Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cordia dentata
(white manjack)

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Datasheet

Cordia dentata (white manjack)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cordia dentata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white manjack
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cordia dentata is an evergreen tree native to the Americas, from Mexico to the north of South America, including a number of Caribbean islands. It is grown as an ornamental, and cultivated for fruit and wood. I...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cordia dentata (white manjack); fruits and foliage. Nr. mouth of the Palamino River, northeastern Colombia. August 2014.
TitleFruits
CaptionCordia dentata (white manjack); fruits and foliage. Nr. mouth of the Palamino River, northeastern Colombia. August 2014.
Copyright©Dick Culbert/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); fruits and foliage. Nr. mouth of the Palamino River, northeastern Colombia. August 2014.
FruitsCordia dentata (white manjack); fruits and foliage. Nr. mouth of the Palamino River, northeastern Colombia. August 2014.©Dick Culbert/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
FoliageCordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
FoliageCordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
FoliageCordia dentata (white manjack); foliage. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); stem, bark and leaves. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
TitleStem
CaptionCordia dentata (white manjack); stem, bark and leaves. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); stem, bark and leaves. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
StemCordia dentata (white manjack); stem, bark and leaves. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); stem and bark. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
TitleBark
CaptionCordia dentata (white manjack); stem and bark. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cordia dentata (white manjack); stem and bark. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.
BarkCordia dentata (white manjack); stem and bark. INBioparque, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. June 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cordia dentata Poir.

Preferred Common Name

  • white manjack

Other Scientific Names

  • Calyptracordia alba (Jacq.) Britton
  • Cordia alba (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Cordia calyptrata Bertero ex Spreng.
  • Cordia leptopoda K. Krause
  • Cordia ovata Brandegee
  • Cordia tenuifolia Bertol.
  • Varronia calyptrata (Bertero ex Spreng.) A. DC.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: biyullo; cauaro

Local Common Names

  • Belize: jack wood
  • Costa Rica: jiguilote; tiguilote
  • Cuba: uvita; va gamosa
  • Dominican Republic: muñeco blanco; yagua
  • El Salvador: cebito; tiguilote; tigulote negro; tihuilote
  • Guatemala: supay; upay; upayol
  • Haiti: bois chique
  • Honduras: chachalaco
  • Jamaica: duppy cherry
  • Lesser Antilles: arbre a glu; arbrea raisins; bois-zizi; mahot blanc; mapou baril; mapou blanc
  • Mexico: avos; gulabere; jiguilote; uvero; uvillo; zazamil
  • Puerto Rico: capa blanco
  • Venezuela: cuajaro

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cordia dentata is an evergreen tree native to the Americas, from Mexico to the north of South America, including a number of Caribbean islands. It is grown as an ornamental, and cultivated for fruit and wood. It has been introduced in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands. Because it can grow on poor soils it is used for reforestation of denuded areas. It has not been reported as invasive within or outside its native range, but its ability to colonize infertile, disturbed areas may allow it to become invasive in the right conditions.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Boraginales
  •                         Family: Boraginaceae
  •                             Genus: Cordia
  •                                 Species: Cordia dentata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cordia is a genus in the Boraginaceae, or borage, family. It contains approximately 200 species of trees and shrubs, distributed in warm regions (World Flora Online, 2020).

Cordia dentata is listed as Cordia alba by some authorities (World Flora Online, 2020), while others treat C. alba as a synonym (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020; GBIF, 2020)

Description

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The following description is from Missouri Botanical Garden (2016):

Shrubs, or trees to 25 m, coarsely pubescent. Leaves alternate, ovate to obovate, sparsely mucronate-dentate, blunt-acute (slightly mucronate), the bases obtuse to rounded, to 12 cm long and 7 cm wide, coarsely pubescent, the hairs with multicellular bases; petioles to 2 cm long. Inflorescences irregular panicles, the apices scorpioid, ca 10-13 cm long and wide, terminal. Flowers perfect and sessile; calyx tubular, ca 10-ribbed, 3-4 mm long, 3(-5)-lobed, sparsely strigose on the ribs; corolla white to cream, funnelform, the tube ca 3-4 mm long with 5 widely spreading lobes 6-8 mm long, glabrous; stamens 5, borne on the corolla throat, the free filament 3-4 mm long, sparsely strigose at the point of attachment, the anthers ca 1.7-1.9 mm long; ovary bottle-shaped, the style ca 2-3 mm long, divided and the branches redivided near the apices, the stigmas 4. Fruit ovoid, with fleshy exocarp and bony endocarp, white, to 1.5 cm long.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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Cordia dentata is native to the Americas ranging from Mexico to Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador in the north of South America. It is native to most Caribbean Islands, but has been introduced in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 1996; POWO, 2020). It is also found in Madagascar and Egypt (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; Fouad et al., 2019). Herbarium specimens are held in Taiwan and Hawaii, but it is not clear whether it is present in the wild in these regions (GBIF, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 11 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFouad et al. (2019)Introduced at the beginning of the 19th Century as an ornamental. Only two known individuals remain, both in zoological gardens
MadagascarPresentEncyclopedia of Life (2016)

Asia

TaiwanPresentGBIF (2020)Preserved specimen at the Herbarium of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996)
BarbadosPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996)
BelizePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
BermudaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996)
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996)Exotic
Costa RicaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Guanacaste, Punta Arenas
CubaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996); Encyclopedia of Life (2016)
CuraçaoPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996)
El SalvadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Auachap?n, Chalaenango, La Libertad, La Paz, San Salvador, Santa Ana
GrenadaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996)
GuadeloupePresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996)
GuatemalaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Santa Rosa, Zacapa
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996)
HondurasPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
JamaicaPresentEncyclopedia of Life (2016)
MexicoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoac?n, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, San Luis Potos?, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan
NicaraguaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
PanamaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Canal Areas, Chiriqu?, Herrera, Los Santos, Panam?, Veraguas
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996); Dominguez Cristobal (1956); Liogier and Martorell (1982); Encyclopedia of Life (2016); Exotic
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez (1996); Encyclopedia of Life (2016)Exotic in St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas, Tortola
United StatesPresentGBIF (2020)Preserved specimen at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum| Hawaii
-HawaiiPresentGBIF (2020)Preserved specimen at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum

South America

BoliviaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Santa Cruz
ColombiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Antioquia, in the dry forest of Valle del Cauca
VenezuelaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Anzo?tegui, Aragua, Barinas, Bol?var, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amaruco, Distrito Federal, Falc?n, Gu?rico, Lara, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Sucre, T?chira, Trujillo, Zulia

Habitat

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Cordia dentata is found on dry sandy or rocky slopes and hills, damp or dry thickets, semi-deciduous and evergreen forests and grassy plains and pastures, from sea level to elevations of 900 m (Standley and Steyermark, 1958; Zamora et al., 1999).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat
Littoral
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Mangroves Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of C. dentata has been reported as 2n=28 and 2n=32 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016)

Reproductive Biology

Cordia dentata is pollinated by bees, butterflies and others insects (Standley and Steyermark, 1958). Seeds are slow to germinate, but scarification can speed up the process (Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Environmental Requirements

Cordia dentata prefers moist but freely draining, loamy soil (Useful Tropical Plants, 2020)

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Uses

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Economic Value

The pulp of Cordia dentata fruit is mucilaginous and can be used as an adhesive on paper and for fastening cigar wrappers, and the fruits are used in the processing of indigo dye (Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).  The wood is used for posts, beams, railings, shotgun butts, tool handles and as a fuel, amongst other uses (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Social Benefit

The fruit are sweet and eaten raw (Useful Tropical Plants, 2020). The plant is used as a diaphoretic, emollient and sudorific, and to treat affections of the chestCordia dentata wood charcoal is the main ingredient of a preparation used to treat affections of the stomach (Standley and Steyermark, 1958).

Environmental Services

Cordia dentata will grow in poor soils and in barren environments and so is planted on poor land and used for the afforestation of denuded and disturbed areas (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Invertebrate food

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits

Materials

  • Bark products
  • Miscellaneous materials

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Roundwood

  • Posts
  • Stakes

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden , 78. 1-581.

Dominguez Cristobal, C, 1956. (Panorama histórico forestall de Puerto Rico. Primera edición). San Juan, Puerto Rico: Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

Fouad, AS, Hafez, R, Hamdy, R, 2019. Authentication of Cordia dentata Poir. Growing in Egypt using ISSR and DNA barcoding. Bioscience Research, 16(2), 1474-1484.

GBIF, 2020. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility . http://www.gbif.org/species

Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 1982. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Standley PC, Steyermark JA, 1958. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana Botany series vol. 24, part 1, Chicago, Illinois, USA: Chicago Natural History Museum.

Useful Tropical Plants, 2020. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

World Flora Online, 2020. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.http://www.worldfloraonline.org

Zamora N, González J, Poveda LJ, 1999. (Arboles y arbustos del bosque seco de Costa Rica). Costa Rica: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78 1-581.

Dominguez Cristobal C, 1956. (Panorama histórico forestall de Puerto Rico. Primera edición)., San Juan, Puerto Rico: Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org

Fouad AS, Hafez R, Hamdy R, 2019. Authentication of Cordia dentata Poir. Growing in Egypt using ISSR and DNA barcoding. Bioscience Research. 16 (2), 1474-1484.

GBIF, 2020. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, http://www.gbif.org/species

Liogier H A, Martorell L F, 1982. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Contributors

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Original text by:

Eduardo A. Ventosa-Febles, Consultant, Puerto Rico

Dr. Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH

Distribution Maps

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