Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cordia alliodora
(Ecuador laurel)

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Datasheet

Cordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cordia alliodora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Ecuador laurel
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Introduced C. alliodora has been found to be associated with invasion events in Tonga and Vanuatu (Haysom and Murphy, 2...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A dry zone population in pasture, Sparza, Costa Rica.
TitleDry zone population
CaptionA dry zone population in pasture, Sparza, Costa Rica.
CopyrightDavid Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
A dry zone population in pasture, Sparza, Costa Rica.
Dry zone populationA dry zone population in pasture, Sparza, Costa Rica.David Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
A wet zone population in a 14-year-old provenance trial, Tumaco, Colombia.
TitleWet zone plantation
CaptionA wet zone population in a 14-year-old provenance trial, Tumaco, Colombia.
CopyrightDavid Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
A wet zone population in a 14-year-old provenance trial, Tumaco, Colombia.
Wet zone plantationA wet zone population in a 14-year-old provenance trial, Tumaco, Colombia.David Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
Self-pruning of naturally regenerated  trees, which are underplanted with Cacao, San Francisco, Honduras.
TitleShade tree
CaptionSelf-pruning of naturally regenerated trees, which are underplanted with Cacao, San Francisco, Honduras.
CopyrightDavid Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
Self-pruning of naturally regenerated  trees, which are underplanted with Cacao, San Francisco, Honduras.
Shade treeSelf-pruning of naturally regenerated trees, which are underplanted with Cacao, San Francisco, Honduras.David Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
Flower with wilted stigma.
TitleFlower
CaptionFlower with wilted stigma.
CopyrightDavid Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
Flower with wilted stigma.
FlowerFlower with wilted stigma.David Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
Mature seed after cleaning.
TitleSeeds
CaptionMature seed after cleaning.
CopyrightDavid Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
Mature seed after cleaning.
SeedsMature seed after cleaning.David Boshier/OFI (Oxford, UK)
1. flowering branch
2. vertical section through flower
3. fruit
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. flowering branch 2. vertical section through flower 3. fruit
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. flowering branch
2. vertical section through flower
3. fruit
Line artwork1. flowering branch 2. vertical section through flower 3. fruitPROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken

Preferred Common Name

  • Ecuador laurel

Other Scientific Names

  • Cerdana alliodora Ruiz & Pav.
  • Cordia alliodora var. boliviana Chodat & Vischer
  • Cordia alliodora var. glabra DC.
  • Cordia andina Chodat
  • Cordia cerdana (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Cordia gerascanthus auct. non L.
  • Cordia goudoti Chodat
  • Cordia macrantha Chodat
  • Cordia velutina Mart.
  • Lithocardium alliodorum (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze
  • Varronia tuberosa Sesse & Moc.

International Common Names

  • English: cordia; cypre; salmwood; Spanish elm
  • Spanish: ajo ajo; canalete; capa prieto; cypre; laurel
  • French: bois soumis; boise de rose; burel blanco; chêne caparo; cordia; onion cordia; salmwood
  • Portuguese: freijorge

Local Common Names

  • : laurel
  • Belize: bohun; corallilo; laurel blanco; salaam; salmwood
  • Bolivia: ajo; auxemma; lanza blanca; partago; picana; picana negra
  • Brazil: louro; louro amarello; uruazeiro
  • Colombia: canalete de humo; laurel negro; moho; nogal; nogal cafetero; solera
  • Costa Rica: dze-uí; laurel negro
  • Cuba: varía; varía amarilla; varía colorada; varía prieta
  • Dominica: laurier
  • Dominican Republic: capá; capá de olor; capá de sabana; capá prieto; guacimilla
  • Ecuador: chaquine; laurel; laurel de monte; laurel de puna; laurel macho; laurel negro; laurel prieto; uurushi numi (murushinim)
  • Guadeloupe: bois de Rhodes; bois de rose; bojon
  • Guatemala: chevel
  • Guyana: brown silver balli
  • Haiti: bois soumis; chêne caparo
  • Honduras: laurel negro
  • Jamaica: smokewood; Spanish elm
  • Martinique: bois cypre; bois et roge
  • Mexico: aguardientillo; amapa; amapa asta (amapa hasta); amapa blanca; amapa bola; asca; bojón; botoncillo; d'ou lemon; hochi; hormiguero; momiguilla; soleria (solerillo); solerito; suchil; suchil sabanero; tambor hormiguero
  • Nicaragua: cinchado; laurel macho; laurel negro
  • Peru: ajahatsa (ahahsatsa); anallo caspi; bolaina; chullachaqui blanco; tama palo santo
  • Puerto Rico: cayly; cypre; muñeco
  • Trinidad and Tobago: cyp; cypre; cypress
  • Venezuela: mataatiyo; pardillo; tacuraí; utaatigo

EPPO code

  • CRHAD (Cordia alliodora)

Trade name

  • cordia
  • laurel blanco
  • onion cordia
  • salmwood

Summary of Invasiveness

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Introduced C. alliodora has been found to be associated with invasion events in Tonga and Vanuatu (Haysom and Murphy, 2003). In Vanuatu, use of the young plantations for pasture, as was common practice under coconuts, with overgrazing in the dry season, left areas of bare soil ideal for regeneration of C. alliodora (Tolfts, 1997; Tschinkel, 1965). A mass of C. alliodora seedlings grew up, eliminating ground cover and spreading to neighbouring pastures where these were overgrazed. Only a very small area has been affected outside the plantations, but this is potentially an expensive problem for local cattle producers. Within its native range, C. alliodora is a successful colonizer of disturbed sites (e.g. pasture, coffee, cocoa), sometimes forming monospecific stands. There is, however, no record of weediness, probably owing to the poorer soil conditions (nutrients, compaction etc.) into which it is dispersed. Given C. alliodora's ecological characteristics, its capacity to invade undisturbed closed forest habitats is probably limited. The restrictions in its use as an exotic are more likely to be related to its limitations as a plantation species rather than its potential as a weed.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Boraginales
  •                         Family: Boraginaceae
  •                             Genus: Cordia
  •                                 Species: Cordia alliodora

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The modern classification of the pantropical genus Cordia is based on the treatment originally devised by Johnston (1930) and more recently revised by Miller (1985). C. alliodora has often been cited as C. alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Cham., an attribution first given by De Candolle in 1845. Oken, however, made the combination at an earlier date and should be cited as the authority (Johnston, 1950). C. alliodora is the most widespread species in the genus, and at the southern extremes of its distribution there is some taxonomic confusion with the closely related C. trichotoma (Vell.) Arrab. ex Steud., which is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay (Johnston, 1930; Johnston, 1935; Gibbs and Taroda, 1983). Some confusion also exists over the terms 'laurel negro' and 'laurel blanco' used as common names in a number of countries. It would appear that the terms are used in two different circumstances (Boshier and Lamb, 1997). In some cases they are used to distinguish two different species of standing trees, due to a difference in heartwood colour and/or bark colour between the species, as is the case in Honduras - laurel negro (C. megalantha, C. gerascanthus L.) and laurel blanco (C. alliodora) and Ecuador - laurel negro (Cordia sp.) and laurel blanco (C. alliodora). In other cases, the terms refer to a difference in colour of the heartwood of sawn timber of C. alliodora. The greatest confusion appears to occur where the terms are used in both ways in the same region, e.g. in Costa Rica. As such this may explain why there are counter-claims as to the possibility of distinguishing the two types as standing trees (see Record, 1927; and McCarter, 1988).

Description

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General

In lowland humid tropical regions, C. alliodora is generally a tall, thin tree, with a narrow, open crown, and shows minimal forking, forming a single stem to 15-20 m. Trees may reach a height of over 40 m, and a diameter at breast height (dbh) of over 1 m at overmaturity, although diameters of around 50 cm are more usual for mature trees (Somarriba and Beer, 1987). In seasonally dry deciduous and semi-deciduous forest, it is smaller and more poorly formed, rarely reaching more than 20 m in height and 30 cm dbh. Although often reported in the literature as a straight tree (e.g. Greaves and McCarter, 1990; Stead, 1980), natural regeneration shows great variation in form (Boshier and Mesén, 1987). The tree is self-pruned even in open conditions (often up to 50-60% of total height), although the degree of pruning is variable. Some trees have pronounced nodal swellings where branches have been shed and incomplete healing of such areas may represent suitable sites for entry of pathogens. Buttressing is generally limited to larger trees and is not pronounced, although it may extend 1-1.5 m up the bole on shallow soils. Within the genus, C. alliodora is unique in having swollen domatia at the tips of shoot nodes (Miller, 1985), which, in the natural range, are usually occupied by ants (Wheeler, 1942). The domatia are absent from a few populations in Colombia (Boshier and Lamb, 1997), and almost absent in the West Indies and southern South America (Johnson and Morales, 1972), although such individuals in southern South America are almost invariably C. trichotoma.

Bark: light grey/brown in colour and smooth, although in drier regions it tends to be more fissured. In many cases the light colour is enhanced by the presence of lichens on the bark, such that from a distance the tree has a striking white trunk.

Foliage

Simple, petiolate, alternate, up to 5 cm in width and 18 cm in length, short- or long-pointed at the base. Upper leaf surface may have scattered hairs when young, but is smooth at maturity, lower leaf surface covered with stellate hairs. Petioles: 1-2 cm long, slender, sparsely hairy. (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; Miller, 1985).

Inflorescences, flowers and fruits

Hermaphrodite, unspecialized, about one centimetre in length, occurring in large conspicuous auxiliary or terminal inflorescences (10-30 cm across, 50-3000 flowers). Each flower has four ovules, although generally only one embryo develops per fruit (Miller, 1985). The flowers usually have five anthers, are heterostylous (i.e. style length is variable; Boshier, 1995) and produce nectar. The cylindrical grey green calyx does not grow after pollination, but contains a thin and fibrous walled fruit that ripens in six to seven weeks. The mature fruit is shed approximately ten weeks after pollination, complete with calyx and corolla, the latter acting as a parachute aiding dispersal by wind. Although the term seed is used principally in the literature to describe the unit of dispersal, technically it is a fruit.

Phenology

Mature trees are deciduous, even in aseasonal climates, losing their leaves for a one to two month period following seed production. C. alliodora produces many flowers daily, for as many as eight to nine weeks for one tree, such that a large canopy tree may produce as many as ten million flowers and one million seed in a year (Boshier and Lamb, 1997). C. alliodora may commence flowering when only two years old (Greaves and McCarter, 1990), but trees usually reach sexual maturity at approximately four to five years of age and do not produce large quantities of seed until later (Boshier and Lamb, 1997). The flowering season varies throughout the natural distribution. Conflicting reports in the literature are due to small sample sizes used in studies and variation between geographically close populations. In Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, flowering generally starts about December and may extend through to April, whereas at the southern end of its range, flowering starts in January. Flowering appears to be more prolonged in aseasonal climates; e.g. under such conditions in Colombia it occurs throughout the year. Length of flowering and abundance of flowers varies both between individuals of the same population, in any given year, and between years for any given individual. In wet climates, a proportion of trees do not flower in any given year, while in seasonally dry climates all trees of a sexually mature size flower every year.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Africa

TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017

North America

MexicoPresent Natural

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresent Natural
BarbadosPresent Natural
BelizePresent Natural
British Virgin IslandsPresent Natural
Costa RicaPresentPlanted, Natural
CubaPresent Natural
DominicaPresent Natural
Dominican RepublicPresent Natural
El SalvadorPresent Natural
GuadeloupePresent Natural
GuatemalaPresent Natural
HaitiPresent Natural
HondurasPresent Natural
MartiniquePresent Natural
MontserratPresent Natural
NicaraguaPresent Natural
PanamaPresent Natural
Puerto RicoPresent Natural
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent Natural
Trinidad and TobagoPresent Natural
United States Virgin IslandsPresent Natural

South America

ArgentinaPresent Natural
BoliviaPresent Natural
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresent Natural
-AlagoasPresent Natural
-AmapaPresent Natural
-AmazonasPresent Natural
-BahiaPresent Natural
-CearaPresent Natural
-Espirito SantoPresent Natural
-GoiasPresent Natural
-MaranhaoPresent Natural
-Mato GrossoPresent Natural
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent Natural
-Minas GeraisPresent Natural
-ParaPresent Natural
-ParaibaPresent Natural
-PernambucoPresent Natural
-PiauiPresent Natural
-Rio Grande do NortePresent Natural
-RondoniaPresent Natural
-SergipePresent Natural
ColombiaPresentPlanted, Natural
EcuadorPresentPlanted, Natural
French GuianaPresent Natural
GuyanaPresent Natural
ParaguayPresent Natural
PeruPresent Natural
SurinamePresent Natural
VenezuelaPresent Natural

Oceania

TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive Haysom and Murphy, 2003
VanuatuPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Haysom and Murphy, 2003

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
27 -25 0 2000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 20 33
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 14 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall6006000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Wood Products

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Boats

Charcoal

Containers

  • Crates
  • Pallets

Furniture

Railway sleepers

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Roundwood structures

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Flooring
  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling

Veneers

Wood-based materials

  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Turnery
  • Wood carvings

References

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Barajas Morales J, Echenique Manrique R, 1976. Anatomy of Mexican woods. 1. 12 species from Jalisco and Veracruz. [Anatomia de maderas de Mexico. No. 1: 12 especies de Jalisco y Veracruz.] Biotica, 1(2):29-70; 12 pl.; 13 ref

Barrance A[Barrance AJ], 1989. Phellinus noxius in Vanuatu management considerations. Forest Research Report (Vanuatu), No. 1A/89:14 pp

Beer JW, 1992. Production and competitive effects of the shade trees Cordia alliodora and Erythrina poeppigiana in an agroforestry system with Coffea arabica. Unpublished D. Phil. thesis, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 233 pp

Beer JW, 1993. Cordia alliodora and Erythrina poeppigiana spacing effects on the amount of E. poeppigiana pollarding residues in a coffee plantation. In: Westley SB, Powell M (eds.). Erythrina in the New and Old Worlds. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, Hawaii; 102-120

Beer JW, 1995. Efectos de los arboles de sombra sobre la sostenibilidad de un cafetal. Boletin PROMECAFE, 68:13-18

Beer JW, Muschler R, Kass D, Somarriba EJ, 1998. Shade management in coffee and cacao plantations. Agroforestry Systems, in press

Boshier DH, 1995. Incompatibility in Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), a neotropical tree. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73(3):445-456

Boshier DH, Chase MR, Bawa KS, 1995. Population genetics of Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), a neotropical tree. 2. Mating system. American Journal of Botany, 82(4):476-483; 60 ref

Boshier DH, Henson M, 1997. Genetic variation. In: Boshier DH, Lamb AT (eds.). Cordia alliodora: genetics and tree improvement. Tropical Forestry Papers. No. 36. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford, UK; 39-65

Boshier DH, Lamb AT, 1997. Cordia alliodora: genetics and tree improvement. Tropical Forestry Paper. No. 36. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford, UK; 96 pp

Boshier DH, Mesén JF, 1987. Availability of seed of Cordia alliodora (R & P) for progeny testing. Forest Genetic Resources Information, No. 15. Food and Agricultural Organisation, Rome, Italy; 30-35; 10 ref

Boshier, DH, Beer JW, 1997. Genetic improvement of Cordia alliodora. In: Boshier DH, Lamb AT (eds.). Cordia alliodora: genetics and tree improvement. Tropical Forestry Paper, No. 36. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford, UK; 83-89

Briton-Jones HR, 1930. Observations on cypre (Cordia alliodora L.) in Trinidad with special reference to canker disease (Puccinia cordiae (P. Henn.) Arthur), Part I - Mycological. Memoirs of the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. Mycological Series, No. 3:1-7

Brown WH, 1979. Cordia, American light. In Central America and the Caribbean. Timbers of the World, No. 9. Timber Research and Development Association, High Wycombe, UK; 22-23

Burns RM, Honkala BH, 1990. Silvics of North America: 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington DC, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Also available on the Internet (individual authors noted) at: < target="_blank">http://willow.ncfes.umn.edu/fth_pub.htm>

Chase MR, Boshier DH, Bawa KS, 1995. Population genetics of Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), a neotropical tree. 1. Genetic variation in natural populations. American Journal of Botany, 82(4):468-475; 32 ref

Combe J, Budowski G, 1979. Classification of agro-forestry techniques. Costa Rica, Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza: Workshop. Agro-forestry systems in Latin America, 17-47; 50 ref

Córdoba R, Serrano R, Canessa E, 1990. Estudio tecnológico de dos especies forestales de plantación: Melina (Gmelina arborea) y Laurel (Cordia alliodora). Depto. de Ingenería en Maderas, Instituto Tecnogico de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. 60 pp

Crane E, Walker P, Day R, 1984. Directory of important world honey sources. International Bee Research Organization (IBRA). pp. 384

Dickinson FE, Hess RW, Wangaard FF-[1];-Wangaard, FF[2], 1949. [1] Properties and uses of tropical woods. I. [2] Tropical woods research at Yale University. [1] Trop. Woods. [2] Office of Naval Research, USA. [1] 1949. [2] [1949]. [1] No. 95, (1-145 + 10 photos + 1 gph.). 117 refs. [2] pp. 19. 5 refs

Echandi R, 1958. Las Loranthaceae que parasitan el laurel (Cordia alliodora (R. & P.) Cham.), de Costa Rica y sus posibilidades de control con inyecciones de herbicidas al tronco del huesped. Thesis, Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agr¡colas, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 40 pp

Edmondson CH, 1949. Reaction of woods from South America and Caribbean areas to marine borers in Hawaiian waters. Carib. For. 10 (1), (37-42). [Bishop Museum, Honolulu.]

Estrada RD, Sere C, Luzuriaga H, 1988. Agrosilvopastoral systems of production in the lower selva of Napo Province, Ecuador. [Sistemas de produccion agrosilvopastoriles en la selva baja de la provincia del Napo, Ecuador.] 1988, xxxi + 108 pp.; 16 ref

Fallas E, 1991. Estudios basicos sobre la biologia y combate de Dictyla montropidia (Hemiptera, Tingidae). Tesis Ing. For. Instituto Tecnogico de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. 42pp

Fanshawe DB, 1961. Freijo (Cordia alliodora). In: Forest products of British Guiana. Part I. Principal timbers (3rd edition). Forestry Bulletin (New Series), Forest Department, British Guiana No. 1:28

Faridah Hanum I, Maesen LJG van der, eds. , 1997. Plant resources of southeast Asia. No. 11. Auxillary plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys

FEDECAFE, 1992. El nogal cafetero: sombrio rentable para café. FEDECAFE, Bogata, Colombia. 14pp

Fenton R, Roper RE, Watt GR, 1977. Lowland tropical hardwoods. An annotated bibliography of selected species with plantation potential. Wellington, New Zealand: External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Forest Conservation and Tree Improvement Project, 1998. Laurel. Manual de extensión. CONSEFORH, Comayagua, Honduras

Gibbs PE, Taroda N, 1983. Heterostyly in the Cordia alliodora - C. trichotoma complex in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botanica, 6:1-10

Greaves A (ed.), McCarter PS, 1988. Cordia alliodora 1922-1987. Annotated Bibliography CAB International, No. F40, iii + 28 pp.; Published in collaboration with Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI); 198 ref.

Greaves A, McCarter PS, 1990. Cordia alliodora: a promising tree for tropical agroforestry. Tropical Forestry Papers, No. 22, vii + 37 pp.; 5 pp. of ref

Guimaraes EF, Barroso GM, et-al, 1971. Flora of Guanabara [Brazil]. Flacourtiaceae-Olacaceae-Boraginaceae. Rodriguesia 26 (38), (143-246). [Pt, 71 ref.]

Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. The status of invasiveness of forest tree species outside their natural habitat: a global review and discussion paper. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/J1583E/J1583E00.htm

Hernandez GOR, 1995. Rendimiento y analisis financiero del sistema agroforestal café (Coffea arabica cv Caturra) con poro (Erythrina poeppigiana) bajo diferentes densidades de laurel (Cordia alliodora). Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis. Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigatión y Enseñanza, Turrialba (CATIE), Costa Rica. 70 pp

Hernandez GOR, Beer JW, Platen HH von, 1997. Rendimiento de café (Coffea arabica cv Caturra), produccion de madera (Cordia alliodora) y analisis financiero de plantaciones con diferentes densidades de sombra en Costa Rica. Agroforestería en las Américas, 4(13):8-13

Howe JP, 1974. Relationship of climate to the specific gravity of four Costa Rican hardwoods. Wood and Fiber, 5(4):347-352; 11 ref

Hughes CE, 1996. Bruchid host records in Leucaena. LEUCNET News, 3:14-16

Ivory MH, 1992. Evaluation of management practices and control measures on Brown Root-rot incidence in Cordia alliodora and alternative species. Unpublished Final Report to the Overseas Development Administration on project R4591. Oxford Forestry Institute, UK. 31 pp

Johnson P, Morales R, 1972. A review of Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken. Turrialba, 22(2):210-220; 52 ref

Johnston IM, 1930. Studies in the Boraginaceae, VIII. Observations on the species of Cordia and Tournefortia known from Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, 92:3-95

Johnston IM, 1935. Studies in the Boraginaceae, X. The Boraginaceae of Northeastern South America. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 16:1-64

Johnston IM, 1950. Studies in the Boraginaceae. XIX. J. Arnold Arbor., 31(2):172-187

Kapp G, Beer JW, 1998. Species and site selection for timber production on farm boundaries in the humid lowlands of Costa Rica and Panama. Agroforestry Systems, in press

Kapp GB, Beer J, 1995. A comparison of agrisilvicultural systems with plantation forestry in the Atlantic lowlands of Cost Rica. Part I. Tree survival and growth. Agroforestry Systems, 32(3):207-223; 24 ref

Lamprecht H, 1955. Cordia alliodora. [Pardillo.] Bol. Ingen. for. Univ. Los Andes 2 (7), (41 + 1 photo)

Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers

Liegel LH, Stead JW, 1990. Cordia alliodora (Ruiz. & Pav.) Oken: Laurel, capa prieto. In: Burns RM, Honkala BH, eds, Silvics of North America. Agricultural Handbook, No. 654, Volume 2. Washington DC, USA: USDA

Little EL, Jr, Wadsworth FH, 1964. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agriculture Handbook U.S. Department of Agriculture No. 249. Washington DC, USA: USDA

Longwood FR, 1961. Puerto Rican woods. Their machining, seasoning and related characteristics. Agricultural Handbook No. 205. Washington DC, USA: USDA

Lujan R, 1994. Manejo y crecimiento de linderos: resultados de ensayos del proyecto agroforestal Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigatión y Enseñanza/GTZ, de tres especies maderables en la zona de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Serie Tecnica. Informe tecnico No. 224. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 93p

Marshall RC, 1930. Notes on the silviculture of the more important trees of Trinidad and Tobago with information on the formation of woods. Port of Spain, Trinidad; Forest Department. 50 pp

Marshall RC, 1939. Silviculture of the Trees of Trinidad and Tobago British West Indies. London, UK: Oxford University Press

McCarter PS, 1988. The evaluation of the inter-national provenance trials of Cordia alliodora and Cedrela spp. Unpublished final report to Overseas Development Administration on project R4101. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford, UK. 32 pp

Mesén JF, 1997. Vegetative propagation. In: Boshier DH, Lamb AT (eds). Cordia alliodora: genetics and tree improvement. Tropical Forestry Papers no. 36. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford, UK. pp. 73-81

Miller JS, 1985. Systematics of the genus Cordia (Boraginaceae) in Mexico and Central America. Ph. D. Thesis. St. Louis University, St Louis, Missouri. 686 pp

Mulzac HC, 1979. Beekeeping in Belize. In: Beekeeping in rural development. London, UK; Commonwealth Secretariat. pp. 157-163

Neyra Roman MG, 1981. Forestry investigation and industrial development project. Colombia. Silviculture. [Investigaciones y desarrollo industrial forestal. Colombia. Silvicultura.] FAO Report, No. FO:COL-74-005 Documento de Trabajo No. 32, xiii + 220 pp. + 3 maps; 8 ref

Opler PA, Baker HG, Frankie GW, 1975. Reproductive biology of some Costa Rican Cordia species (Boraginaceae). Biotropica, 7(4):234-247; 35 ref

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