Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens
(bacterial tan spot)

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Datasheet

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial tan spot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial tan spot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •     Class: Actinobacteria
  •       Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •         Order: Actinomycetales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf necrosis in mung bean: spots progressively dry out and become bleached to a tan colour.
TitleSymptoms on mung bean
CaptionLeaf necrosis in mung bean: spots progressively dry out and become bleached to a tan colour.
CopyrightA. Diatloff
Leaf necrosis in mung bean: spots progressively dry out and become bleached to a tan colour.
Symptoms on mung beanLeaf necrosis in mung bean: spots progressively dry out and become bleached to a tan colour.A. Diatloff
Floret blighting in mung bean.
TitleSymptoms on mung bean floret
CaptionFloret blighting in mung bean.
CopyrightA. Diatloff
Floret blighting in mung bean.
Symptoms on mung bean floretFloret blighting in mung bean.A. Diatloff
C. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens invading vascular elements, causing blockage of xylem vessel in mung bean.
TitleVascular blockage by bacteria - SEM
CaptionC. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens invading vascular elements, causing blockage of xylem vessel in mung bean.
CopyrightA. Diatloff
C. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens invading vascular elements, causing blockage of xylem vessel in mung bean.
Vascular blockage by bacteria - SEMC. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens invading vascular elements, causing blockage of xylem vessel in mung bean.A. Diatloff
Wilt of part of a diseased bean plant.
TitleSymptoms on bean plant
CaptionWilt of part of a diseased bean plant.
CopyrightA. Diatloff
Wilt of part of a diseased bean plant.
Symptoms on bean plantWilt of part of a diseased bean plant.A. Diatloff

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Collins & Jones 1983

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial tan spot

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium flaccumfaciens Hedges 1922
  • Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Dowson 1942
  • Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens ssp. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Dowson 1942
  • Phytomonas flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Pseudomonas flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Stevens 1925

International Common Names

  • English: bean wilt
  • Spanish: bacteriosis vascular de la judía; marchitez bacteriana de la judía; marchitez bacteriana de la soja
  • French: bactériose vasculaire du haricot; flétrissement bactérien du haricot

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bakterielle Welke: Bohne

EPPO code

  • CORBFL (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv.flaccumfa

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •         Class: Actinobacteria
  •             Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •                 Order: Actinomycetales
  •                     Suborder: Micrococcineae
  •                         Family: Microbacteriaceae
  •                             Genus: Curtobacterium
  •                                 Species: Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IranPresentOsdaghi et al., 2015
TurkeyAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

Africa

KenyaEradicated1968CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaRestricted distributionBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentHsieh et al., 2002; Huang et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentHuang et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentPatrick, 1954; Conners, 1967; Hagborg, 1974; Dunleavy, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentCFIA, personal communication, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentHuang et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
MexicoAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distribution1920CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentDunleavy et al., 1983; Bradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentHayward and Waterston, 1965; Bradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentDunleavy et al., 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentHayward and Waterston, 1965; Bradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaPresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentDunleavy et al., 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentVenette et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentHayward and Waterston, 1965; Bradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentHayward and Waterston, 1965; Bradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

South America

BrazilRestricted distribution1995CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentUesugi et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentEPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentSoares et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentTheodoro and Maringoni, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresent1995CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentTorres et al., 1982; Bradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentArcila and Trujillo, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
FranceAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
GermanyTransient: actionable, under eradicationCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
GreeceAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Greece (mainland)Absent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2010
HungaryAbsent, formerly present1982CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
ItalyAbsent, confirmed by surveyCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014
PolandAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
PortugalAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
RomaniaRestricted distributionGutenmaher et al., 1974; Bradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distribution1976CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastRestricted distributionNikitina and Shchelko, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
SpainEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Spain (mainland)Present, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2010
SwitzerlandAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
UkraineAbsent, formerly presentNikitina and Shchelko, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Absent, formerly presentArsenijevic, 1982; Bradbury, 1986

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / ooze
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Seeds / discolorations
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal red necrosis
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / seedling blight

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Wood

References

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Arcila MJ; Trujillo G, 1990. Identification of phytopathogenic bacteria in cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata). Agromonía Tropical (Maracay), 40(4-6):193-203; 16 ref.

Arsenijevic M, 1982. Bacteriosis of bean and string bean. Zastita Bilja, 33(3):347-356; [12 fig.].

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2010. Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 370 (Edition 6).

Calzolari A; Cavanni P; Ponti I, 1987. Bacterial and fungus diseases of soyabean. Informatore Fitopatologico, 37(3):7-12; 8 ref.

Calzolari A; Tomesani M; Mazzucchi U, 1987. Comparison of immunofluorescence staining and indirect isolation for the detection of Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens in bean seeds. Bulletin OEPP, 17(2):157-163; 16 ref.

Carlson RR; Vidaver AK, 1982. Taxonomy of Corynebacterium plant pathogens, including a new pathogen of wheat, based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cellular proteins. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 32(3):315-326

Chavarro CA; López GCA; Lenné JM, 1985. Characteristics and pathogenicity of Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens (Hedges) Dows., causal agent of bacterial wilt of Zornia spp. and its effect on the yield of Z. glabra CIAT 7847 and Phaseolus vulgaris.. Acta Agronomica, 35(2):64-79; [9 tab.]; 10 ref.

CMI, 1987. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map No. 220. Edition 4. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Collins MD; Jones D, 1983. Reclassification of Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens, Corynebacterium betae, Corynebacterium oortii and Corynebacterium poinsettiae in the genus Curtobacterium, as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens comb. nov. Journal of General Microbiology, 129:3545-3548.

Conde BD; Diatloff A, 1991. Diseases of mungbeans. Mungbean: the Australian experience. Proceedings of the first Australian mungbean workshop, Brisbane, 1991 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, CSIRO, 73-77

Conners IL, 1967. An annotated index of plant diseases in Canada and fungi recorded on plants in Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Publ. 1251.

Diatloff A; Wong WC; Wood BA, 1993. Non-destructive methods of detecting Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens in mungbean seeds. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 16(5):269-273

Dunleavy J, 1986. Incidence of bacterial tan spot in soybean seed from cooperative regional soybean tests. In: Agronomy Abstracts. 1986 Annual Meetings of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America. New Orleans, Louisiana, Nov. 30-Dec. 5, 1986. New Orleans, USA: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America.

Dunleavy JM, 1978. Bacterial tan spot, a new disease of soybeans. Phytopathology News, 12:200-201.

Dunleavy JM, 1983. Bacterial tan spot, a new foliar disease of soybeans. Crop Science, 23(3):473-476; [2 fig., 4 tab.]; 14 ref.

Dunleavy JM, 1984. Yield losses in soybeans caused by bacterial tan spot. Plant Disease, 68(9):774-776; [2 tab.]; 3 ref.

Dunleavy JM, 1986. Effect of temperature on systemic spread of tan spot of soybean from seed to unifoliate leaves. Phytopathology 76:1079.

Dunleavy JM, 1988. Bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases affecting soybean leaves. In: Wyllie TD, Scott DH, eds. Soybean Diseases of the North Central Region. St. Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 40-46.

Dunleavy JM; Keck JW; Gobelman KS; Reddy S; Thompson MM, 1983. Prevalence of Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens as incitant of bacterial tan spot of soybean in Iowa. Plant Disease, 67(11):1277-1279; [2 fig., 1 tab.]; 12 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1982. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 5. EPPO Bulletin, 12(1). unnumbered.

Gutenmaher P; Phan Dinh Phang (Phang-Ding-Phung; Phang-Dinh-Phung), 1974. Agronomic characteristics of some new French bean lines obtained at the Baneasa Experimental Station. Lucrari Stiintifice, Institutul Agronomic "Nicolp Balcescu", A, 17:20-23

Hagborg WAF, 1974. Notes on bacterial diseases of cereal and some other crop plants. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 54(4):129-136.

Hayward AC; Waterston JM, 1965. Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens. CMI Description of pathogenic fungi and bacteria, No. 43. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Hedges F, 1922. A bacterial wilt of bean caused by Bacterium flaccumfaciens nov. sp. Science, 55:433-434.

Hedges F, 1926. Bacterial wilt of beans (Bacterium flaccumfaciens Hedges), including comparisons with Bacterium phaseoli. Phytopathology, 16:1-22.

Hsieh TF; Huang HC; Erickson RS; Yanke LJ; Mundel HH, 2002. First report of bacterial wilt of common bean caused by Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens in western Canada. Plant Disease, 86(11):1275.

Huang HC; Erickson RS; Hsieh TF, 2004. Bacterial wilt and pink seed of dry bean in western Canada in 2002. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 84:88-89.

Klements Z, 1958. Bacterial diseases of bean in Hungary.1. Pathogenic agents and their economic significance. Novenytermeles, 7:351-370.

Kobayashi T, 1990. Impact of seed-borne pathogens on quarantine in Japan. Seed Science and Technology, 18(2):427-433; 15 ref.

Lelliott RA; Stead DE, 1987. Methods for the diagnosis of bacterial diseases of plants. In: Preece TF, ed. Methods in Plant Pathology. London, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, l:280-102.

Matusik H, 1983. Bacterial diseases of legumes. Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji RoSlin, No.150:155-158; 12 ref.

Nikitina KV; Shchelko LG, 1981. Bacterial diseases of soybean and initial lines for breeding. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo, 3:14-16

Osdaghi E; Taghavi SM; Hamedi J; Mohammadipanah F, 2015. Bacterial wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) caused by Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):23. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-014-0151-0/fulltext.html

Patrick ZA, 1954. The antibiotic activity of soil microorganisms as related to bacterial plant pathogens. Canadian Journal of Botany, 32:705-735.

Radkov P; Nedelchev N, 1975. Phytopathological assessment of hybrid cultivars of bean in relation to bacteriosis. Rastitelnozashchitna Nauka, No.1/2:55-63

Schuster ML; Coyne DP, 1981. Biology, epidemiology, genetics and breeding for resistance to bacterial pathogens of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Horticultural Reviews, 3:28-58; [2 tab.]; many ref.

Schuster ML; Sayre RM, 1967. A coryneform bacterium induces purple coloured seed and leaf hypertrophy of Phaseolus vulgaris and other Leguminosae. Phytopathology, 57:1064-1067.

Schuster ML; Smith CC, 1983. Surveillance and seed transmission of three strains of Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Fitopatologia Brasileira, 8(1):87-91; 17 ref.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Soares RM; Fantinato GGP; Darben LM; Marcelino-Guimarães FC; Seixas CDS; Carneiro GEde S, 2013. First report of Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens on soybean in Brazil. Tropical Plant Pathology, 38(5):452-454. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/tpp/v38n5/12.pdf

Soares RM; Maringoni AC, 2002. The ability of acibenzolar-S-methyl treatment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to induce resistance to bacterial wilt, caused by Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens was tested. Summa-Phytopathologica, 28(1):41-45.

Tegli S; Sereni A; Surico G, 2002. PCR-based assay for the detection of Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens in bean seeds. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 35(4):331-337; 26 ref.

Theodoro Gde F; Maringoni AC, 2006. Curtobacterium bean wilt: description and control. (Murcha-de-curtobacterium do feijoeiro: descrição e controle.) Agropecuária Catarinense, 19(1):62-64. http://www.epagri.rct-sc.br

Torres G C; Lenne JM; Victoria JI, 1982. Bacterial wilt of Zornia spp. caused by Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens. In: Lozano JC, ed. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical Cali Colombia, 74-79

Tripepi RR; George MW, 1991. Identification of bacteria infecting seedlings of mung bean used in rooting bioassays. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 116(1):80-84

Uesugi CH; Freitas MA; Menezes JR, 2003. First occurrence of Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens on bean in the State of Goias and Federal District of Brazil. (Ocorrência de Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens em feijoeiro, em Goiás e no Distrito Federal.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 28(3):324. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v28n3/a19v28n3.pdf

Venette JR; Lamppa RS; Gross PL, 1995. First report of bean bacterial wilt caused by Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. flaccumfaciens in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 79(9):966

Wood BA; Easdown WJ, 1990. A new bacterial disease of mung bean and cowpea for Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 19(1):16-21

Yerkes WD; Crispin AM, 1956. Bean diseases of importance in Mexico in 1955. Plant Disease Reporter, 40:222-223.

Zaumeyer WJ; Thomas HR, 1957. A monographic study of bean diseases and methods for their control. United States Department of Agricultural Technical Bulletin, 868.

Distribution Maps

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