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Datasheet

Chrysophtharta bimaculata
(Tasmanian eucalyptus leaf beetle)

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Datasheet

Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Tasmanian eucalyptus leaf beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chrysophtharta bimaculata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Tasmanian eucalyptus leaf beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Prior to widespread establishment of plantations of Eucalyptus nitens in Tasmania, which commenced in the late 1970s, C. bimaculata was known as a major insect pest of commercial native forests of Eucalyptus regnans, Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. bimaculata; sexually mature summer phase adult beetles.
TitleAdults
CaptionC. bimaculata; sexually mature summer phase adult beetles.
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
C. bimaculata; sexually mature summer phase adult beetles.
AdultsC. bimaculata; sexually mature summer phase adult beetles.David W. de Little
C. bimaculata adults showing colour phase change.
TitleAdults
CaptionC. bimaculata adults showing colour phase change.
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
C. bimaculata adults showing colour phase change.
AdultsC. bimaculata adults showing colour phase change.David W. de Little
C. bimaculata; sexually mature summer phase adult beetle.
TitleAdult
CaptionC. bimaculata; sexually mature summer phase adult beetle.
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
C. bimaculata; sexually mature summer phase adult beetle.
AdultC. bimaculata; sexually mature summer phase adult beetle.David W. de Little
C. bimaculata adults and eggs on Eucalyptus nitens leaf.
TitleAdults and eggs
CaptionC. bimaculata adults and eggs on Eucalyptus nitens leaf.
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
C. bimaculata adults and eggs on Eucalyptus nitens leaf.
Adults and eggsC. bimaculata adults and eggs on Eucalyptus nitens leaf.David W. de Little
C. bimaculata; adult female ovipositing on Eucalyptus delegatensis leaf (note adult feeding pattern).
TitleAdult female ovipositing
CaptionC. bimaculata; adult female ovipositing on Eucalyptus delegatensis leaf (note adult feeding pattern).
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
C. bimaculata; adult female ovipositing on Eucalyptus delegatensis leaf (note adult feeding pattern).
Adult female ovipositingC. bimaculata; adult female ovipositing on Eucalyptus delegatensis leaf (note adult feeding pattern).David W. de Little
C. bimaculata egg raft on Eucalyptus regnans leaf.
TitleEgg raft
CaptionC. bimaculata egg raft on Eucalyptus regnans leaf.
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
C. bimaculata egg raft on Eucalyptus regnans leaf.
Egg raftC. bimaculata egg raft on Eucalyptus regnans leaf.David W. de Little
C. bimaculata; second-instar larval feeding group on Eucalyptus regnans leaf, showing larval feeding pattern.
TitleSecond-instar larvae
CaptionC. bimaculata; second-instar larval feeding group on Eucalyptus regnans leaf, showing larval feeding pattern.
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
C. bimaculata; second-instar larval feeding group on Eucalyptus regnans leaf, showing larval feeding pattern.
Second-instar larvaeC. bimaculata; second-instar larval feeding group on Eucalyptus regnans leaf, showing larval feeding pattern.David W. de Little
C. bimaculata; fourth-instar larval feeding group on Eucalyptus regnans leaf.
TitleFourth-instar larvae
CaptionC. bimaculata; fourth-instar larval feeding group on Eucalyptus regnans leaf.
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
C. bimaculata; fourth-instar larval feeding group on Eucalyptus regnans leaf.
Fourth-instar larvaeC. bimaculata; fourth-instar larval feeding group on Eucalyptus regnans leaf.David W. de Little
C. bimaculata pupae in surface soil.
TitlePupae
CaptionC. bimaculata pupae in surface soil.
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
C. bimaculata pupae in surface soil.
PupaeC. bimaculata pupae in surface soil.David W. de Little
Defoliation damage to Eucalyptus nitens by C. bimaculata.
TitleDefoliation damage
CaptionDefoliation damage to Eucalyptus nitens by C. bimaculata.
CopyrightDavid W. de Little
Defoliation damage to Eucalyptus nitens by C. bimaculata.
Defoliation damageDefoliation damage to Eucalyptus nitens by C. bimaculata.David W. de Little

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier, 1807)

Preferred Common Name

  • Tasmanian eucalyptus leaf beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Paropsis bimaculata Blackburn
  • Paropsis bimaculata Olivier

EPPO code

  • CPTHBI (Chrysophtharta bimaculata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Prior to widespread establishment of plantations of Eucalyptus nitens in Tasmania, which commenced in the late 1970s, C. bimaculata was known as a major insect pest of commercial native forests of Eucalyptus regnans, Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus delegatensis. C. bimaculata was first detected attacking E. nitens commercial plantations in Tasmania in the early 1980s (de Little, 1989) and since that time it has become a major pest of E. nitens plantations in Tasmania wherever they are planted, which is in areas of the island with a mean annual rainfall greater than 1000 mm per annum. The ability of the adult beetles to fly reasonably long distances in swarms, and to be carried on warm air thermals, makes this species a potentially highly invasive species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Chrysomelidae
  •                             Genus: Chrysophtharta
  •                                 Species: Chrysophtharta bimaculata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted only

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-VictoriaPresent

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalCold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagonia rufifacies Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis Pathogen
Chauliognathus lugubris Predator Eggs
Cleobora mellyi Predator Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae
Eadya paropsidis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Enoggera nassaui Parasite Eggs
Harmonia conformis Predator
Paropsivora Parasite Arthropods|Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark arthropods/adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants arthropods/adults; arthropods/pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/adults; arthropods/larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Baker SC; Elek JA; Bashford R; Paterson SC; Madden J; Battaglia M, 2003. Inundative release of coccinellid beetles into eucalypt plantations for biological control of chrysomelid leaf beetles. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 5(2):97-106; 34 ref.

Bashford R, 1999. Predation by ladybird beetles (coccinellids) on immature stages of the Eucalyptus leaf beetle Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier). Tasforests, 11:77-85; 22 ref.

Beveridge N; Elek JA, 2001. Insect and host-tree species influence the effectiveness of a Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis-based insecticide for controlling chrysomelid leaf beetles. Australian Journal of Entomology, 40(4):386-390; 19 ref.

Blackburn T, 1899. Revision of the Genus Paropsis. Part 5. Proceedings of the Linnean Society, NSW, 24:482-521.

Brooker MIH, 2000. A new classification of the genus Eucalyptus L'Her. (Myrtaceae). Australian Systematic Botany, 13:79-148.

Candy SG; Elliott HJ; Bashford R; Greener A, 1992. Modelling the impact of defoliation by the leaf beetle, Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on height growth of Eucalyptus regnans. Forest Ecology and Management, 54(1-4):69-87

Clarke AR; Shohet D; Patel VS; Madden JL, 1998. Overwintering sites of Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in commercially managed Eucalyptus obliqua forests. Australian Journal of Entomology, 37(2):149-154; 15 ref.

Clarke AR; Zalucki MP; Madden JL; Patel VS; Paterson SC, 1997. Local dispersion of the Eucalyptus leaf-beetle Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and implications for forest protection. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(3):807-816; 43 ref.

Crosskey RW, 1973. A conspectus of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of Australia, including keys to the supra specific taxa and taxonomic and host catalogues. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, Supplement 21:1-231.

Daccordi M, 1994. Notes for phylogenetic study of Chrysomelinae, with descriptions of new taxa and a list of all the known genera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae). Proceedings of the third international symposium on the Chrysomelidae, Beijing, 1992 ed. David G. Furth. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 60-84.

de Little DW, 1979. Taxonomic and ecological studies of the Eucalyptus-defoliating paropsids (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), with particular reference to Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier). PhD Thesis. Hobart, Tasmania: University of Tasmania.

de Little DW, 1983. Lifecycle and aspects of the biology of Tasmanian Eucalyptus Leaf Beetle, Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of the Australian Entomology Society, 22:15-18.

Elek JA, 1997. Assessing the impact of leaf beetles in eucalypt plantations and exploring options for their management. Tasforests, 9:139-154; 20 ref.

Elek JA; Beveridge N, 1999. Effect of a Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis insecticidal spray on the mortality, feeding and development rates of larval Tasmanian Eucalyptus leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 92:1062-1071.

Elliott HJ; Bashford R; Greener A, 1993. Effects of defoliation by the leaf beetle, Chrysophtharta bimaculata, on growth of Eucalyptus regnans plantations in Tasmania. Australian Forestry, 56(1):22-26; 7 ref.

Elliott HJ; Elek JA; Bashford R, 2002. Developing pest management systems for eucalypt plantations. FORSPA Publication, No.30:139-146; 10 ref.

Elliott HJ; Little DWde, 1980. Laboratory studies on predation of Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) eggs by the coccinellids Cleobora mellyi Mulsant and Harmonia conformis (Boisduval). General and Applied Entomology, 12:33-36

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Greaves R, 1966. Insect defoliation of Eucalypt regrowth in the Florentine Valley, Tasmania. APPITA, Melbourne 19 (5), (119-26). [5 refs.].

Harcourt RL; Llewellyn D; Morton R; Dennis ES; Peacock WJ, 1996. Effectiveness of purified Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner insecticidal proteins in controlling three insect pests of Australian eucalypt plantations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89(6):1392-1398; 32 ref.

Howlett BG; Clarke AR, 2003. Role of foliar chemistry versus leaf-tip morphology in egg-batch placement by Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Australian Journal of Entomology, 42(2):144-148; 27 ref.

Howlett BG; Clarke AR; Madden JL, 2001. The influence of leaf age on the oviposition preference of Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) and the establishment of neonates. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3(2):121-127; 26 ref.

Little DW de; Elliott HJ; Madden JL; Bashford R, 1990. Stage-specific mortality in two field populations of immature Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 29(1):51-55

Little DW de; Madden JL, 1976. Host preference in the Tasmanian eucalypt defoliating Paropsini (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with particular reference to Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) and C. agricola (Chapuis). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 14(4):387-394

Little DWde, 1982. Field parasitization of larval populations of the Eucalyptus-defoliating leaf-beetle, Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). General and Applied Entomology, 14:3-6

Little DWde, 1989. Paropsine chrysomelid attack on plantations of Eucalyptus nitens in Tasmania. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 19(2-3):223-227; 11 ref.

Mensah RK; Madden JL, 1994. Conservation of two predator species for biological control of Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Col.: Chrysomelidae) in Tasmanian forests. Entomophaga, 39(1):71-83; 14 ref.

Nahrung H; Reid C, 2002. Reproductive development of the Tasmanian eucalyptus-defoliating beetles Chrysophtharta agricola (Chapuis) and C. bimaculata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Paropsini). Coleopterists Bulletin, 56(1):84-95; 23 ref.

Olivier AG, 1807. Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes, avec leurs caracteres generiques et specifiques, leur description, leur synonymie, et leur figure enluminee. No. 92 Paropside, Paropsis. Coleopteres. Paris. 5:596-605.

Raymond CA, 1995. Genetic variation in Eucalyptus regnans and Eucalyptus nitens for levels of observed defoliation caused by the Eucalyptus leaf beetle, Chrysophtharta bimaculata Olivier, in Tasmania. Forest Ecology and Management, 72(1):21-29; 21 ref.

Schmidt NCJ; Kirfman GW, 1992. NovoBtt - a novel Bacillus thuringiensis ssp tenebrionis for superior control of Colorado potato beetle, and other leaf-feeding Chrysomelidae. Proceedings, Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, 1992 Brighton, November 23-26, 1992., 381-386; 6 ref.

Selman BJ, 1989. Some factors including nematodes influencing the population levels of chrysomelid beetles. Entomography, 6:403-406.

Selman BJ, 1994. The biology of the paropsine eucalyptus beetles of Australia. In: Jolivet PH, Cox ML, Petitpierre E, eds. Novel Aspects of the Biology of Chrysomelidae. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 555-565.

Simmul TL; de Little DW, 1999. Biology of the Paropsini (Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelinae) Advances in Chrysomelidae Biology. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 463-477.

Steinbauer MJ; Clarke AR; Madden JL, 1998. Oviposition preference of a Eucalyptus herbivore and the importance of leaf age on interspecific host choice. Ecological Entomology, 23(2):201-206; 40 ref.

Weise J, 1901. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss von Paropsis Oliv. Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, 67:164-174.

Weise J, 1916. Chrysomelidae: 12. Chrysomelinae. In: Junk W, Schenkling S, eds. Coleopterorum Catalogus, Part 68. Berlin, Germany: W. Junk.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Distribution Maps

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