Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cosmopolites sordidus
(banana weevil)

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Datasheet

Cosmopolites sordidus (banana weevil)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cosmopolites sordidus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • banana weevil
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Body length 10-16 mm.
TitleAdult
CaptionBody length 10-16 mm.
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Body length 10-16 mm.
AdultBody length 10-16 mm.©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adults of banana root weevil, C. sordidus, on a cut banana culm.
TitleAdults on banana
CaptionAdults of banana root weevil, C. sordidus, on a cut banana culm.
CopyrightJames Litsinger
Adults of banana root weevil, C. sordidus, on a cut banana culm.
Adults on bananaAdults of banana root weevil, C. sordidus, on a cut banana culm.James Litsinger

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824)

Preferred Common Name

  • banana weevil

Other Scientific Names

  • Calandra sordida Germar
  • Cosmopolites striatus (FAHRAEUS)
  • Metamasius sordidus (GERMAR)
  • Metamasius striatus (FAHRAEUS)
  • Sphenophorus cribricollis Walker
  • Sphenophorus liratus
  • Sphenophorus musaecola
  • Sphenophorus pygidialis Chevrolat
  • Sphenophorus sordidus Germar
  • Sphenophorus striatus Fåhraeus

International Common Names

  • English: banana beetle; banana borer; banana rhizome weevil; banana root borer; banana root weevil; banana weevil borer; corm weevil; cosmopolitan root borer; plaintain weevil; plantain root borer
  • Spanish: barrenillo del banano; gorgojo del plátano; gorgojo del tallo del banano; gorgojo negro del platano; picudo negro; picudo negro del banano
  • French: charançon du bananier; charançon noir des bananiers
  • Portuguese: broca da bananeira; moleque da bananeira

Local Common Names

  • Germany: bananen-bohrkaefer
  • Italy: cosmopolites sordidu
  • Netherlands: pisangboorder

EPPO code

  • COSMSO (Cosmopolites sordidus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Curculionidae
  •                             Genus: Cosmopolites
  •                                 Species: Cosmopolites sordidus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentAlam, 1962; Alam et al., 1965
Brunei DarussalamPresentWaterhouse, 1993
CambodiaPresentJepson, 1914; Waterhouse, 1993
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuizhouPresentLuo et al., 1985
-Hong KongPresentRiddell-Swan, 1984
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIIE, 1993
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentBeccari, 1967
-Andhra PradeshPresentFAO, 1963
-AssamPresentFAO, 1963
-BiharPresentFAO, 1963
-DelhiPresentBatra, 1952
-GujaratPresentFAO, 1963
-KarnatakaPresentFAO, 1963
-KeralaPresentCharles et al., 1986; Babylatha et al., 1990
-MaharashtraPresentFAO, 1963
-ManipurPresentPrasad and Singh, 1987
-OdishaPresentFAO, 1963
-SikkimPresentYuasa, 1939
-Tamil NaduPresentFAO, 1963
-Uttar PradeshPresentFAO, 1963
-West BengalPresentDutt and Maiti, 1973
IndonesiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
-Irian JayaPresentTHOMAS, 1962
-JavaPresentKalshoven, 1951; Kalshoven and Laan, 1981
-KalimantanPresentMuir & Sweezey, 1916
-MoluccasPresentMuir & Sweezey, 1916
-SulawesiPresentBeccari, 1967
-SumatraPresentKalshoven, 1951; Kalshoven and Laan, 1981
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentYuasa, 1939; Morimoto, 1978
Korea, Republic ofPresentAhn et al., 1990
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentMDA, 1949
-SabahPresentJohnston, 1963
-SarawakPresentWallace, 1966
MaldivesPresentWatson et al., 1995
MyanmarPresentJepson, 1914; Yuasa, 1939; Waterhouse, 1993
NepalPresentRana and Sharma, 1965
PakistanPresentHashmi and Tashfeen, 1992
PhilippinesPresentYuasa, 1939; Deang et al., 1970; Waterhouse, 1993
SingaporePresentPynaert, 1921; Waterhouse, 1993
Sri LankaPresentWijesekara and Menike, 1991
TaiwanPresentCheng, 1957
ThailandPresentUSOM, 1965; Waterhouse, 1993
VietnamPresentYuasa, 1939; Waterhouse, 1993

Africa

AngolaPresentDuarte, 1962
BeninPresentMallamaire, 1956
Burkina FasoPresentMallamaire, 1956
BurundiPresentBuyckx, 1962; Sebasigari, 1988
CameroonPresentCuillé, 1950; Nonveiller, 1984
Cape VerdePresentCoutinho, 1964
ComorosPresentYuasa, 1939
CongoPresentGhesquière, 1925; Yuasa, 1939
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentSebasigari, 1988
Côte d'IvoirePresentSpeich, 1982; Kehe, 1988
GabonPresentIIE, 1993
GhanaPresentForsyth, 1966
GuineaPresentCuillé, 1950; Mallamaire, 1956
KenyaPresentReddy, 1988a; Reddy, 1988b; Le, 1959
MadagascarPresentBrenière and Dubois, 1965; Vinson, 1967
MalawiPresentPloetz et al., 1992
MaliPresentMallamaire, 1956
MauritaniaPresentMallamaire, 1956
MauritiusPresentVinson, 1967; Gomy, 1983
NigerPresentMallamaire, 1956
NigeriaPresentObeifuna, 1990
RéunionPresentVinson, 1967
RwandaPresentMusabyimana, 1988
Saint HelenaPresentWallace, 1960
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentSchmidt, 1965; Passos, 1968
SenegalPresentMallamaire, 1956
SeychellesPresentYuasa, 1939; Mathias, 1973
Sierra LeonePresentBeccari, 1967
SomaliaPresentBeccari, 1967
South AfricaPresentJager et al., 1991
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentJannone, 1966
TanzaniaPresentBohlen, 1973; Sikora et al., 1989
TogoPresentMallamaire, 1956
UgandaPresentMcNutt, 1974; Ddungu, 1988

North America

BermudaPresentWaterston, 1940
MexicoPresentVelasco, 1975
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaEradicatedWoodruff, 1969; O'Brien and Wibmer, 1982
-HawaiiPresentWaterhouse and Norris, 1987

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentNanne and Klink, 1975; O'Brien and Wibmer, 1982
CubaPresentRoche, 1975; Bendicho, 1987
DominicaPresentPidduck, 1942; O'Brien and Wibmer, 1982
El SalvadorPresentCalderon, 1931; O'Brien and Wibmer, 1982
GrenadaPresentMyers, 1935
GuadeloupePresentDelattre, 1980; Nardon et al., 1985
GuatemalaPresent===, 1948; ===, 1948
HaitiPresentWolcott, 1931; O'Brien and Wibmer, 1982
HondurasPresentBullock and Evers, 1962; O'Brien and Wibmer, 1982
JamaicaPresentIttyeipe, 1979; Fennah, 1947
MartiniquePresentDelvaux et al., 1990
NicaraguaPresentSwaine, 1952
PanamaPresentBuyckx, 1962; O'Brien and Wibmer, 1982
Puerto RicoPresentInglés & Rodriquez, 1989; Figueroa, 1990
Saint LuciaPresentWalters, 1927
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentSVGG, 1935
Trinidad and TobagoPresentFennah, 1947; Jones, 1986

South America

ArgentinaPresentPastrana, 1967
BoliviaPresentSquire, 1972
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentFazolin et al., 1990
-AlagoasPresentBroglio et al., 2014
-BahiaPresentSilva & de Abreu, 1969; Zem and Lordello, 1983
-Espirito SantoPresentSmith, 1972; Arleu et al., 1984
-MaranhaoPresentPinheiro & Carvalho Filho, 1985
-Minas GeraisPresentNogueira et al., 1985
-ParanaPresentVernalha et al., 1966
-PernambucoPresentIIE, 1993
-Rio de JaneiroPresentGoes et al., 1988
-Santa CatarinaPresentPrando et al., 1987
-Sao PauloPresentSuplicy Filho, 1982; Mello et al., 1979
ChilePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Easter IslandPresentOlalquiaga, 1980
ColombiaPresentCárdenas and Arango, 1986; Garcia et al., 1993
EcuadorPresentSotomayor, 1972; Pullen, 1973
French GuianaPresentBlanche, 1956
GuyanaPresentIIE, 1993
PeruPresentLiceras et al., 1973; Yaringano and Meer, 1976
SurinamePresentDinther, 1960
VenezuelaPresentGuagliumi,1965; Labrador,1977; O'Brien & Wibmer,1982

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentYuasa, 1939
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.

Oceania

American SamoaPresentJohnston, 1963
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentTreverrow et al., 1991; Treverrow, 1983
-QueenslandPresentFranzmann, 1972; Swaine et al., 1980
-Western AustraliaEradicatedNewman, 1924
Cook IslandsPresentDumbleton, 1954
FijiPresentHinckley, 1965
French PolynesiaPresentWaterhouse and Norris, 1987
GuamPresentWaterhouse and Norris, 1987
New CaledoniaPresentCohic, 1956
NiuePresentWaterhouse and Norris, 1987
PalauPresentWaterhouse and Norris, 1987
Papua New GuineaPresentFroggat, 1941
SamoaPresentMarshall, 1921; Magee, 1967
Solomon IslandsPresentLever, 1948
TongaPresentO'Connor, 1949
VanuatuPresentCohic, 1953
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentCohic, 1950; Cohic, 1959

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / internal feeding
Stems / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Larvae
Belonuchus ferrugatus Predator Larvae
Cathartus Predator Larvae
Chrysopilus ferruginosus Australia bananas
Dactylosternum abdominale Predator Larvae Australia; Jamaica bananas
Dactylosternum hydrophiloides Predator Larvae Australia; Belau; Guam; Jamaica bananas
Euborellia annulipes Predator
Eutochia pulla Predator
Heterorhabditis Pathogen Mwaitulo et al., 2011
Hololepta marginipunctata Predator Seychelles bananas
Hololepta minuta Predator Guam bananas
Hololepta quadridentata Predator Larvae Cameroon; Dominica; Grenada; Guam; Mauritius; Seychelles; St Lucia; Tobago bananas
Labia borellii Predator
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Pheidole guineensis Predator
Plaesius javanus Predator Larvae/Pupae Australia; Belau; Cameroon; Dominica; French Polynesia; Grenada; Guam; Jamaica; Mauritius; Mexico; New Caledonia; Seychelles; Taiwan; Tobago; Tonga; Trinidad; Uganda; Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna; Western Samoa bananas
Plaesius laevigatus Predator Larvae/Pupae Cook Islands; Fiji bananas
Priochirus unicolor Predator Larvae
Steinernema Pathogen Mwaitulo et al., 2011
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite New South Wales
Tetramorium bicarinatum Predator Larvae Cuba
Thyreocephalus interocularis Predator Larvae

References

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===, 1948. S.R.A., B.E.P.Q., United States Department of Agriculture. 69 pp

Abera AMK, 1997. Oviposition preferences and timing of attack by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) in East African highland banana (Musa spp.). MSc thesis: Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. 120 pp

Abera AMK, Gold CS, Kyamanywa S, 1997. Banana weevil oviposition and damage in Uganda. In: Adipala E, Tenywa JS, Ogenga-Latigo MW (eds). African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 1199-1205

Abera AMK, Gold CS, Kyamanywa S, 1999. Timing and distribution of attack by the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus Germar in East African highland banana (Musa AAA-EA) in Uganda. Florida Entomologist: in press

Ahn SB, Cho WS, Lim SE, Kim TJ, Lee MH, Choi KM, 1990. Banana insect pest species and their damage in a vinyl house on Cheju Island. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 29(1):6-13

Alam MZ, 1962. A list of insects and mites of East Pakistan. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Department of Agriculture

Alam MZ, Ahmed A, Alam S, Islam MA, eds, 1965. A review of research Division of Entomology (1947-1964). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Agric. Inf. Serv. & Bangladesh Agric. Res. Inst

Anderson WH, 1948. Larvae of some genera of Calendrinae (= Rhynchophorinae) and Stromboscerinae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 41:413-437

Arleu RJ, Neto SS, Gomes JA, Nobrega AC, Scardini DM, 1984. Population dynamics of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ., 1824) (Col.: Curculionidae) in bananas of the cultivar Prata (group AAB), in Alfredo Chaves, Espirito Santo. Turrialba, 34(4):473-480

Babylatha AK, Amma SP, Pushkaran K, 1990. Field tolerance of banana cultivars to leaf spot diseases and rhizome weevil. South Indian Horticulture, 38(2):102-107

Barrera JF, Jimenez-Jimenez E, 1994. Establishment of Plaesius javanus (Coleoptera: Histeridae) in Chiapas, Mexico, for the control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Vedalia, 1(1):23-24

Batra HN, 1952. Occurrence of three banana pests at Delhi. Indian Journal of Entomology, 14:60

Beauhaire J, Ducrot PH, Malosse C, Rochat D, Ndiege IO, Otieno DO, 1995. Identification and synthesis of sordidin, a male pheromone emitted by Cosmopolites sordidus. Tetrahedron Letters, 36(7):1043-1046

Beccari F, 1967. Contribution to knowledge of C. sordidus. Part I. Riv. Agric. Subtrop. Trop., 61:51-93

Bendicho Lopez A, 1987. Perception capacity of the ant Tetramorium guineense for the biological control of the banana black weevil. Ciencias de la Agricultura, No. 30:13-15

Bendicho Lopez A, Gonzalez Ramos N, 1986. Behaviour of populations of Cosmopolites sordidus and Tetramorium guineense in natural conditions. Ciencias de la Agricultura, No. 28:9-12

Bennett FD, Rosen D, Cochereau P, Wood BJ, 1976. Biological control of pests of tropical fruits and nuts. In: Huffaker CB, Messenger PS, eds, Theory and Practice of Biological Control. New York, USA: Academic Press, 359-395

Blanche D, 1956. CongrFs de la Protection des Vegetaux....sous les climats chauds. Institut Frantais d'Outre Mer, Marseilles, 137

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey

Bosch CA, Lorkeers MR, Ndile, Sentozi E, 1996. Diagnostic survey: Constraints to banana productivity in Bukoba and Muleba Districts, Kagera region, Tanzania. Tanzania/Netherlands Farming Systems Research Project/Lake Zone. Working Paper No. 8

Braithwaite BM, 1958. Ground spray treatments for control of banana beetle borer (Cosmopolites sordidus Germ.). Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 24:27-34

Braithwaite BM, 1963. The banana beetle borer. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 74:369-396, 419

BreniFre J, Dubois J, 1965. Catalogue of the insects harmful to crops in Madagascar. Docum. Div. Ent. agric. Inst. Rech. agron. Madagascar, 43:1-168

Broglio SMF, Santos JMdos, Batista NS, Santos JRTdos, Micheletti LB, 2014. Record of species coleoborers attacking banana cultivar 'Terra'. (Registro de espécies de coleobrocas atacando bananeiras da cultivar 'Terra'.) Revista Caatinga, 27(1):200-204. http://periodicos.ufersa.edu.br/revistas/index.php/sistema/article/view/2978/pdf_104

Bryan EH, 1949. Economic Insects of Micronesia. Report of the Insect Control Committee for Micronesia 1947-1948, [2+] 29 pp. Publisher's deatils?

Budenberg WJ, Ndiege IO, Karago FW, 1993. Evidence for volatile male-produced pheromone in banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19(9):1905-1916

Bujulu J, Uronu B, Cumming CNC, 1983. The control of banana weevils and parasitic nematodes in Tanzania. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 49(1):1-13

Bullock RC, Evers C, 1962. Control of the banana root borer (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) with granular insecticides. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 39:109-113

Buyckx EJE, 1962. Précis des maladies et des insectes nuisibles recontrés sur les plantes cultivées au Congo, au Rwanda et au Burundi. Brussels, Belgium: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo (INEAC)

Buyckx EJE, 1962. PrTcis des maladies et des insectes nuisibles recontrTs sur les plantes cultivTes au Congo, au Rwanda et au Burundi. Brussels, Belgium: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo (INEAC)

Buyckx EJE, 1962. Summary of the Diseases and Injurious Insects found on Cultivated Plants in the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. Brussels, Belgium: Publications de L'Institut National pour L'Etude Agronomique du Congo, Hors Séries

Calderon S, 1931. Insect conditions in Salvador, Central America. Insect Pest Surv. Bull., 9:686-688

Cardenas M R, Arango B LG, 1986. Population fluctuation and dispersion of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Revista Colombiana de Entomologia, 12(1):37-45

Cardenas-Murillo R, Arango-Bernal LG, 1987. Cultural control of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar 1824) attacking plantain Musa AAB Simmonds. Cenicafe, 38(1-4):50-61

Castineiras A, Cabrera T, Calderon A, Lopez M, Lujian M, 1991. Biological control against Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). In: Pavis C, Kermarrec A, eds, Recontres Caraïbes en Lutte Biologique. Proceedings of a Symposium, 5-7 November 1990, Gossier, Guadeloupe (FWI). Les Colloques de l'INRA, 58:423-428

Castineiras A, Calderon A, Lopez M, 1991. Effect of biocides and fertilizers used in banana cultivation in Cuba on entomopathogenic fungi. I. Metarhizium anisopliae. Proteccion de Plantas, 1(1):33-42

Castrillon C, 1991. Control quimico del picudo del platano Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) dentro de un program de manejo integrado. In: Seminario de actualizacion sobre la investigacion en el cultivo del platano. Manizales. Memorias: pp 147-151

Charles JS, Abraham CC, Joy PJ, Varkey PA, 1986. Occurrence of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) as an internal borer in banana peduncles. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala, 24(1):77

Cheng KH, 1957. Banana corm weevil and its control experiments. Agric. Res., 7:45-54

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Cohic F, 1950. The insects damaging to cultivated plants in the Wallis Islands and Futuna. Agronomie Tropicale, 5:563-581

Cohic F, 1953. Phytosanitary investigation in the plantations of the New Hebrides. Rev. agric. Nouv. Calédonie, (N.S.) 4:11-21

Cohic F, 1956. Animal Parasites of Cultivated Plants in New Caledonia and Dependancies. Nouméa, New Caledonia: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Institut Francais d'Océanie

Cohic F, 1959. Investigation on the Animal Parasites of Agricultural Interest on Wallis. Nouméa, New Caledonia: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Institut Francais d'Océanie

Collin PJ, Treverrow NL, Lambkin TM, 1991. Organophosphorus insecticide resistance and its management in the banana weevil borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in Australia. Crop Protection, 10(3):215-221

Coutinho Saraiva A, 1964. The banana borer- C. sordidus- in the Cape Verde Islands. Garcia de Orta, 12:241-249

Cuillé J, 1950. Research on the banana weevil, Cosmpolites sordidus Germ. Monograph of the insect and research on its chemotropisms. Serie Tech. Inst. Fruits Agrumes colon., 4:1-225

Ddungu JCM, 1988. The weevil borer and nematode problems in Musa in Uganda. Nematodes and the borer weevil in bananas. Present status of research and outlook Montpellier, France; International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain., 40

Deang RT, Caburubias RB, Quero EM, 1969. Insecticide test for the control of abaca corm weevil. Philippine Journal of Plant Industry, 34(1/2):79-87

Delattre P, 1980. Investigations into a method for estimating populations of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Col., Curculionidae). Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 1(1):83-92

Delattre P, Jean-Bart A, 1978. The effect of entomopathogenic fungi (Fungi imperfecti) on adults of Cosmopolites sordidus Germ. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Turrialba, 28(4):287-293

Delvaux B, Perrier X, Guyot P, 1990. Diagnosis of the fertility in intensive banana cropping systems in Martinique. Fruits (Paris), 45(3):223-236

Dinther JBM van, 1960. Insect pests of cultivated plants in Surinam. Bull. agric. Exp. Sta. Suriname, 76:1-159

Duarte AJ, 1962. List of species of insects of economic importance (as pests of plants or as parasites or predators of pests) in Angola. 1st supplement. Boletin do Instituto Investigatao Cientifica de Angola, 1:7-19

Dumbleton LJ, 1954. A list of disease recorded in South Pacific territories. Tech. pap. Pacific Comm. 78

Dutt N, Maiti BB, 1972. Bionomics of the banana pseudostem weevil, Odoiporus longicollis Oliv. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Indian Journal of Entomology, 34(1):20-30

Edwards WH, 1942. Entomological Division. Jamaica Department of Agriculture. Report 1941-1942, 9-10

FAO, 1963. Pests and diseases number. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 11:1-70

Fazolin M, Pereira LV, Wilcken CF, 1990. Influence of three insecticides for the control and attraction of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) to cheese-type baits, in Rio Branco (AC). Rio Branco (AC). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 19(1):181-189

Fennah RG, 1947. The Insect Pests of Food-Crops in the Lesser Antilles. St. George's, Granada: Department of Agriculture for the Winward Islands; and St. John's, Antigua: Department of Agriculture for the Leeward Islands

Figueroa W, 1990. Biocontrol of the banana root borer weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), with steinernematid nematodes. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 74(1):15-19

Fogain R, Price NS, 1994. Varietal screening of some Musa cultivars for susceptibility to the banana borer weevil. Fruits (Paris), 49(4):247-251

Forsyth J, 1966. Agricultural Insects of Ghana. A list of insects recorded in Ghana on field crops and stored produce with their host plants, damage caused, locality, parasites and predators where known, together with references to the literature for Ghana and neighbouring countries covering the period 1910-1960. Accra, Ghana: Ghana University Press

Franzmann BA, 1972. Banana weevil borer in north Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 98:319-321

Froggatt JL, 1928. The banana weevil borer in Java with notes on other crop pests. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 30:530-541

Froggatt JL, 1941. Entomogical notes. New Guinea Agricultural Gazette, 7:298-300

Garcia RF, Gomez GJ, Artega A, 1993. XX Congreso de la Sociedad Colombiana de Entomologia (SCOLEN), 18

Gettman AD, Mitchell WC, Li P, Mau RFL, 1992. A hot water treatment for control of the banana root borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in banana planting stock. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 31:59-63

GhesquiFre J, 1925. The malady of banana in the Belgian Congo. Bull. agric. Congo belge, 16:556-560

G-Longoria AG, 1975. Sexual dimorphism observed in the pupa of Cosmopolies sordidus Germar (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Sanidad Vegetal Serie, 11:6

Goes A de, Maldonado JFM, Jarske W, 1988. Chemical control of the banana borer Cosmopolites sordidus. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 23(7):681-684

Gold CS, Gemmill B(editors), 1993. Biological and integrated control of Highland banana and plantain pests and diseases: Proceedings of a Research Coordination Meeting, Cotonou, Benin 12-14 November 1991. Ibadan, Nigeria; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), x + 455 pp

Gold CS, Night G, Abera A, Speijer PR, 1998. Hot-water treatment for the control of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Uganda. African Entomology, 6(2):215-221; 19 ref

Gold CS, Night G, Speijer PR, Abera AMK, Rukazambuga NDTM, 1998. Infestation levels of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in banana plants established from treated propagules in Uganda. African Entomology, 6(2):253-263; 12 ref

Gold CS, Okech SH, Ssendege R, 1997. Banana weevil population densities and related damage in Ntungamo and Mbarara districts, Uganda. In: Adipala E, Tenywa JS, Ogenga-Latigo MW, (eds.). African Crop Science Proceedings, 1207-1220

Gold CS, Speijer PR, Karamura EB, Tushemereirwe WK, Kashaija IN, 1994. Survey methodologies for pest and disease assessment in Uganda. African Crop Science Journal

Gomy Y, 1983. The Coleoptera Histeridae of the Mascarene Islands. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 'Giacomo Doria', 84:269-348; [29 fig.]; 21 ref

Gowen SR, 1995. Pests. In: Gowen S (ed.) Bananas and Plantains. London, UK: Chapman and Hall. pp 382-402

Greathead DJ, 1986. Opportunities for biological control of insect pests in tropical Africa. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 100(1):85-96

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