Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Cossus cossus
(carpenter moth)



Cossus cossus (carpenter moth)


  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cossus cossus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • carpenter moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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TitleLarvae on forest tree
Larvae on forest tree©AgrEvo


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cossus cossus Linnaeus

Preferred Common Name

  • carpenter moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Cossus ligniperda Fabricius, 1794
  • Phalaena cossus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Trypanus cossus Linnaeus

International Common Names

  • English: carpenter worm; goat moth; timber moth
  • Spanish: barrenador del sauce; taladro rojo de los troncos
  • French: cossus gate-bois; cossus ronge-bois

Local Common Names

  • Bulgaria: willow borer
  • China: wood moth (translation)
  • Denmark: pileborer
  • Finland: puuntuhooja
  • Former USSR: redolent tree-borer (translation)
  • Germany: Bohrer, Weiden-
  • Italy: perdilegno (imago); perdilegno rosso (larvae); rodilegno rosso (larvae)
  • Netherlands: houtrups, rode; Wilgehoutrups; Wilgehoutvlinder
  • Norway: tredreper
  • Sweden: traedoedare; traefjaeril, vanlig
  • Turkey: kizil agac kurdu

EPPO code

  • COSSCO (Cossus cossus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Cossidae
  •                             Genus: Cossus
  •                                 Species: Cossus cossus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / internal feeding
Stems / dead heart
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / unusual odour

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Borrelinavirus cossi Pathogen Larvae
Lampronota setosa Parasite Pupae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Proctolaelaps cossi Predator Larvae
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Steinernema glaseri Parasite
Vagoiavirus cossi Pathogen Larvae
Xylotachina diluta Parasite Larvae/Pupae


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Alford DV, 1984. A Colour Atlas of Fruit Pests. Their Recognition, Biology and Control. London, UK: Wolfe Publishing Ltd, 320 pp.

Alford DV, 1991. A Colour Atlas of Pests of Ornamental Trees, Shrubs and Flowers. London, UK: Wolfe Publishing Ltd.

Anfinnikov MA, 1979. Experience in orchard protection. Zashchita Rastenii, 9:27-28.

Attard G, 1979. Principal insects on Populus in south-eastern France. Boletin del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 5:25-29.

Audemard H, 1974. Possible means of control of goat moth (Cossus cossus) in orchards. Defense des Vegetaux, 28(170):344-349, 352.

Baronio P; Pasqualini E; Faccioli G; Pizzi G, 1992. Determination of the number of delta-traps per hectare to optimize mass trapping of Cossus cossus L. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia `Guido Grandi' della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, No. 46:223-228.

Baynes ESA, 1964. A Revised Catalogue of Irish Macrolepidoptera. Hampton.

Becker P, 1974. Pests of ornamental plants. Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, No. 97 (revd.):viii+175 pp.

Bertucci BM, 1986. The poplar wasp-moth. Informatore Fitopatologico, 36(11):29-34.

Boldyrev MI; Dobroserdov SG, 1977. Pests of the trunks of fruit trees. Zashchita Rastenii, 4:61.

Bratti A; Malavolta C; Maini S; Pasqualini E; Capizzi A, 1988. Comparative trials of sex attractant and dispenser types for Cossus cossus L. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 42:179-192.

Carter DJ, 1984. Pest Lepidoptera of Europe with special reference to the British Isles. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk.

Doom D, 1979. Damage by insects and mites to trees and shrubs in 1978. Nederlands Bosbouw Tijdschrift, 51(5/6):149-158.

Faccioli G; Pasqualini E; Baronio P, 1993. Optimal trap density in Cossus cossus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) mass-trapping. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(3):850-853.

Fang DQ; Chen SL; Jiang SD; Wang YH, 1984. A preliminary study on the bionomics of Holcocerus orientalis Gpde. Insect Knowledge (Kunchong Zhishi), 21(6):257-259.

Faudrin JC, 1987. Fruit crops. Phytosanitary balance-sheet in 1986 for Rosaceae wih stone fruits. Phytoma, 388:38-39.

Friedel G, 1977. Cossus cossus ssp Gueruenensis new subspecies from Eastern Anatolia Turkey Lepidoptera Cossidae. Pearce-Sellards Ser Tex Mem Mus, 29(1-2):29-30.

Gavioli F, 1984. Goat moth or carpenter moth (Cossus cossus L.). Informatore Fitopatologico, 34(1):31-34.

Goidanich G, 1983. Adverse factors affecting ornamental trees. Informatore Fitopatologico, 33(3):11-18.

Grassi S; Deseö KV, 1984. Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. and prospects of using it in plant protection. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche, 2:425-433; 10 ref.

Heath J; Emmet AM(Editors), 1985. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 2. Cossidae-Heliodinidae. Colchester, UK; Harley Books, 460 pp.

Hill DS, 1987. Agricultural insect pests of temperate regions and their control. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hua BZ, 1986. The subspecies Cossus cossus chinensis Rothschild should be raised to species level. Entomotaxonomia, 8(1-2):43-44.

Kokanova eO, 1992. On the biology of chewing insects of willows in southern Turkmenistan. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenistana. Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 3:55-58; 13 ref.

Kosoglazov AA; Kapshar GV, 1978. The preservation of city trees and shrubs. Zashchita Rastenii, 9:28-29.

Krivosheina NP, 1984. Role of the cerambycid Aeolesthes sarta in fruit orchards in Turkmenia. Biologicheskie Nauki, 8:35-39.

Krivosheina NP; Tokgaev TB, 1985. The formation of complexes of trunk insects on irrigated lands in the foothills of the Kopet-dag. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, 5:34-39.

Krivosheina NP; Yagdyev A, 1985. The carpenter moth (Cossus cossus L.) - a pest of fruit crops in Turkmenistan. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, 6:73-74.

Lepekhin AA, 1988. The condition of agricultural shelterbelts after thinnings. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyai^breve~stvennoi^breve~ Nauki (Moskva), No. 9:139-141; 4 ref.

L'vovskii AL, 1976. The willow cossid. Zashchita Rastenii, 12:56.

Lyashenko LI, 1980. The redolent tree-borer. Zashchita Rastenii, 8:63.

Mathew G, 1986. Carpenterworms - are they a threat to forest tree crops in Kerala? Evergreen, 16:30-31.

Matvievskii AS, 1976. Lepidoptera as pests of wood. Zashchita Rastenii, 1:60-61.

Odagiri M; Chieda T; Takano T, 1985. Seasonal prevalence of occurrence of Oriental carpenter moth, Cossus japonica Gpde [C. arenicolus japonicus]. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 36:97-98.

Pandey AK; Dorjay Namgyal; Mir MS; Ahmed SB, 2007. Major insect pest associated with forest plantations in cold arid region, Ladakh of Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of Entomological Research, 31(2):155-162.

Pasqualini E, 1993. Evolution of pest populations in Emilia-Romagna and methods of their control. Informatore Agrario, 49(Supplement No. 14):11-14.

Pasqualini E; Bortolotti A; Maini S; Baronio P; Campadelli G, 1982. Cossus cossus L. (Lep., Cossidae) male catches in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) with synthetic pheromone. Les mediateurs chimiques agissant sur le comportement des insectes. Symposium international. Versailles, 16-20 novembre 1981 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Paris France, 399-401.

Pasqualini E; Bortolotti A; Maini S; Baronio P; Campadelli G, 1983. Use of synthetic pheromones in the control of Cossus cossus L. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 37:123-135.

Pasqualini E; Gavioli F; Baronio P; Malavolta C; Campadelli G; Maini S, 1985. Study on the possibility of implementing the mass-trapping method for Cossus cossus L. (Lep. Cossidae). Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia 'Guido Grandi' della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 39:187-199.

Pasqualini E; Malavolta C; Maini S; Baronio P; Gavioli F; Campadelli G, 1988. Mass trapping of Cossus cossus L.: initial trials. Colloques de l'INRA, 46:157-165.

Qi YT; Fu WJ; Xu SP; Fang DQ; Chen SL; Wang XN; Li ZG; Lou SX; Jiang SD, 1985. Studies on the synthetic attractants of Cossus mongolicus Frsch. - EAG responses and trapping effects. Scientia Silvp Sinicp (Linye Kexue), 21(4):383-388.

Ramos-Elorduy de Conconi J; Bourges Rodriguez H; Pino Moreno JM, 1982. Nutritional value and protein quality of some edible Mexican insects. Folia Entomologica Mexicana, No. 53:111-118

Razowski J, 1988. Polish Lepidoptera 5. Cossoidea and Tortricinae. Monogr Fauny Polo, 10:5-345.

Rossem G van; Bund CF van de; Burger HC; Goffau LJWde, 1978. Unusual damage by insects in 1977. Entomologische Berichten, 38(6):81-84

Rovesti L, 1989. Experiments with entomoparasitic nematodes against Cossus cossus L. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Difesa delle Piante, 12(4):23-32.

Schmutzenhofer H; Mielke ME; Luo Y; Ostry ME; Wen J, 1996. Field Guide/Manual on the Identification and Management of Poplar Pests and Diseases in the Area of the "Three North 009 Project" (North-Eastern China). Rome, Italy: FAO.

Sengalewitsch G, 1971. The influence of ecological conditions on the population density of the willow borer in southern Bulgaria. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutzdienst in der DDR, 25(9):194-196.

Sherniyazova RM, 1985. A review of the lower Lepidoptera associated with walnut on the southern slopes of the Gissarskiy Mts. and in the Gissarskaya Plain. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 4:41-44.

Speight MR, 1986. Tree pests - 13 Goat and clear-wing moths. Lepidoptera : (Cossidae and Sessidae). Arboricultural Journal, 10(2):113-116.

Sziraki G, 1988. Use of the pheromone of the great leopard moth [Cossus cossus] in large-scale orchards. Novenyvedelem, 24(5):220.

Tips W; Halflants P, 1978. The entomological collection of Pierre Halflants honorary notary of Lubbeek Belgium Gellenberg Part 4. Linn Belg, 7(5):157-162.

T'sai CS; Hsu CK; Lu HF, 1974. A preliminary study on the wood moth Cossus cossus L. in Chinghai. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 17(4):385-396.

Turundaevskaya TM, 1992. Complex foci of wood-destroying Lepidoptera in forest plantations in droughty regions. Lesovedenie, No. 3:40-44; 12 ref.

Tyeryent'ev SN; Stolyarova LA, 1989. Survey of pests and diseases of cork oak from the Black Sea coastline of the Caucasus. Subtropicheskie Kul'tury, 1:122-125.

Vuola M; Korpela S, 1981. The biology of Finnish species of Sesiidae and Cossidae (Lepidoptera). 6. Synanthedon tipuliformis, S. culiciformis, S. formicpformis and S. myoppformis. Notulp Entomologicp, 61(1):29-38.

Zemlyanskaya AI; Lysikova EA, 1976. The nematodes of insect pests of decorative plantations and of forests in the Tashkent area. Ekologiya i biologiya paraziticheskikh chervei zhivotnykh Uzbekistana. "FAN". Tashkent, Uzbekskoi SSR, 48-54.

Zhang XF; Jiang ZD; Xie XX, 1991. Control of carpenterworm, Cossus cossus, with entomopathogenic nematodes in the Lanzhou area. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 7(1):44.

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