Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Corvus splendens
(house crow)

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Datasheet

Corvus splendens (house crow)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Corvus splendens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • house crow
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Aves
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • In most aspects of biology and behaviour, C. splendens is a typical crow, generalist, omnivorous, opportunistic and intelligent but, uniquely, it is a specialist urban commensal of man, very gregarious and aggr...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
House Crow in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus
TitleTypical bird
CaptionHouse Crow in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crow in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus
Typical birdHouse Crow in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus©Colin Ryall
Close-up of House Crow in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus
TitleHead of bird
CaptionClose-up of House Crow in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus
Copyright©Colin Ryall
Close-up of House Crow in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus
Head of birdClose-up of House Crow in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus©Colin Ryall
House Crows feeding on garbage in Goa, India, race Corvus splendens splendens.
TitleHouse Crows feeding on garbage
CaptionHouse Crows feeding on garbage in Goa, India, race Corvus splendens splendens.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crows feeding on garbage in Goa, India, race Corvus splendens splendens.
House Crows feeding on garbageHouse Crows feeding on garbage in Goa, India, race Corvus splendens splendens.©Colin Ryall
House Crows scavenging at open air restaurant in Varkala resort in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
TitleHouse Crows scavenging
CaptionHouse Crows scavenging at open air restaurant in Varkala resort in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crows scavenging at open air restaurant in Varkala resort in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
House Crows scavenging House Crows scavenging at open air restaurant in Varkala resort in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.©Colin Ryall
House Crow in town square in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus
TitleHouse Crows in town square
CaptionHouse Crow in town square in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crow in town square in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus
House Crows in town squareHouse Crow in town square in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus©Colin Ryall
Close-up of House Crows in town square in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
TitleHouse Crows in town square
CaptionClose-up of House Crows in town square in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
Close-up of House Crows in town square in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
House Crows in town squareClose-up of House Crows in town square in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.©Colin Ryall
House Crow eating fish waste on seashore in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
TitleHouse Crow eating fish waste
CaptionHouse Crow eating fish waste on seashore in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crow eating fish waste on seashore in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
House Crow eating fish wasteHouse Crow eating fish waste on seashore in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.©Colin Ryall
Close-up of House Crow eating fish waste on seashore in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
TitleHouse Crow eating fish waste
CaptionClose-up of House Crow eating fish waste on seashore in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
Close-up of House Crow eating fish waste on seashore in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
House Crow eating fish wasteClose-up of House Crow eating fish waste on seashore in Kochi, Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.©Colin Ryall
A gathering of House Crows on beach at Kochi, in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
TitleGathering of House Crows on beach
CaptionA gathering of House Crows on beach at Kochi, in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
A gathering of House Crows on beach at Kochi, in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
Gathering of House Crows on beachA gathering of House Crows on beach at Kochi, in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.©Colin Ryall
Close view of a gathering of House Crows on beach at Kochi, in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
TitleA gathering of House Crows on beach
CaptionClose view of a gathering of House Crows on beach at Kochi, in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
Close view of a gathering of House Crows on beach at Kochi, in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.
A gathering of House Crows on beachClose view of a gathering of House Crows on beach at Kochi, in Kerala, South India, race Corvus splendens protegatus.©Colin Ryall
House Crows at council skip, Mombasa, Kenya, 1986.
TitleHouse Crows at a waste skip
CaptionHouse Crows at council skip, Mombasa, Kenya, 1986.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crows at council skip, Mombasa, Kenya, 1986.
House Crows at a waste skipHouse Crows at council skip, Mombasa, Kenya, 1986.©Colin Ryall
House Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.
TitleHouse Crows foraging
CaptionHouse Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.
House Crows foragingHouse Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.©Colin Ryall
House Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.
TitleHouse Crows foraging
CaptionHouse Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.
House Crows foragingHouse Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.©Colin Ryall
House Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.
TitleHouse Crows foraging
CaptionHouse Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.
House Crows foragingHouse Crows foraging at dustbin, Mombasa, Kenya.©Colin Ryall
House Crows commonly forage on and around livestock, as per this one in Goa, India, race Corvus splendens splendens.
TitleHouse Crow perched on pig
CaptionHouse Crows commonly forage on and around livestock, as per this one in Goa, India, race Corvus splendens splendens.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crows commonly forage on and around livestock, as per this one in Goa, India, race Corvus splendens splendens.
House Crow perched on pigHouse Crows commonly forage on and around livestock, as per this one in Goa, India, race Corvus splendens splendens.©Colin Ryall
Corvus splendens perched on chairs by a swimming pool. Mombasa, Kenya.
TitleNuisance factor
CaptionCorvus splendens perched on chairs by a swimming pool. Mombasa, Kenya.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
Corvus splendens perched on chairs by a swimming pool. Mombasa, Kenya.
Nuisance factorCorvus splendens perched on chairs by a swimming pool. Mombasa, Kenya.©Colin Ryall
House Crow Control Team with poles for bringing down nests, Mombasa, Kenya, 1986.
TitleHouse Crow Control Team
CaptionHouse Crow Control Team with poles for bringing down nests, Mombasa, Kenya, 1986.
Copyright©Colin Ryall
House Crow Control Team with poles for bringing down nests, Mombasa, Kenya, 1986.
House Crow Control TeamHouse Crow Control Team with poles for bringing down nests, Mombasa, Kenya, 1986.©Colin Ryall
House crows in a ladder trap.
TitleHouse crow trap
CaptionHouse crows in a ladder trap.
CopyrightPaul Green
House crows in a ladder trap.
House crow trapHouse crows in a ladder trap.Paul Green
House crows in a ladder trap.
TitleHouse crow trap
CaptionHouse crows in a ladder trap.
CopyrightPaul Green
House crows in a ladder trap.
House crow trapHouse crows in a ladder trap.Paul Green

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1816

Preferred Common Name

  • house crow

International Common Names

  • English: Indian house crow
  • Spanish: corneja India
  • French: corbeau familier

Local Common Names

  • : kunguru
  • Australia: Ceylon crow; Colombo crow
  • Germany: Glanzkrähe
  • Netherlands: huiskraai
  • South Africa: huiskraai

Summary of Invasiveness

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In most aspects of biology and behaviour, C. splendens is a typical crow, generalist, omnivorous, opportunistic and intelligent but, uniquely, it is a specialist urban commensal of man, very gregarious and aggressive. The species is also unique among corvids in its ability to spread long distances on board ships and by this means has now established breeding populations in 24 countries outside its native range. Once established it has invariably proliferated to high densities in urban areas, then spreading overland to other human settlements, attaining pest status through predation/harassment of native avifauna and livestock, food/crop theft, noise nuisance, defaecation, possibly acting as carriers of human and animal disease, etc. C. splendens is on the Invasive Species Specialist Group (IUCN) alert list and is a regulated pest species in Australia. Control measures, mostly unsuccessful, have taken place at many sites with introduced populations.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Aves
  •                     Order: Passeriformes
  •                         Family: Corvidae
  •                             Genus: Corvus
  •                                 Species: Corvus splendens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There are 4 recognized subspecies distinguished by the shade of grey of the nape, neck and chest, and with distinct native geographical distributions: Corvus splendens splendens of north and central India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh; Corvus splendens zugmayeri of Pakistan, Kashmir and Jammu (India); Corvus splendens protegatus (Ceylon or Colombo crow) from southwest India and Sri Lanka; and Corvus splendens insolens (Burma crow) of Myanmar (Burma) and western Yunnan. A 5th subspecies, Corvus splendens maledivicus of the Maldives, is now widely considered to be invalid.

Description

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A medium sized crow, length 40 cm and weight 245-371 g, with relatively long legs and bill. Grey nape, sides of head and breast, though the shade of grey varies in different races; otherwise glossy black, but juveniles are duller. Bill and legs black, eyes black-brown. Sexes similar though males are somewhat larger (a detailed description is provided by Madge and Burn, 1994).

Distribution

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C. splendens is native to the Indian subcontinent, including all of India, Pakistan, the Maldives and Sri Lanka, and also in Myanmar (Burma) and Western Yunnan. Major ports, particularly Mumbai and Colombo, but also Aden and Zanzibar, where it was intentionally introduced in the late 1800s, serve, along with  as the main source of ship-borne spread, westward and southward to the Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf, the Red Sea, eastern and southern Africa, Mauritius and the Seychelles. C. splendens has also spread eastwards throughout Malaysia and Singapore, originating predominantly from a deliberately introduced population in Klang, Malaysia. However, the disjunct population in Hong Kong and recently established population in Sabah are of uncertain origin. There are now breeding populations established in 24 countries outside the native range, and birds are known to have arrived in a further 23 countries but not yet become established. They have been arriving regularly in Australia since the early twentieth century but, due to the vigilance of the authorities, have not become established there (Ryall, 1994, 2002, 2016). The species’ establishment in the Netherlands and arrivals of single birds in the Mediterranean and Europe may originate from the long established population at Suez, Egypt (Ottens and Ryall, 2003).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanLocalisedNative Not invasive Ryall, 2010aUncommon resident near Jalalabad
BahrainLocalisedIntroduced1970s Not invasive Ryall, 2010bApparently stable since first record in the 1970s, presumed ship-borne
BangladeshWidespreadNative Not invasive Ali and Ripley, 1972
BhutanWidespreadNative Not invasive Madge and Burn, 1994
Chagos ArchipelagoAbsent, formerly present2008Introducedearly 2000s Not invasive Ryall, 2010aSingle ship-borne bird reported first; 2 birds seen in 2008.
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongLocalisedIntroducedmid 1970s Invasive Ryall, 2002Introduced, source unclear but probably ship-borne. Population localised but increasing
-YunnanLocalisedNative Not invasive Madge and Burn, 1994Stable population in valleys of west Yunnan
IndiaWidespreadNativeAli and Ripley, 1972Throughout India; absent only from areas free of human populations, e.g. extensive forest, some uplands
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsLocalisedIntroducedpre 1980s Invasive Ryall, 1994Failed deliberate introduction in late 1800s but reappeared when small population recorded in 1988 and spreading since
-Himachal PradeshLocalisedNative Invasive Sangha and Naoroji, 2003Spreading alongside human colonization of uplands
-Jammu and KashmirLocalisedNative Invasive Sangha and Naoroji, 2003Spreading alongside human colonization of uplands
-LakshadweepWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Ali and Ripley, 1972Thought to be introduced
Indonesia
-JavaAbsent, formerly present1986Introduced1984 Not invasive Ryall, 2002Single bird at Ujung Kulon NP 1984 and Anak Krakatau 1986, presumed ship-borne
-SumatraAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1998 Not invasive Ryall, 2002Single bird at Medan 1998, presumed ship-borne
IranLocalisedNativeRyall, 1994Possibly native in extreme southeast; present, probably ship-borne, in other coastal areas
IsraelLocalisedIntroduced1976 Invasive Ryall, 1994First recorded in Elat/Agaba, presumed ship-borne, and spreading
Japan
-KyushuAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1981 Not invasive Ryall, 2002Osaka, thought to be ship-borne. Bird placed in zoo
JordanLocalisedIntroduced1976 Invasive Ryall, 1994First recorded in Agaba from Elat
Korea, Republic ofAbsent, formerly present2010Introduced2010Ryall, 2016Lone bird at Mungab Island, presumed ship-assisted
KuwaitLocalisedIntroduced1972 Invasive Ryall, 2010bPossible spread from Iran
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaWidespreadIntroduced1870s Invasive Wells, 2007Introduced to Klang from Colombo to control caterpillar plague. Spreading. Some local control measures
-SabahLocalisedIntroducedearly 1980s Invasive Ryall, 2002Small population Kota Kinabalu, presumed ship-borne
MaldivesWidespreadNative Not invasive Ali and Ripley, 1972
MyanmarWidespreadNative Not invasive Ali and Ripley, 1972
NepalWidespreadNative Not invasive Ali and Ripley, 1972
OmanWidespreadIntroducedearly 1990s Invasive Ryall, 2010bWidespread along coastal strip and spreading. Spread from neighbouring states
PakistanWidespreadNative Invasive Ali and Ripley, 1972
QatarWidespreadIntroducedearly 1970s Invasive Ryall, 2010bSpreading. Spread from neighbouring states
Saudi ArabiaWidespreadIntroducedlate 1970s Invasive Ryall, 2010bRecorded from Jeddah in late 1970s and East Province in early 1980s. Control measures now in Jeddah
SingaporeWidespreadIntroducedpre-1948 Invasive Ryall, 2002Now >2000 birds. Control measures taken
Sri LankaWidespreadNative Not invasive Ali and Ripley, 1972
TaiwanAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1980Ryall, 2002Single bird, presumed ship-borne, seen Taitung County 1980
ThailandLocalisedNative Invasive Wells, 2007Previously native to southwest, more recently introduced to Krabi and elsewhere where increasing
TurkeyLocalisedIntroduced2015 Invasive Ryall, 20164 birds observed at Çannakale, on the Dardanelles in 2015
United Arab EmiratesWidespreadIntroducedpre-1960s Invasive Ryall, 2010bWidespread along coast by 1970s, spreading. Spread from Oman
VietnamLocalisedIntroduced2013 Invasive Ryall, 2016Six seen at Vung Tau, near Ho Chi Minh City
YemenWidespreadIntroduced1840s Invasive Ryall, 2010bNow massive population in Aden, spread to many other towns along coast and inland. Unsuccessful control campaigns, but eradicated Socotra 2009

Africa

BeninAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced2010Ryall, 2016A single bird near Cotonou Harbour
DjiboutiWidespreadIntroduced1958 Invasive Ryall, 2002Presumed ship-borne, now large population in city and spreading to villages. Control measures taken recently
EgyptWidespreadIntroduced1922 Invasive Ryall, 1994Arrived ship-borne at Suez by 1922; subsequent spread, especially along Red Sea coast
EritreaLocalisedIntroducedpre-1971 Invasive Ryall, 1994Present Massawa in 1971, claimed introduced in 1940s, spread to Assab and Asmara
KenyaLocalisedIntroducedmid-1940s Invasive Ryall, 1992b; IPPC-Secretariat, 2005First colonized in Mombasa. Spread restricted to coastal strip north and south. Several unsuccessful control campaigns
MadagascarLocalisedIntroduced2014 Invasive Ryall, 2016At least 15 at harbour of Toamasina, presumed ship-assisted. Eradication campaign implemented
MauritiusWidespreadIntroducedpre-1810 Invasive Lever, 2005Main concentration in Port Louis, but with outlying populations
MoroccoAbsent, formerly present2002Introduced2002 Not invasive Bergier et al., 2005Single ship-borne bird at Tangiers peninsula
MozambiqueLocalisedIntroducedearly 1950s Invasive Ryall, 2002Single bird shot on Bazaruto Island (1950s). Small breeding colony on Inhaca Island in late 1970s and in Maputo by 1980s
NamibiaLocalised2014Introduced2011Ryall, 2016Single bird at Walvis Bay, presumed ship-borne
RéunionAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced2004Cheke and Hume, 2008Two at Saint-Denis in 2004; at least one was shot
SeychellesEradicated1994Introduced1970 Not invasive Ryall, 2002Ship-borne and bred on Mahe but eradicated 1994. Since then a few single arrivals
SomaliaLocalisedIntroduced1950 Invasive Department and of Agriculture and Food, 2008Two arrived at Cape Guardafui on ship 1959; now spreading progressively
South AfricaLocalisedIntroduced1972 Invasive Ryall, 2002Arrived off ship at Durban 1972, Cape Town 1977. Eradication programmes underway currently
SudanLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Department and of Agriculture and Food, 2008Breeding population in Port Sudan in 1941 and increasing subsequently
TanzaniaWidespreadIntroduced1972 Invasive Ryall, 2010aSpread from Zanzibar and reported Dar es Salaam, 1972. Tanga, later Morogoro. Eradication programmes currently under way, after previous unsuccessful programmes.
-ZanzibarWidespreadIntroduced1890s Invasive Ryall, 2010aIntroduced to clear refuse in 1890s; reached pest proportions by 1920s. Promising control programme in 1990s eventually foundered, but new eradication programmes now under way.

North America

USA
-CaliforniaAbsent, formerly present1995Introduced1995Ryall, 2002
-FloridaAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedPranty, 2004Two birds nested near Sarasota, fate of birds unknown
-LouisianaAbsent, formerly present2008Introduced2008 Not invasive Ryall, 2010a
-New JerseyAbsent, formerly present1971Introduced1971 Not invasive Ryall, 1995Single bird, considered as ship-borne
-South CarolinaAbsent, formerly present1988Introduced1974 Not invasive Ryall, 1995One at Charleston Harbour 1974, and another 1984

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosAbsent, formerly present1994Introduced1994 Not invasive Ryall, 2002Single bird moved around the island for 4 months before disappeared
CubaAbsent, formerly present20082008Kirwan et al., 2008Single bird reported on north coast

South America

BrazilAbsent, formerly present20142014Ryall, 2016Single bird seen at Itaboraí, near Rio de Janeiro. Presumed ship-borne
ChileAbsent, formerly present1994Introduced1993 Not invasive Matus, 1998Two birds arrived at Punta Arenas and persisted for 8 months before dying during winter

Europe

BelgiumAbsent, formerly present2004Introduced2004 Not invasive Ryall, 2010aTwo birds, suspected to be ship-borne
CyprusLocalised2011Introduced2011Ryall, 2016Lone bird at Karpas Peninsula. Presumed ship-borne
DenmarkAbsent, formerly present1995Introduced1986Ryall, 2002Two single birds reported in 1986 and 1995
FranceAbsent, formerly present2001Introduced2000Ryall, 2002One bird near Lille in 2000 and a second near Lyon in 2001
GibraltarAbsent, formerly present1991Introduced1991Ryall, 1994Single ship-borne bird in 1991
HungaryAbsent, unreliable recordIntroduced2002Ottens and Ryall, 2003Single bird reported outside Budapest
IrelandPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1974Ryall, 2010a; Mullarney et al., 1999
NetherlandsLocalisedIntroduced1994 Invasive Ottens and Ryall, 2003Increasing population at Hoek van Holland, as well as single birds reported from several other sites
PolandAbsent, formerly present2002Introduced2002Ottens and Ryall, 2003A single bird seen at fish pond at Palowice
SpainAbsent, formerly present1991Introduced1991Ryall, 2002Single bird which arrived in Gibraltar flew to Algeciras on the Spanish mainland
UKAbsent, unreliable recordIntroduced1997Ryall, 2002Report of one bird at Bournemouth, but later searches failed to find it

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, formerly present2010Introduced2010Ryall, 2016North-East Australia - single bird in northern Queensland. Presumed ship-borne
-VictoriaAbsent, formerly present1967Introduced1959Ryall, 2010a; Long, 1981Several ship-borne occurrences but always shot
-Western AustraliaAbsent, formerly present2008Introduced1926Ryall, 2010a; Long, 1981; Ryall, 1994; Ryall, 2002Arrive (ship-borne) frequently since early 1900s but always shot

History of Introduction and Spread

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In the late nineteenth century, C. splendens was introduced to Aden (now in Yemen), Klang (Malaysia) and Zanzibar (now Tanzania), to control refuse and caterpillar plagues, and quickly proliferated. In addition, from the early twentieth century, the species began to self-introduce on ships from Colombo to Australia and from India to ports around the Indian Ocean and its islands, as far as the Red Sea and East/South Africa (Ryall 1994, 2002). The Aden, Klang and Zanzibar populations have subsequently served as secondary foci of further spread, along with the introduced population at Suez.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Malaysia Sri Lanka 1870s Biological control (pathway cause) Yes Wells (2007) Introduced to Klang to control plague of caterpillars
Yemen India 1840s Yes Ryall (1994) Introduced to Aden. Intentional release
Zanzibar India 1890s Yes Ryall (1994) Intentional introduction to clean-up refuse

Risk of Introduction

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There is a very high probability that C. splendens will continue to spread, ship-borne, along major shipping routes as marine traffic increases and as burgeoning introduced populations in more and more ports serve as additional points of embarkation. As it is a commensal of man, its ability to establish and spread overland is potentiated by growing human populations, particularly in the developing world, where poor infrastructure results in a plentiful supply of refuse, the bird’s primary food source. Ryall (2002, 2010a, 2016) discusses the overland spread of the species Tanzania and Kenya, and its movement across the Malaysian Peninsula is described in detail by Wells (2007). Fortunately, action has taken to eradicate the growing population in Hoek van Holland (Netherlands), reducing the risk that the species will spread in western and southern Europe.

Although the species was, in the nineteenth century, deliberately released in a few locations, the risk of this occurring today is low.

C. splendens is a designated pest species in Australia and is shot on sight, so successfully preventing the species establishment despite numerous arrivals over the last century.

Habitat

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C. splendens is a committed commensal to man, never living far from human settlements. It does, however, move into surrounding farmland and along seashores, estuaries and large rivers to forage. It reaches high densities in urban areas. In India, where it is very common in towns, it does not penetrate intact forest or uninhabited uplands.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Natural
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Principal habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Buildings Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Buildings Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Wetlands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Mangroves Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Intertidal zone Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. splendens is a major crop pest in its native range and may cause significant economic damage. The most seriously affected crops are cereals, maize, oilseeds, pulses, and many fruits and cashew nuts.

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Mittal and Sakhuja (1980) gave the chromosome number of C. splendens as 80.  Krzeminska et al. (2016a) have elucidated the full genome and Krzeminska et al. (2016b) have analysed the genetic diversity of C. splendens from locations in their native and introduced ranges in Asia and Africa.

Reproductive Biology

C. splendens nests mainly in large trees close to human habitation. It pairs for life and is a more or less solitary nester, so several nests may be located in one large tree (Madge and Burn, 1994; Allen and Davies, 2005). The breeding season varies somewhat over the range but usually peaks in March/April to July/August, although in some areas most activity occurs in Oct/Dec. Four to five pale blue-green, brown-speckled eggs are laid in a typical corvid nest of twigs lined with fine material, though wire may be used where twigs are lacking (Ryall, 1990).

Physiology and Phenology

Like all Corvus species, C. splendens is highly adaptable, generalist and opportunistic.

Nutrition

C. splendens is omnivorous and opportunistic, subsisting primarily on human refuse supplemented by nest-raiding and predation of small vertebrates, invertebrates, raided crops, fruit and other produce.

Associations

C. splendens is strongly associated with humans, and also frequently forages on and around domestic livestock. In its native range and in Malaysia, it is commonly a victim of brood parasitism by the Asian koel Eudynamys scolopacea (or E. scolopaceus).

Environmental Requirements

C. splendens is always associated with human habitation, where refuse comprises the major part of its diet, but it also forages on other food sources in surrounding fields and shorelines. It is largely tropical and subtropical in range, though it reaches an altitude of 2100 m in the Himalayas (Madge and Burn, 1994), and has established a breeding population in the Netherlands which demonstrates an ability to withstand European winters (Ryall, 2002). It needs large trees for nesting and for its communal roosts, which may sometimes number thousands of birds.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
50 30

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Clamator glandarius Parasite Juvenile not specific Yosef, 1997; Yosef, 2002
Eudynamys scolopacea Parasite Juvenile not specific Ali and Ripley, 1972

Notes on Natural Enemies

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C. splendens adults are potential prey for raptors and, in India, nests are sometimes raided by monkeys. The Asian koel Eudynamys scolopacea (or E. scolopaceus) is a frequent brood parasite in the native range and Malaysia (Ali and Ripley, 1972; Wells, 2007). There are two reports of brood parasitism by the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius in the introduced C. splendens population in Israel (Yosef, 1997, 2002).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

C. splendens is a sedentary species, but small range changes have occurred in response to progressive human colonization of upland areas. It has also shown an ability to spread overland in sites where it has been introduced, e.g. Tanzania and Kenya (Ryall, 2010a, 2016) or Malaysia (Wells, 2007).

Accidental Introduction

Since the early 1900s, C. splendens has started to spread to new locations by riding on ships departing from ports where there are large house crow populations. It first colonized ports around the Indian Ocean but, as these introduced populations have increased it has become established further afield including Suez (Egypt), the Netherlands and Florida, and birds have also reached distant locations such as Australia and Brazil, though they have not yet bred (Ryall, 1994, 2002, 2010a, 2016).

Intentional Introduction

In the nineteenth century, C. splendens was deliberately introduced to Aden (Yemen), Klang (Malaysia) and Zanzibar (Tanzania), but there do not appear to have been any such incidents since then.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Biological controlTo control Spodoptera in Malaysia, to clear garbage in Zanzibar Yes Ryall, 1994; Wells, 2007
HitchhikerOn board ships particularly from Mumbai, Colombo, Aden Yes Ryall, 1994; Ryall, 2002

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Ship structures above the water lineBirds transported on ships e.g. regularly to Western Australia from Colombo Yes Long, 1981; Ryall, 1994; Ryall, 2002; Ryall, 2010a

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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Throughout its native range, e.g. Pakistan and India, C. splendens is a pest of a wide range of crops – cereals, maize, sunflowers, peanuts, pulses, and many fruits and nuts; it is responsible for serious economic losses to agricultural productivity. It also predates young domestic fowl and worries wounds of larger livestock. The species is also considered a potential vector of coccidiosis and other diseases of domestic fowl. Similar effects have been noted in the introduced range.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on biodiversity

Where introduced, C. splendens usually causes local declines of native avifauna as its population builds up, through intensive nest predation of small bird species (especially colonial nesters) and harassment of larger species, and probably through direct competition with other scavengers (Ryall, 1992a). It also predates other small vertebrates and invertebrates. In the native range the typical nest-raiding habit of the species sometimes extends into conservation areas and has affected species of conservation significance, e.g. the Indian bustard, Ardeotis nigriceps (Ali and Rahmani, 1982-1983).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Ardeotis nigriceps (great Indian bustard)No DetailsIndiaPredationAli and Rahmani, 1982-1983

Social Impact

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Though generally tolerated in its native range, C. splendens is widely regarded as a nuisance in its introduced range because of its noise, food theft and fouling of human living spaces, especially at their large communal roosts if in residential areas; complaints are common in tourist areas like Mombasa (Kenya). By virtue of its close association with humans and its tendency to foul drinking water sources and food, the species has the potential to act as a vector of disease, although there is no direct evidence of this. It is known to carry human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter (Ganapathy et al., 2007).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Fouling
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

Despite its universal pest status, C. splendens is recognized in India as beneficial because of its predation of invertebrate agricultural pests (Chakravathy, 1988).
 
Social Benefit
 
In India and Sri Lanka, C. splendens is deeply embedded into religious and traditional belief.
 
Environmental Services
 
C. splendens probably reduces the amount of putrescible human refuse in areas where waste management is inadequate, and so may reduce the number of rats through competition.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Biological control

General

  • Sociocultural value

Detection and Inspection

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The “House Crow Monitor” website http://www.housecrow.com includes details to assist identification of the species.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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There is a superficial similarity to the western jackdaw Corvus monedula in markings, but the species are easily distinguished by differences in eye colour, body shape and calls. Some confusion is possible with carrion x hooded crow hybrids (Corvus corone corone x C. corone cornix). However, confusion is only likely in areas of range overlap, which are limited at present. The dark Burmese race may possibly be confused with the jungle crow Corvus levaillantii, as the ranges overlap to a large extent.

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

The Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, has a public awareness programme aimed at early detection of C. splendens arriving on board ships (particularly Fremantle) and has, by shooting, successfully prevented the species from establishing itself despite repeated arrivals over the past century (Ryall, 2002, 2010a, 2016).

SPS measures

Though much needed, no quarantine scheme for ships is yet in place anywhere. The Non-Native Organism Risk Assessment Scheme of DEFRA (the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) in the UK included the house crow (Parrott, 2005).

Rapid response

The only rapid response scheme is that described for Western Australia under ‘Prevention’.

Public awareness

In Australia, the Department of Agriculture and Food in Western Australia has published an Animal Pest Alert leaflet on the house crow (Department of Agriculture and Food, 2008).

Eradication

Despite many attempts at various locations in the introduced range, the only successful eradication was from the Seychelles (Ryall, 2002), until 2009 when the small population was eradicated from Socotra, Yemen (Suleiman and Taleb, 2010). In South Africa, House Crows appear to have been extirpated from Durban area, though populations still exist in Cape Town and Richard’s Bay, and an eradication programme is underway in Hoek van Holland, Netherlands (Ryall, 2016).

Control

Cultural control and sanitary measures

In India, C. splendens and other avian pests are kept off crops by a range of non-lethal, traditional bird scaring techniques.

Reducing availability of human refuse, the primary food source of the species, is undoubtedly the most important measure in controlling its numbers in an area where it has reached pest proportions; this has, however, proven to be an elusive goal as most invaded areas lack the resources, organisation and infrastructure required for efficient waste management.

Physical/mechanical control

Destruction of nests, including the eggs and chicks therein, was used in Mombasa, Kenya (Ryall, 1990) and various other locations since. Crow traps have been used very successfully to reduce numbers in Klang (Malaysia), Mombasa (Kenya), Zanzibar and Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), but when used alone they cannot achieve total eradication.  As has been demonstrated in the Seychelles and Socotra, shooting has proven to be the only means of achieving complete removal, but is only applicable to mopping up small populations (e.g. in Cape Town, Hoek van Holland) due to the crows’ wariness.

Biological control

There is no biological control available. The main brood parasite is not species specific.

Chemical control

The avicide of choice is Starlicide, which has been widely used, or otherwise alpha-chloralose where funds are more limited.  Use of Starlicide has proven highly successful in House Crow control where populations are large but such programmes in Kenya and Tanzania have been halted due to funding problems and lack of access to Starlicide.

IPM

An integrated approach was attempted in Mombasa, Kenya, from 1984 to 1986, involving poisoning with alpha-chloralose, trapping, nest destruction during the breeding season, shooting and introduction of a bounty system (Ryall and Reid, 1987). There was also a later very successful control programme in Malindi.  However, lack of financial support, long standing restrictions on the importation of Starlicide and a failure to reduce garbage availability resulted in these programmes eventually foundering, though a will to resume them very much exists.

Monitoring and Surveillance

The website “House Crow Monitor” (http://www.housecrow.com) is directed primarily at tracking the spread of the species and includes details to assist its identification; in addition, periodic updates are published by Ryall (1994, 1995, 2002, 2010, 2016).

More proactive approaches involving risk assessments (e.g. Slaterus et al. 2009, Csurhes 2010), public information, and surveillance and response systems have succeeded in keeping Australia and the Seychelles free of House Crows for decades. To enable the development of a response strategy, Fraser et al. (2015) in New Zealand, have modelled the potential distribution of C splendens, if it were to arrive in the country.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Systematic scientific study is lacking in this species, particularly as colour ringing and release of individual birds would be necessary. Research on population biology, breeding, territorial and social biology/behaviour is much needed. Recent studies by Barry Brook, Navjot Sodhi and their colleagues at the University of Singapore are helpful (for example Brook et al. (2003), Lim et al. (2003) and Soh et al. (2002).  Urzsula Krzeminska and colleagues at Monash University Malaysia have in recently undertaken genetic studies on native and introduced populations of C. splendens.

References

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Ali S; Rahmani AR, 1982-1983. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society: Annual Report 1. unpaginated.

Ali S; Ripley SD, 1972. Handbook of the birds of India & Pakistan Vol. 5. Bombay, India: Oxford University Press.

Allan DG; Davies GB, 2005. Breeding biology of House Crows (Corvus splendens) in Durban, South Africa. Ostrich, 76(1/2):21-31. http://www.ostrich.net/

Bergier P; Franchimont J; Thévenot M, 2005. Rare birds in Morocco: report of the Moroccan Rare Birds Committee (2001-2003). Bulletin of the African Bird Club, 12(2):106-118.

Brook BW; Sodhi NS; Soh MCK; Lim HC, 2003. Abundance and projected control of invasive house crows in Singapore. Journal of Wildlife Management, 67:808-817.

Chakravathy AK, 1988. Bird predation of pod borers of field beans. Tropical Pest Management, 34(4):395-398.

Cheke A, 2008. Seafaring behaviour in House Crows Corvus splendens - a precursor to ship-assisted dispersal? Phelsuma, 16:65-68. http://islandbiodiversity.com/Phelsuma%2016-7.pdf; http://dodobooks.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Cheke-2008-Seafaring-crows.pdf

Cheke A; Hume J, 2008. Lost land of the Dodo. London, UK: T & AD Poyser.

Department of Agriculture and Food; Government of Western Australia, 2008. Animal pest alert: house crow. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food, Government of Western Australia, 4 pp. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/pw/vp/bird/housecrow_nht.pdf

Felemban HM, 2011. A successful control of the invasive Indian house crow (Corvus splendens) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Eighth European Vert. Pest Manag. Conf., Berlin, Germany, 26-30 September 2011. 188 pp.

Fraser DL; Aguilar G; Nagle W; Galbraith M; Ryall C, 2015. The house crow (Corvus splendens): a threat to New Zealand? ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 4(2):725-740. http://www.mdpi.com/2220-9964/4/2/725/htm

Ganapathy K; Saleha AA; Jaganathan M; Tan CG; Chong CT; Tang SC; Ideris A; Dare CM; Bradbury JM, 2007. Survey of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Mycoplasma in house crows (Corvus splendens) in Malaysia. The Veterinary Record, 160(18):622-624.

IPPC-Secretariat, 2005. Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003. xii + 301 pp.

Kirwan GM; Calderon D; Minns J; Roesler I, 2008. Neotropical notebook. Cotinga, 30:92.

Krzeminska U; Wilson R; Sadequr Rahman; Song BengKah; Gan HanMing; Tan MunHua; Austin CM, 2016. The complete mitochondrial genome of the invasive house crow Corvus splendens (Passeriformes: Corvidae). Mitochondrial DNA, 27(2):974-975. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/imdn20

Krzeminska U; Wilson R; Song BK; Seneviratne S; Akhteruzzaman S; Gruszczynska J; Swiderek W; Huy TS; Austin CM; Rahman S, 2016. Genetic diversity of native and introduced populations of the invasive house crow (Corvus splendens) in Asia and Africa. Biol Invasions (in press).

Lever C, 2005. Naturalised birds of the world. London, UK: T & AD Poyser.

Lim HawChuan; Sodhi NS; Brook BW; Soh MCK, 2003. Undesirable aliens: factors determining the distribution of three invasive bird species in Singapore. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19(6):685-695.

Long JL, 1981. Introduced birds of the world. Newton Abbot, UK: David & Charles.

Madge S; Burn H, 1994. Crows & Jays: a guide to the crows, jays and magpies of the world. London, UK: Christopher Helm, 191 pp.

Massam N; Kirkpatrick W; Mawson P; Press N; Bennell A; Hamilton N, 2004. Importing and keeping introduced mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians in Western Australia. Department of Agriculture, Government of Western Australia Bulletin 4604:unpaginated.

Matus R, 1998. Accidental presence of Corvus splendens (Aves: Corvidae) and new records of rare birds in Magallanes: Rollandia gallardoi and Eremobius phoenicurus. (Presencia accidental de Corvus splendens (Aves: Corvidae) y nuevas registros de aves raras en Magallanes: Rollandia gallardoi y Eremobius phoenicurus.) Anales Instituto Patagonia, Serie Cs. Nat. (Chile), 26:137-139.

Mittal OP; Sakhuja S, 1980. Bone marrow chromosomes in Corvus species. Cytobios, 29(114):81-89.

Mullarney K; O'Sullivan O; Lovatt JK, 1999. House crow Corvus splendens in County Waterford - an addition to the Irish list. Irish Birds, 6:427-430.

Ottens G; Ryall C, 2003. House crows in the Netherlands and Europe. Dutch Birding, 25(5):312-319.

Parrott D, 2005. Corvus splendens - Indian house crow. UK: UK Non-Native Organism Risk Assessment Scheme, DEFRA, unpaginated. http://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/nonnativespecies/downloadDocument.cfm?id=49

Pranty B, 2004. Florida's exotic avifauna: a preliminary checklist. American Birding, Aug 2004:362-372.

Ryall C, 1990. Notes on nest construction by the Indian house crow Corvus splendens and other aspects of its breeding biology in Mombasa, Kenya. Scopus, 14(1):14-16.

Ryall C, 1992. Predation and harassment of native bird species by the Indian house crow Corvus splendens in Mombasa, Kenya. Scopus, 16(1):1-8.

Ryall C, 1992. The pest status of the Indian house crow Corvus splendens in Mombasa and a survey of its expansion of range in coastal Kenya. In: Proceedings of the VIIth Pan African Ornithological Congress, Nairobi, Kenya, Aug 1988 [ed. by Bennun L]. Nairobi, Kenya: PAOCC, unpaginated.

Ryall C, 1994. Recent extensions of range in the house crow Corvus splendens. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 114(2):90-100.

Ryall C, 1995. Additional records of range extension in the house crow Corvus splendens. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 115(3):185-187.

Ryall C, 2002. Further records of range extension in the house crow Corvus splendens. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 122(3):231-240.

Ryall C, 2003. Notes on ecology and behaviour of house crows at Hoek van Holland. Dutch Birding, 25(5):167-172.

Ryall C, 2010. Further records and updates of range extension in House Crow Corvus splendens. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 130(4):246-254.

Ryall C, 2010. Species account: House Crow Corvus splendens. In: The atlas of breeding birds of Arabia [ed. by Jennings, M. C.]. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 491-493. [Fauna of Arabia vol. 25.]

Ryall C, 2016. Further records and updates of range extension in House Crow Corvus splendens. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 136(1):39-45.

Ryall C; Meier GG, 2008. The house crow in the Middle East. Wildlife Middle East Newsletter, 3(3):7.

Ryall C; Reid C, 1987. The Indian house crow in Mombasa. Swara, 10(1):9-12.

Sangha HS; Naoroji R, 2003. High-altitude records of the house crow Corvus splendens in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, India. Forktail, 19:141-142.

Slaterus R; Aarts B; Bremer Lvan den, 2009. De Huiskraai in Nederland: risicoanalyse en beheer (The House Crow in the Netherlands: risk assessment and management. Beek-Ubbergen, Netherlands: OVON Vogelonderzoek.

Soh MCK; Sodhi NS; Seoh RKH; Brook BW, 2002. Nest site selection of the house crow Corvus splendens, an urban invasive bird species in Singapore and implications for its management. Landscape and Urban Planning, 59:217-226.

Suleiman AS; Taleb N, 2010. Eradication of the House Crow Corvus splendens on Socotra, Yemen. Sandgrouse, 32:136-140.

Wells DR, 2007. The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: passerines: Vol 2. London, UK: Christopher Helm.

Yosef R, 1997. First record of Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) parasitizing Indian house crow (Corvus splendens). Israel Journal of Zoology, 43:397-399.

Yosef R, 2002. Second breeding record of Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) in Eilat. Sandgrouse, 24(2):142-144.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Department for Agriculture and Food, Western Australiahttp://www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/pw/vp/bird/housecrow_nht.pdf
GB Non-native Species Information Portalhttps://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/nonnativespecies/factsheet/index.cfm
House Crow Monitorhttp://www.housecrow.com/
ISSG Global Invasive Species Database: Corvus splendenshttp://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1199&fr=1&sts=sss&lang=EN

Organizations

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World: Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), Web based, http://www.issg.org/contact.htm

Netherlands: SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland, Rijksstraatweg 178, 6573 DG Beek-Ubbergen

Western Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, 3 Baron-Hay Court, South Perth, WA 6151, http://www.agric.wa.gov.au

Contributors

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16/07/09 Original text by:

Colin Ryall, School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE, UK

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