Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus
(BICMV)

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Datasheet

Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • BICMV
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Potyvirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mosaic symptoms on Vigna unguiculata in Thailand.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionMosaic symptoms on Vigna unguiculata in Thailand.
CopyrightMitsuro Kameya-Iwaki
Mosaic symptoms on Vigna unguiculata in Thailand.
Symptoms on leavesMosaic symptoms on Vigna unguiculata in Thailand.Mitsuro Kameya-Iwaki

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • BICMV

Other Scientific Names

  • azuki bean mosaic virus
  • bean common mosaic potyvirus strn blackeye cowpea
  • Bean common mosaic virus strn blackeye cowpea
  • bean yellow mosaic virus, cowpea strain
  • blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus
  • blackeye cowpea mosaic virus
  • cowpea (aphid-borne) mosaic virus
  • cowpea (blackeye) mosaic virus
  • cowpea vein-banding mosaic virus
  • peanut blotch virus

International Common Names

  • English: BLCMV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Potyvirus
  •                     Species: Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresentThottappilly et al. (1993); Gillaspie et al. (1995)
Burkina FasoPresentThottappilly et al. (1993)
GhanaPresentThottappilly et al. (1993)
KenyaPresent, WidespreadGillaspie et al. (1995)
NigeriaPresent, WidespreadThottappilly et al. (1993)
ZambiaPresentThottappilly et al. (1993)

Asia

IndiaPresentBrunt et al. (1996)
-KarnatakaPresent, WidespreadMali and Kulthe (1980)
-Tamil NaduPresent, WidespreadSekar and Sulochana (1983)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentGreen et al. (1988)
IranPresentProvvidenti (1986)
JapanPresentBrunt et al. (1996)
-HonshuPresentTsuchizaki et al. (1984); Tsuchizaki and Omura (1987)
MalaysiaPresentBrunt et al. (1996)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentTsuchizaki et al. (1984)
North KoreaPresentYoon (1987)
PakistanPresentBashir and Hampton (1993)
Sri LankaPresentJeyanandarajah (1992)
TaiwanPresentChang (1991); Chang (1993)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadTsuchizaki et al. (1984)

Europe

Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentŠarić (1991)

North America

United StatesPresentBrunt et al. (1996)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadAnderson (1955); Zhao et al. (1991)
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadCollins et al. (1984); Murphy et al. (1987)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentBrunt et al. (1996)
FijiPresentBrunt et al. (1990); Brunt et al. (1996)

South America

BrazilPresentBrunt et al. (1996)
-Minas GeraisPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated);

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Whole plant / dwarfing

References

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Abo El-Nil MM, Zettler FW, Hiebert E, 1977. Purification, serology, and some physical properties of dasheen mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 67(12):1445-1450

Anderson CW, 1955. Vigna and Crotalaria viruses in Florida. II. Notations concerning cowpea mosaic virus (Marmor vignae). Plant Disease Reporter, 39:349-353.

Anon, 1987. Progress Report 1985. Shanhua, Taiwan: Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, 168-171.

Bashir M, Ahmad Z, Abdul Ghafoor, 2002. Identification of resistance in cowpea against blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 34(1):53-54.

Bashir M, Hampton RO, 1993. Natural occurrence of five seedborne cowpea viruses in Pakistan. Plant Disease, 77(9):948-951

Bashir M, Hampton RO, 1994. Seed and aphid transmission of some isolates of blackeye cowpea and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyviruses. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 6(2):140-146

Bashir M, Hampton RO, 1995. Purification and electron microscopy of some isolates of blackeye cowpea mosaic and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 27(1):243-249; 21 ref.

Bock KR, 1973. East African strains of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 74(1):75-83

Bock KR, Conti M, 1974. Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus, No. 134. In: CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biology, 4 pp.

Brunt A, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs A, Watson L, 1990. Viruses of Tropical Plants-Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Wallingford, UK: CAB International/ACIAR, 446-447.

Chang CA, 1991. Virus diseases and their transmission of legume crops in Taiwan. Integrated control of plant virus diseases. Proceedings of the International Workshop TARI, Taichung, Taiwan, April 9-14, 1990 [edited by Kiritani, K.; Su, H.J.; Chu, Y.I.] Taipei, Taiwan; Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region, 99-110

Chang CA, 1992. Characterization and comparison of passionfruit mottle virus, a newly recognized potyvirus, with passionfruit woodiness virus. Phytopathology, 82(11):1358-1363

Chang CA, 1993. Viruses of legume crops in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 2(3):149-160

Christie RG, Edwardson JR, 1977. Light and Electron Microscopy of Plant Virus Inclusions. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Monograph Series, 9:150 pp.

Collins MH, Murphy JF, Witcher W, Barnett OW, 1984. Survey of cowpeas in South Carolina for six viruses. Plant Disease, 68(7):561-563

Corbett MK, 1957. Serological and morphological relationships of plant viruses. Report of the Florida University Agricultural Experiment Station for 1956:117-118.

Demski JW, Reddy DVR, Sowell G Jr, 1984. Stripe disease of groundnuts. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 32(3):114-115

Demski JW, Reddy DVR, Sowell G Jr, Bays D, 1984. Peanut stripe virus a new seed-borne potyvirus from China infecting groundnut (Arachis hypogpa). Annals of Applied Biology, 105(3):495-501

Dijkstra J, Beek NAM van, Lohuis D, Helden M van, Meijer R, 1987. Is a helper factor necessary for infection of cowpea protoplasts with blackeye cowpea mosaic virus? Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(1):43-47.

Dijkstra J, Bos L, Bouwmeester HJ, Hadiastono T, Lohuis H, 1987. Identification of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus from germplasm of yard-long bean and from soybean, and the relationships between blackeye cowpea mosaic virus and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(3):115-133

Dijkstra J, Khan JA, 1992. A proposal for a bean common mosaic subgroup of potyviruses. Archives of Virology Vienna, Austria; Springer-Verlag/Wein, Supplementum 5:389-395

Dougherty WG, Hiebert E, 1980. Translation of potyvirus RNA in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate: identification of nuclear inclusion proteins as products of tobacco etch virus RNA translation and cylindrical inclusion protein as a product of the potyvirus genome. Virology, 104(1):174-182

Edwardson JR, 1974. Some properties of the potato virus Y-group. Monograph Series, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, 4:398 pp.

Edwardson JR, Zettler FW, Christie RG, Evans IR, 1972. A cytological comparison of inclusions as a basis for distinguishing two filamentous legume viruses. Journal of General Virology, 15:113-118.

Fery RL, Dukes PD, 1992. 'Carolina Crowder' southernpea. HortScience, 27(12):1335-1337; 4 ref.

Fischer HU, Lockhart BEL, 1976. A strain of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus isolated from cowpea in Morocco. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 85:43-48.

Fukumoto F, Thongmeearkom P, Iwaki M, Choopanya D, Tsuchizaki T, Iizuka N, Sarindu N, Deema N, Ong CA, Saleh N, 1987. Peanut chlorotic ring mottle, a potyvirus occurring widely in southeast Asian countries. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 20(3):215-222

Gillaspie AG Jr, Hopkins MS, Pinnow DL, 1993. Relationship of cowpea seed-part infection and seed transmission of blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus in cowpea. Plant Disease, 77(9):875-877

Gillaspie AG Jr, Hopkins MS, Pinnow DL, Hampton RO, 1995. Seedborne viruses in preintroduction cowpea seed lots and establishment of virus-free accessions. Plant Disease, 79(4):388-391

Green SK, Lee DR, Horne NM, 1988. Survey for viruses of soybean, mung bean and peanut in Java, Indonesia. Plant Disease, 72(11):994

Hiebert E, McDonald JG, 1973. Characterization of some proteins associated with viruses in the potato Y group. Virology, 56:349-361.

Hu JS, Ferreria S, Wang M, Borth WB, Mink G, Jordan R, 1995. Purification, host range, serology, and partial sequencing of dendrobium mosaic potyvirus, a new member of the bean common mosaic virus subgroup. Phytopathology, 85(5):542-546

Huguenot C, Furneaux MT, Hamilton RI, 1994. Capsid protein properties of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus confirm the existence of two major subgroups of aphid-transmitted, legume-infecting potyviruses. Journal of General Virology, 75(12):3555-3560

Huguenot C, Furneaux MT, Thottappilly G, Rossel HW, Hamilton RI, 1993. Evidence that cowpea aphid-borne mosaic and blackeye cowpea mosaic viruses are two different potyviruses. Journal of General Virology, 74(3):335-340

Iizuka N, 1990. Studies on virus diseases of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis Wight) in Japan. Bulletin of the Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, 82:77-113

Iwaki M, Roechan M, Tantera DM, 1975. Virus diseases of legume plants in Indonesia. 1. Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. Contributions from the Central Research Institute for Agriculture, Bogor, Indonesia, 13:14 pp.

Jeyanandarajah P, 1992. Seed-borne viruses infecting three important leguminous food crops in Sri Lanka. Seed Science and Technology, 20(3):629-641

Kannan NR, Sabitha Doraiswamy, 1993. Management of cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (CAMV) using plant products. Madras Agricultural Journal, 80(7):393-395

Khan JA, Lohuis D, Goldbach R, Dijkstra J, 1993. Sequence data to settle the taxonomic position of bean common mosaic virus and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus isolates. Journal of General Virology, 74(10):2243-2249

Khan JA, Lohuis H, Goldbach RW, Dijkstra J, 1990. Distinction of strains of bean common mosaic virus and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus using antibodies to N- and C- or N-terminal peptide domains of coat proteins. Annals of Applied Biology, 117(3):583-593

Kuhn CW, Brantley BB, Demski JW, Pio-Ribeiro G, 1984. "Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR", "White Acre-BVR", and "Corona" cowpeas. HortScience, 19:592.

Kuhn CW, Brantley BB, Sowell G Jr, 1966. Southern pea viruses: identification, symptomatology, and sources of resistance. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, New Series, 157:5-22.

Lana AF, Lohuis H, Bos L, Dijkstra J, 1988. Relationships among strains of bean common mosaic virus and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus members of the potyvirus group. Annals of Applied Biology, 113(3):493-505

Lima JAA, Oliveira FMEW, Kitajima EW, Lima MGA, 1981. Biological, cytological and serological properties of a potyvirus isolated from cowpea in Ceara. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(2):205-216

Lima JAA, Purcifull DE, 1980. Immunochemical and microscopical techniques for detecting blackeye cowpea mosaic and soybean mosaic viruses in hypocotyls of germinated seeds. Phytopathology, 70(2):142-147

Lima JAA, Purcifull DE, Edwardson JR, 1978. Serological, biological and cytological distinctions between three legume viruses. International Virology, 4:586.

Lima JAA, Purcifull DE, Hiebert E, 1979. Purification, partial characterization, and serology of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 69(12):1252-1258

Lin MT, Kitajima EW, Rios GP, 1981. Serological identification of several cowpea viruses in Central Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(1):73-85

Lin MT, Santos AA, Kitajima EW, 1981. Host reactions and transmission of two seed-borne cowpea viruses from Central Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(2):193-203

Lovisolo O, Conti M, 1966. Identification of an aphid-transmitted cowpea mosaic virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 72:265-269.

Mali VR, Kulthe KS, 1980. A seedborne potyvirus causing mosaic of cowpea in India. Plant Disease, 64(10):925-928

Mali VR, Mundhe GE, Patil NS, Kulthe KS, 1988. Detection and identification of blackeye cowpea mosaic and cowpea aphid borne mosaic viruses in India. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 6(2):159-173

Mali VR, Mundhe GE, Shaikh WR, 1989. Sero-diagnosis of six cowpea seedborne viruses in India. Indian Journal of Virology, 5(1-2):45-55

McKern NM, Mink GI, Barnett OW, Mishra A, Whittaker LA, Silbernagel MJ, Ward CW, Shukla DD, 1992. Isolates of bean common mosaic virus comprising two distinct potyviruses. Phytopathology, 82(9):923-929

McKern NM, Shukla DD, Barnett OW, Vetten HJ, Dijkstra J, Whittaker LW, Ward CW, 1992. Coat protein properties suggest that azuki bean mosaic virus, blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, peanut stripe virus, and three isolates from soybean are all strains of the same potyvirus. Intervirology, 33(3):121-134

McKern NM, Strike PM, Barnett OW, Dijkstra J, Shukla DD, Ward CW, 1994. Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus Morocco and South African Passiflora virus are strains of the same potyvirus. Archives of Virology, 136(1-2):207-217

McKern NM, Ward CW, Shukla DD, 1992. Strains of bean common mosaic virus consist of at least two distinct potyviruses. Archives of Virology Vienna, Austria; Springer-Verlag/Wien, Supplementum 5:407-414

Mink GI, Silbernagel MJ, 1992. Serological and biological relationships among viruses in the bean common mosaic virus subgroup. Vienna, Austria: Springer-Verlag/Wien. Archives of Virology, Supplementum, 5:397-406

Mink GI, Vetten HJ, Ward CW, Berger PH, Morales FJ, Myers JM, Silbernagel MJ, Barnett OW, 1994. Taxonomy and classification of legume-infecting potyviruses. A proposal from the Potyviridae Study Group of the Plant Virus Subcommittee of the ICTV. Archives of Virology, 139:231-235.

Mishra A, Gohel VR, Valand GB, Patel JG, Shukla DD, 1993. Peanut stripe virus disease of groundnut - a review. International Journal of Pest Management, 39(2):210-215

Murphy JF, Barnett OW, Witcher W, 1984. A blackeye cowpea mosaic virus strain from South Carolina. Phytopathology, 74:631.

Murphy JF, Barnett OW, Witcher W, 1987. Characterization of a blackeye cowpea mosaic virus strain from South Carolina. Plant Disease, 71(3):243-248

Naidu RA, Sreenivasulu P, Manohar SK, Ramakrishna KN, Reddy DVR, Nayudu MV, 1991. Identification of peanut green mosaic virus strains in India. Journal of Phytopathology, 133(1):49-56

Nain PS, Rishi N, Bishnoi SS, 1994. Profile of viral diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in northern India. Indian Journal of Virology, 10(2):128-136

Ngo Bich Hao, Albrechtsen SE, Nicolaisen M, 2003. Detection and identification of the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of Bean common mosaic virus in seeds of Vigna unguiculata sspp. from North Vietnam. Australasian Plant Pathology, 32(4):505-509.

Ouattara S, Chambliss OL, 1991. Inheritance of resistance to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in 'White Acre-BVR' cowpea. HortScience, 26(2):194-196

Pio-Ribeiro G, Wyatt SD, Kuhn CW, 1978. Cowpea stunt: a disease caused by a synergistic interaction of two viruses. Phytopathology, 68(9):1260-1265

Ponte JJ da, Alves ME, 1994. Reaction of cowpea cultivar Pampo (Vigna unguiculata) to three viruses. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 19(1):92-94

Provvidenti R, 1986. Seed transmission of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in Vigna mungo. Plant Disease, 70(10):981

Provvidenti R, Gonsalves D, Taiwo MA, 1983. Inheritance of resistance to blackeye cowpea mosaic and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic viruses in Phaseolus vulgaris. Journal of Heredity, 74(1):60-61

Provvidenti R, Scully B, Halseth DE, Wallace DH, 1989. B-21: a dry black bean breeding line with multiple virus resistance. HortScience, 24(6):1049; 6 ref.

Purcifull DE, Gonsalves D, 1985. Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, No. 305. In: CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biology.

Puttaraju HR, Prakash HS, Shetty HS, 2000. Field incidence, seed-transmission and susceptibility of cowpea varieties with reference to Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Potyvirus. Seed Research, 28(2):196-202; 15 ref.

Puttaraju HR, Prakash HS, Shetty HS, 2002. Contribution of seedborne Blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus to disease dynamics and loss of yield. Tropical Science, 42(4):147-152; 12 ref.

Puttaraju HR, Prakash HS, Shetty HS, 2003. Detection of blackeye cowpea mosaic Potyvirus (BLCMV) in leaves and seeds of cowpea. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 43(1):45-48.

Roberts JMF, Hodgson CJ, Jackai LEN, Thottappilly G, Singh SR, 1993. Interaction between two synthetic pyrethroids and the spread of two non-persistent viruses in cowpea. Annals of Applied Biology, 122(1):57-67

Saric A, 1991. An isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus from Dalmatia. Acta Botanica Croatica, 50:135-138

Sekar R, Sulochana CB, 1983. Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus: occurrence in India. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 1(1):38-44

Sekar R, Sulochana CB, 1986. Host range of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Current Science, India, 55(23):1202-1203

Sekar R, Sulochana CB, 1988. Seed transmission of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in two cowpea varieties. Current Science, 57(1):37-38

Shankar ACU, Nayaka CS, Kumar BH, Shetty SH, Prakash HS, 2009. Detection and identification of the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of Bean common mosaic virus in seeds of cowpea from southern India. Phytoparasitica, 37(3):283-293. http://www.springerlink.com/content/v491151w01680678/?p=dca43b2885b14110876323d8c7e62d32&pi=9

Shankar ACU, Nayaka SC, Sathyanarayana Niranjan-Raj, Kumar HB, Reddy MS, Niranjana SR, Prakash HS, 2009. Rhizobacteria-mediated resistance against the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of bean common mosaic virus in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Pest Management Science, 65(10):1059-1064. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/pestmanagementscience

Sumana, Murthy KVK, 1992. Nature of seed transmission of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in cowpea. Legume Research, 15(2):86-90; 13 ref.

Sumana, Murthy KVK, 1992. Reaction of cowpea cultivars to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Legume Research, 15(3-4):141-142; 3 ref.

Taiwo MA, Gonsalves D, 1982. Serological grouping of isolates of blackeye cowpea mosaic and cowpea aphidborne mosaic viruses. Phytopathology, 72(6):583-589

Taiwo MA, Gonsalves D, Provvidenti R, Thurston HD, 1982. Partial characterization and grouping of isolates of blackeye cowpea mosaic and cowpea aphidborne mosaic viruses. Phytopathology, 72(6):590-596

Taiwo MA, Provvidenti R, Gonsalves D, 1981. Inheritance of resistance to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in Vigna unguiculata. Journal of Heredity, 72(6):433-434

Thottappilly G, Hamilton RI, Huguenot C, Rossel HW, Furneaux MT, Gumedzoe MY, Shoyinka SA, Naik DM, Konate G, Atcham-Agneroh T, Haciwa HC, Anno-Nyako FO, Saifodine N, Wangai A, Lamptey P, Gubba A, Mbw, 1993. Identification of cowpea viruses and their strains in tropical Africa an international pilot project. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 41(2):65-71

Tsuchizaki T, Omura T, 1987. Relationships among bean common mosaic virus, blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, azuki bean mosaic virus and soybean mosaic virus. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 53(4):478-488

Tsuchizaki T, Senboku T, Iwaki M, Kiratiya-Angul S, Srithongchai W, Deema N, Ong CA, 1986. Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus from asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) in Thailand and Malaysia. Technical Bulletin of the Tropical Agriculture Research Center, No.21:213-218

Tsuchizaki T, Senboku T, Iwaki M, Pholauporn S, Srithongchi W, Deema N, Ong CA, 1984. Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus from asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) in Thailand and Malaysia, and their relationships to a Japanese isolate. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 50(4):461-468

Tsuchizaki T, Yora K, Asuyama H, 1970. The viruses causing mosaic of cowpea and azuki bean, and their transmissibility through seeds. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 36:112-120.

Uyemoto JK, Provvidenti R, Purcifull DE, 1973. Host range and serological properties of a seed-borne cowpea virus. Phytopathology, 63:208-209.

Vetten HJ, Green SK, Lesemann D-E, 1992. Characterization of peanut stripe virus isolates from soybean in Taiwan. Journal of Phytopathology, 135(2):107-124

Walker CA Jr, Chambliss OL, 1981. Inheritance of resistance to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in southernpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp. HortScience, 16:286.

Yoon TK, 1987. Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus causing mosaic disease on asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 3(4):291-298

Zettler FW, Christie RG, Edwardson JR, 1967. Aphid transmission of virus from leaf sectors correlated with intracellular inclusions. Virology, 33:549-552.

Zettler FW, Evans IR, 1972. Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in Florida: host range and incidence in certified cowpea seed. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 85:99-101.

Zhao GS, Baltensperger DD, Hiebert E, Purcifull DE, Edwardson JR, 1991. Purification, serology, and in vitro translation of an alyce-clover isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 75(3):254-257

Zhao GS, Baltensperger DD, Purcifull DE, Christie RG, Hiebert E, Edwardson JR, 1991. Host range, cytology, and transmission of an alyce-clover isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 75(3):251-253

Distribution References

Anderson C W, 1955. Vigna and Crotalaria viruses in Florida. II. Notations concerning cowpea mosaic virus (Marmor vignae). Plant Disease Reporter. 349-353.

Anon, 1990. Viruses of tropical plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. [ed. by Brunt A A, Crabtree K, Gibbs A]. Wallingford, UK: C.A.B. International. xiv + 707 pp.

Anon, 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. [ed. by Brunt A A, Crabtree K, Dallwitz M J, Gibbs A J, Watson L]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL. 1484 pp.

Bashir M, Hampton R O, 1993. Natural occurrence of five seedborne cowpea viruses in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 77 (9), 948-951. DOI:10.1094/PD-77-0948

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chang C A, 1991. Virus diseases and their transmission of legume crops in Taiwan. In: Integrated control of plant virus diseases. Proceedings of the International Workshop TARI, Taichung, Taiwan, April 9-14, 1990. [Integrated control of plant virus diseases. Proceedings of the International Workshop TARI, Taichung, Taiwan, April 9-14, 1990.], [ed. by Kiritani K, Su HJ, Chu YI]. Taipei, Taiwan: Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region. 99-110.

Chang C A, 1993. Viruses of legume crops in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 2 (3), 149-160.

Collins M H, Murphy J F, Witcher W, Barnett O W, 1984. Survey of cowpeas in South Carolina for six viruses. Plant Disease. 68 (7), 561-563. DOI:10.1094/PD-69-561

Gillaspie A G Jr, Hopkins M S, Pinnow D L, Hampton R O, 1995. Seedborne viruses in preintroduction cowpea seed lots and establishment of virus-free accessions. Plant Disease. 79 (4), 388-391. DOI:10.1094/PD-79-0388

Green S K, Lee D R, Horne N M, 1988. Survey for viruses of soybean, mung bean and peanut in Java, Indonesia. Plant Disease. 72 (11), 994. DOI:10.1094/PD-72-0994A

Jeyanandarajah P, 1992. Seed-borne viruses infecting three important leguminous food crops in Sri Lanka. Seed Science and Technology. 20 (3), 629-641.

Mali V R, Kulthe K S, 1980. A seedborne potyvirus causing mosaic of cowpea in India. Plant Disease. 64 (10), 925-928. DOI:10.1094/PD-64-925

Murphy J F, Barnett O W, Witcher W, 1987. Characterization of a blackeye cowpea mosaic virus strain from South Carolina. Plant Disease. 71 (3), 243-248. DOI:10.1094/PD-71-0243

Provvidenti R, 1986. Seed transmission of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in Vigna mungo. Plant Disease. 70 (10), 981. DOI:10.1094/PD-70-981e

Šarić A, 1991. An isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus from Dalmatia. Acta Botanica Croatica. 135-138.

Sekar R, Sulochana C B, 1983. Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus: occurrence in India. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology. 1 (1), 38-44.

Thottappilly G, Hamilton R I, Huguenot C, Rossel H W, Furneaux M T, Gumedzoe M Y, Shoyinka S A, Naik D M, Konaté G, Atcham-Agneroh T, Haciwa H C, Anno-Nyako F O, Saifodine N, Wangai A, Lamptey P, Gubba A, Mbwaga A M, Neya J, Offei S K, 1993. Identification of cowpea viruses and their strains in tropical Africa - an international pilot project. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 41 (2), 65-71.

Tsuchizaki T, Omura T, 1987. Relationships among bean common mosaic virus, blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, azuki bean mosaic virus and soybean mosaic virus. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan. 53 (4), 478-488. DOI:10.3186/jjphytopath.53.478

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