduced after one year, and emergence is high on the soil surface while no seedlings emerged from a depth of over 1 cm (Nakamura and Hossainm 2009). Chen et al. (2009) report that seeds have no apparent dormancy and retain high viability after room storage for 10 months.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5001500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Apety (1994) noted the action of a beetle Neolamprina (=Lamprina) sp. in Papua New Guinea. This weed is also attacked by Pseudomonas solanacearum in Australia (Pegg and Moffett, 1971).

Yogesh Kumar et al. (2011) report vein yellowing disease on C. crepidiodes growing as a weed in subtemperate northern India. The disease was associated with Ageratum enation virus (AEV), along with a nanovirus like satellite DNA 1.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. crepidiodes produces seeds with silky pappus hairs (plumed seeds) that can be easily dispersed by wind and/or water (Denton, 2004).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionConsumed as a vegetable Yes Yes Denton (2004)
ForageUsed as green fodder Yes Yes Denton (2004)
HorticultureConsumed as a vegetable Yes Yes Denton (2004)
People foragingConsumed as a vegetable Yes Yes Denton (2004)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
WaterSeeds with silky pappus hairs Yes Denton (2004)
WindSeeds with silky pappus hairs Yes Yes Denton (2004)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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C. crepidioides is described as the most common weed in higher-altitude tea in Sri Lanka (Luxmei de Silva and Ranamukaarachchi, 1994) and as an inportant weed of tea in Indonesia (Tjitrosoedirdjo, 1987). It can also occur in a range of other crops, including rice, taro, coffee, citrus, sweet potatoes, orchards and pastures. It may act as an alternative host for the ginger strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum (Pegg and Moffett, 1971).

Environmental Impact

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Once established, C. crepidiodes seedlings grow fast and have the potential to form dense thickets displacing native vegetation. C. crepidiodes is also a common weed in abandoned and active agricultural lands, waste places, plantations, and gardens. Although C. crepidiodes is a pioneer species, it grows well under shaded conditions in the understory of the forests and plantations (Denton, 2004; PIER, 2012).

Uses

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C. crepidiodes is eaten by humans in many countries in Africa. Succulent leaves and stems are used as a vegetable in soups and stews, especially in West and Central Africa. In Sierra Leone the leaves are also popular and are made into a sauce with groundnut paste. In Australia this species is eaten as a salad green, either cooked or raw.

C. crepidiodes is also used in traditional African medicine to treat indigestion, stomach ache, epilepsy, sleeping sickness, and swollen lips. Tomimori et al. (2012) report antitumour activity associated with nitric oxide production. Aniya et al. (2005) found that it is a potent antioxidant and protects against hepatotoxicity.

C. crepidiodes is also used as green fodder for poultry and livestock (Denton, 2004).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Human food and beverage

  • Flour/starch
  • Leaves (for beverage)
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In parts of Asia where both species have been introduced, there has been frequent confusion between C. crepidioides and Erechtites valerianaefolia, of American origin. Tjitrosoedirdjo (1987) provides useful guidance to their separation. The leaves of C. crepidioides are lobed at the base but the upper half of the leaf is undivided whereas those of E. valerianaefolia are deeply and regularly pinnatifid for most of their length. In C. crepidioides the involucral bracts are green and brown (versus green only), the flowers yellow to reddish brown (versus yellow to reddish violet), achenes 2 mm long (versus 3 mm) and pappus white (versus reddish violet in the upper half). C. crepidioides rarely exceeds 1 m high (versus up to 2 m).

There can also be confusion with other Crassocephalum species.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Manual Control

C. crepidioides may be found infesting young tea plantations (Sastroutomo and Pandegirot, 1988), where it is usually associated with relatively wide open spaces between young trees, growing together with other annual weeds such as Ageratum conyzoides and Galinsoga parviflora that can be controlled manually through light soil cultivation. However, manual weeding is labour intensive: 8-12 weedings are needed each year, with 15-20 people working per hectare for each session (Sanusi, 1977).

Chemical Control

C. crepidioides is susceptible to glyphosate and to glufosinate, but is not successfully controlled by paraquat beyond the seedling stage. Conversely, 2,4-D may be more effective on more mature plants (Laxmei de Silva and Ranamukaarachchi, 1994). Pre-emergence, oxyfluorfen is more effective than either linuron or diuron (Sanusi and Sabur, 1987; Laxmei de Silva and Ranamukaarachchi, 1994). Performance of paraquat may be improved by mixture with diuron (Isdiyanto and Pasaribu, 1988), but in some localities (for example, the highlands of Malaysia), where paraquat has been used repeatedly, highly paraquat-resistant biotypes have now developed (Itoh et al., 1992; Itoh, 1994).  Ismail et al. (2001a) report paraquat resistance in C. crepidioides growing in tomato and cabbage fields in the Cameron Highlands of Malaysia. Resistance may be associated with differential translocation of paraquat in resistant and susceptible biotypes, and with superoxide disumtase activity (Ismail et al., 2001a,b).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Aniya Y; Koyama T; Miyagi C; Miyahira M; Inomata C; Kinoshita S; Ichiba T, 2005. Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective actions of the medicinal herb, Crassocephalum crepidioides from the Okinawa Islands. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28(1):19-23.

Belcher RO, 1955. The Typification of Crassocephalum Moench and Gynura Cass. Kew Bulletin, 3:455-465.

Chacón E; Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Chen GuoQi; Guo ShuiLiang; Huang QiuSheng, 2009. Invasiveness evaluation of fireweed (Crassocephalum crepidioides) based on its seed germination features. Weed Biology and Management, 9(2):123-128. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/wbm

Chen JingLan; Li Fan; Li Yue; Yi ShouXin; Guo Jun; Chen HaiRu, 2008. Molecular identification of geminiviruses inducing vein yellowing in Crassocephalum crepidioides. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 23(1):29-32.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

DAISIE, 2013. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Denton OA, 2004. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore. Record from Protabase. PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa [ed. by Grubben, G. J. H. \Denton, O. A.]. Wageningen, Netherlands. http://database.prota.org/search.htm

Dong HongYun; Li Ya; Wang Qing; Yao Gan, 2010. Investigation and analysis on alien invasive plants in three nature reserves of Jiangsu Province. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment, 19(1):86-91.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer JY, 2011. [English title not available]. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP).) . http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR; Sachet MH; Oliver RL, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:222.

Henderson RJF, 1973. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore in Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 84(4):55-60.

Henderson RJF, 1973. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore in Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 84(4):55-60.

Herrera K; Lorence DH; Flynn T; Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Ilango RVJ; Sreedhar C, 2001. Evaluation of glufosinate ammonium - a contact herbicide for weed control in tea (Camellia spp. L.). Indian Journal of Weed Science, 33(1/2):79-80.

Isdiyanto; Pasaribu EH, 1988. Glyphosate application using low volume nozzle fitted on MICRON HERBI on young tea plantation. Proceedings 9th Conference Indonesian Weed Science Society, 2:159-166.

Ismail BS; Chuah TS; Hussin KH, 2001. Paraquat resistance in the broadleaf weed Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore from the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Plant Protection Quarterly, 16(1):44-46.

Ismail BS; Chuah TS; Khatijah HH, 2001. Metabolism, uptake and translocation of 14C-paraquat in resistant and susceptible biotypes of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore. Weed Biology and Management, 1(3):176-181.

Ismail BS; Chuah TS; Salmijah S; Hussin KH, 2001. Role of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in paraquat-resistant redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 52(5):583-586.

Itoh K, 1994. Weed ecology and its control in south-east tropical countries. Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 38(4):369-373.

Itoh K; Azmi M; Ahmad A, 1992. Paraquat resistance in Solanum nigrum, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Amaranthus lividus and Conyza sumatrensis in Malaysia. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress. Melbourne, Australia; Weed Science Society of Victoria, 2:224-228

Kiew R, 2009. Additions to the weed flora of Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal, 61(2):133-142.

Kostermans AJGH; Wirjahardja S; Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565

Macanawai, A. R., 2016. Spermacoce latifolia - a predominant alien invasive plant in root crops and its management in Lomaivuna, Viti Levu, Fiji. Acta Horticulturae, (No.1123), 215-219. http://www.actahort.org/books/1123/1123_30.htm

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Meyer JY, 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire ([English title not available]). Papeete, Tahiti: Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, 39 pp. http://www.li-an.fr/jyves/Meyer_2007_Rapport_Plantes_Introduites_Wallis.pdf

Nakamura I; Hossain MA, 2009. Factors affecting the seed germination and seedling emergence of redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides). Weed Biology and Management, 9(4):315-322. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/wbm

Namaganda JM; Karamura E; Namanya P; Bridge J; Gowen SR, 2000. Studies on host range of the banana lesion nematode, Pratylenchus goodeyi. Acta Horticulturae [First International Conference on Banana and Plantain for Africa, Kampala, Uganda, 14-18 October, 1996.], No. 540:419-425.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp.

Patel DP; Anup Das; Rajesh Kumar; Munda GC, 2005. Comparative study of photosynthesis and associated parameters in major crops and weed species in mid hills of Meghalaya. Annals of Plant Physiology, 19(1):1-4.

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Roder W; Phengchanh S; Keobulapha B, 1997. Weeds in slash-and-burn rice fields in northern Laos. Weed Research (Oxford), 37(2):111-119; 24 ref.

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Shine C; Reaser JK; Gutierrez AT, 2003. Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific Region: National Reports & Directory of Resources.

Smith AC, 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawai`i. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Volume 5, 626 pp.

Soerjani M; Kostermans AJGH; Tjitrosoepomo G, 1987. Weeds of Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka, 716 pp.

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Stroud A; Parker C, 1989. A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Su MingChou; Kao HueyLien, 2005. Investigation and analysis of herbaceous plants on junior high school campuses of Pingtung City. Journal of the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University, 19(3):187-205.

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. J.T. Swarbrick, Weed Science Consultancy, 131 pp.

Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, 1987. Field characterization of the confused species Crassocephalum crepidioides and Erechtites valerianifolia in Indonesia. Proceedings, 11th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference Taipei, Taiwan; Asian Pacific Weed Science Society, No. 2:533-540

Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, 1991. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore. Weed Info Sheet No. 4. Bogor, Indonesia: SEAWIC-BIOTROP.

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Vimla Bisht; Negi GCS; Joshi GG, 2007. Changing pattern of the flora vis-à-vis tea cultivation in Uttarakhand hills. International Journal of Tea Science (IJTS), 6(3):15-21.

Wagner WI; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

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Yang, C. X., Luo, J. S., Zheng, L. M., Wu, Z. J., Xie, L. H., 2012. First report of the occurrence of Emilia yellow vein virus in Crassocephalum crepidioides in China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(4, Supplement), S4.87. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

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Namaganda J M, Karamura E, Namanya P, Bridge J, Gowen S R, 2000. Studies on host range of the banana lesion nematode, Pratylenchus goodeyi. Acta Horticulturae. 419-425.

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Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Plant Protection Centre. vi + 236 pp.

Patel D P, Anup Das, Rajesh Kumar, Munda G C, 2005. Comparative study of photosynthesis and associated parameters in major crops and weed species in mid hills of Meghalaya. Annals of Plant Physiology. 19 (1), 1-4.

Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. In: University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37 1-69.

Roder W, Phengchanh S, Keobulapha B, 1997. Weeds in slash-and-burn rice fields in northern Laos. Weed Research (Oxford). 37 (2), 111-119. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3180.1996.d01-6.x

Rushulo Kemp, 2003. Ethno-medicinal plants used by the Rengma tribe in Dimapur District, Nagaland (India). Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 27 (2), 485-488.

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Space J C, Waterhouse B M, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. In: Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.]. 76 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

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Space JC, Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, USDA Forest Service.

Space JC, Waterhouse B, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 174 pp.

Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. In: A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. 278 pp.

Su MingChou, Kao HueyLien, 2005. Investigation and analysis of herbaceous plants on junior high school campuses of Pingtung City. Journal of the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University. 19 (3), 187-205.

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. In: Weed Science Consultancy, [ed. by Swarbrick JT]. 131 pp.

Tjitrosoedirdjo S S, 1987. Field characterization of the confused species Crassocephalum crepidioides and Erechtites valerianifolia in Indonesia. In: Proceedings, 11th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. [Proceedings, 11th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference.], Taipei, Taiwan: Asian Pacific Weed Science Society. 533-540.

Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, 1991. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore. In: Weed Info Sheet No. 4, Bogor, Indonesia: SEAWIC-BIOTROP.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Vimla Bisht, Negi G C S, Joshi G G, 2007. Changing pattern of the flora vis-à-vis tea cultivation in Uttarakhand hills. International Journal of Tea Science (IJTS). 6 (3), 15-21.

Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Waterhouse D F, 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. In: The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). vi + 93 pp.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants., Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Yang C X, Luo J S, Zheng L M, Wu Z J, Xie L H, 2012. First report of the occurrence of Emilia yellow vein virus in Crassocephalum crepidioides in China. Journal of Plant Pathology. 94 (4, Supplement), S4.87. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Contributors

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26/07/13 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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