Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rhodococcus fascians
(fasciation: leafy gall)

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Datasheet

Rhodococcus fascians (fasciation: leafy gall)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhodococcus fascians
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fasciation: leafy gall
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •     Class: Actinobacteria
  •       Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •         Order: Actinomycetales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleLeafy gall on tobacco
Caption
CopyrightDanny Vereecke
Leafy gall on tobaccoDanny Vereecke

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhodococcus fascians (Tilford 1936) Goodfellow 1984

Preferred Common Name

  • fasciation: leafy gall

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium fascians (Tilford) Lacey 1939
  • Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford 1936) Dowson 1942
  • Phytomonas fascians Tilford 1936
  • Pseudobacterium fascians (Tilford) Krasil'nikov 1949
  • Rhodococcus rubropertinctus

International Common Names

  • English: cauliflower disease: ornamentals; cauliflower disease: strawberry; fasciation: strawberry; leafy gall: tobacco; witches'-broom syndrome
  • Spanish: arrepollado de las hojas; arrepollado de las hojas (fresa); fasciacion; fasciacion (fresa)
  • French: balai de sorciÞre; fasciation des plantes ornementales; frisee du fraisier; gale foliaire des plantes ornementales; galles feuillÚes; maladie du chou-fleur du fraisier; tumeurs bourgeonante

Local Common Names

  • Belgium: bebladerde gallen; woekerziekte
  • Germany: Bakterien-: Zierspargel Krebs; Blattgallen: Begonie; Blõttrige Gallen; Verbaenderung: Erdbeere; Verbaenderung: Zierpflanzen
  • Netherlands: bebladerde gallen; woekerziekte

EPPO code

  • CORBFA (Rhodococcus fascians)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •         Class: Actinobacteria
  •             Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •                 Order: Actinomycetales
  •                     Suborder: Corynebacterineae
  •                         Family: Nocardiaceae
  •                             Genus: Rhodococcus
  •                                 Species: Rhodococcus fascians

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentEl-Wakil (1976); EPPO (2020)

Asia

IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentPrasad et al. (1997); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentBradbury (1986); Rahimian and Zarei (1998); EPPO (2020)
IsraelAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2006)

Europe

BelgiumPresentVantomme et al. (1982); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
CzechoslovakiaPresentZacha (1979); Ulrychova and Petru (1983); Bradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (2006)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadBuchwald (1942); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
EstoniaPresent, WidespreadVikalne (1962); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, WidespreadFAIVRE-AMIOT (1967); Digat (1977); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadPape (1938); Stark (1955); Brother (1979); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)First reported: 193*
HungaryPresent, WidespreadBalazs and Sziraki (1974); Sule (1976); Bradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentScortichini (1988); Gullino and Garibaldi (1997); EPPO (2020)
LatviaPresent, WidespreadVikalne (1962); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
NetherlandsPresent, LocalizedMiller et al. (1980); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NorwayPresentElo et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)
PolandPresentGóra et al. (2009)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedDrozdovskii et al. (1971); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Oksent'-yan, 1976
-Western SiberiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
SlovakiaPresentZacha and Moravcik (1975); EPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadLindfors (1938); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentLebedeva et al. (1972); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadLacey (1936); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-ManitobaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-SaskatchewanPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentCórdoba-Sellés et al. (2009)
MexicoPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentOduro (1975); Cooksey and Keim (1983); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-ColoradoPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentMUNCIE and PATEL (1930); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentBROWN (1927); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-MontanaPresentEPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentBROWN (1927); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentTILFORD (1936); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-OklahomaPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-OregonPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentBAKER (1950); Bradbury (1986); Nikolaeva et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentBROWN (1927); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentBROWN (1927); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPennycook et al. (1989); Eason et al. (1995); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentPennycook et al. (1989); Hu et al. (1992); Eason et al. (1995); EPPO (2020)

South America

ColombiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal forms
Stems / fasciation
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / witches broom

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) Pest or symptoms usually invisible

References

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Angiboust A, 1975. Comment s'effectue la production de géranium, indemnes de bactérioses, a la Société Horticole de Philiomel. Pépiniéristes Horticulture MaraechFres, 154:51-58.

Baker KF, 1950. Bacterial fasciation disease of ornamental plants in California. Plant Disease Reporter, 34:121-126.

Balazs E; Sziraki I, 1974. Altered levels of indoleacetic acid and cytokinin in geranium stems infected with Corynebacterium fascians. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 9(3/4):387-292

Bell KS; Philp JC; Aw DWJ; Christofi N, 1998. The genus Rhodococcus. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 85(2):195-210; 7 ref.

Boylen CW; Mulks MH, 1978. The survival of coryneform bacteria during periods of prolonged nutrient starvation. Journal of General Microbiology, 105(2):323-334

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brother H, 1979. On the role of bacterial pathogens in Pelargonium. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 33(11):225-228

Brown NA, 1927. Sweet pea fasciation, a form of crowngall. Phytopathology, 17:29-30.

Buchwald NF, 1942. Knippebaktriose (Bacterium fascians (Tilford)Lacey). En for Danmark ny bakteriesygdom. Gartnertidende, 58:421-423.

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Rhodococcus fascians. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 426. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Canovas M; Garcia-Cases L; Iborra JL, 1998. Limonin consumption at acidic pH values and absence of aeration by Rhodococcus fascians cells in batch and immobilized continuous systems. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 22(2):111-116.

Canovas M; Garcia-Cases L; Iborra JL, 1998. pH Influence on the consumption of limonin species by Rhodococcus fascians cells. Biotechnology Letters, 18(4):423-428.

Carrillo GC; Vázquez Mdel RG, 1992. Comparative study of siderophore-like activity of Rhizobium phaseoli and Pseudomonas fluorescens.. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 15(5):579-590; 36 ref.

Chun J; Kang SO; Hah YC; Goodfellow M, 1996. Phylogeny of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 17:205-213.

Conn HJ, 1947. A protest against the misuse of the generic name Corynebacterium. Journal of Bacteriology, 54:10.

Cooksey DA; Keim R, 1983. Association of Corynebacterium fascians with fasciation disease of Impatiens and Hebe in California. Plant Disease, 67(12):1389.

Córdoba-Sellés MC; Martínez-Culebras P; García D; Jordá C, 2009. Rhodococcus fascians: causal agent of false broomrape of tobacco in Guatemala. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91(4, Supplement):S4.112. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Crespi M; Messens E; Caplan AB; Montagu M van; Desomer J, 1992. Fasciation induction by the phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians depends upon a linear plasmid encoding a cytokinin synthase gene. EMBO Journal, 11(3):795-804

Crespi M; Vereecke D; Temmerman W; Montagu M van; Desomer J, 1994. The fas operon of Rhodococcus fascians encodes new genes required for efficient fasciation of host plants. Journal of Bacteriology, 176(9):2492-2501

Digat B, 1977. New aspects of the control of geranium bacterial diseases. Pepinieristes Horticulteurs Maraichers, No.174:17-23

Digat B, 1978. Health selection of Pelargonium and Begonia X Elatior "Rieger" cuttings with respect to bacterioses, using immunofluorescence. Annales de Phytopathologie, 10(1):67-78

Dowson WJ, 1942. On the generic name of the Gram-positive bacterial plant pathogens. Transactions British Mycological Society, 25:311-314.

Drozdovskii EM; Blinov BA; Yakovleva VA, 1971. Study of Aphelenchoides-Corynebacterium complex. Sbornik Nauchnykh Rabot Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Zonal'nogo Instituta Sadovodstva Nechernozemnoi Polosy (Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo nechernozemnoi polosy) Moscow, USSR, 3:393-402

Eason JR; Jameson PE; Bannister P, 1995. Virulence assessment of Rhodococcus fascians strains on pea cultivars. Plant Pathology, 44(1):141-147

Eason JR; Morris RO; Jameson PE, 1996. The relationship between virulence and cytokinin production by Rhodococcus fascians (Tilford 1936) Goodfellow 1984. Plant Pathology, 45(2):323-331; 32 ref.

El-Goorani MA; Abo-El-Dahab MK; El-Wakil MA, 1977. In vivo and in vitro interactions between Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Corynebacterium fascians. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(11):963-967

Elo S; Maunuksela L; Salkinoja-Salonen M; Smolander A; Haahtela K, 2000. Humus bacteria of Norway spruce stands: plant growth promoting properties and birch, red fescue and alder colonizing capacity. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 31(2):143-152; 46 ref.

El-Wakil MA, 1976. Hypertrophic bacterial plant diseases of certain crops in Egypt. PhD Thesis. Alexandria, Egypt: Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University.

Embley TM; Stackebrandt E, 1994. The molecular phylogeny and systematics of the actinomycetes. Annual Review of Microbiology, 48:257-289.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Faivre-Amiot A, 1967. Quelques observations sur la presence de Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford) Dowson dans les cultures maraicheres et florales en France. Phytiatrie-Phytopharmacie, 16:165-176.

Goodey T, 1935. The pathology and aetiology of plant lesions caused by parasite nematodes. Imperial Bureau of Agricultural Parasitology Publication.

Goodfellow M, 1984. Reclassification of Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford) Dowson in the genus Rhodococcus, as Rhodococcus fascians comb. nov. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 5(2):225-229; 40 ref.

Goodfellow M, 1992. The family Nocardiaceae. In: Balows A, Trnper HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer KH, eds. The Prokaryotes. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1188-1213.

Góra A; Mackiewicz B; Krawczyk P; Golec M; Skórska C; Sitkowska J; Cholewa G; Larsson L; Jarosz M; Wójcik-Fatla A; Dutkiewicz J, 2009. Occupational exposure to organic dust, microorganisms, endotoxin and peptidoglycan among plants processing workers in Poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 16(1):143-150. http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/16143.pdf

Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 1997. Garofano: le malattie di origine batterica. Colture Protette, 26(11):79-81.

Harris-Baldwin A; Gudmestad NC, 1996. Identification of phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria using the biolog automated microbial identification system. Plant Disease, 80(8):874-878; 26 ref.

Hoof HAVan; Huttinga H; Knaap A; Maas Geesteranus HP; Mosch WHM; Raay-Wieringa DGJde, 1979. Tumours of begonia and some other ornamentals, induced by Corynebacterium fascians. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 85(3):87-98

Hu FP; Fletcher MJ; Watson DRW; Clark RG; Young JM, 1992. Identification of Rhodococcus fascians (Tilford 1936) Goodfellow 1984. Journal of Phytopathology, 136(1):37-45

Humanes L; Lopez-Ruiz A; Merino MT; Roldan JM; Diez J, 1997. Purification and characterization of limonate dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus fascians. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63(9):3385-3389.

Iborra JL; Manjon A; Cßnovas M; Lozano P; Martinez C, 1994. Continuous limonin degradation by immobilized Rhodococcus fascians cells in K-carrageenan. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 41(4):487-493.

Jacobs SE; Dadd AH, 1959. Antibacterial substances in seed coats and their role in the fasciation of sweet peas by Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford) Dowson. Annals of Applied Biology, 47(4):666-672.

Jacobs SE; Mohanti, 1951. Studies in bacterioses, XXVII. Factors influencing infection by Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford) Dowson. Annals of Applied Biology, 38(1):237-245.

Jones GE; Catton FW; Bateson M, 1977. Root galls on raspberry. Plant Pathology, 26(2):96-97

Klatte S; Jahnke K-D; Kroppenstedt RM; Rainey F; Stackebrandt E, 1994. Rhodococcus luteus is a later subjective synonym of Rhodococcus fascians. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 44(4):627-630.

Kobayashi T, 1990. Impact of seed-borne pathogens on quarantine in Japan. Seed Science and Technology, 18(2):427-433; 15 ref.

Kruyer CJ; Boontjes J, 1982. Hot water treatment of Lilium longiflorum bulbs. Bloembollencultuur, 93(25):622-623

Lacey MS, 1936. Further studies on a bacterium causing fasciation of sweet peas. Annals of Applied Biology, 23:743-751.

Lacey MS, 1939. Studies on a bacterium associated with leafy galls, fasciations and 'cauliflower' disease of various plants. Part III. Further isolations, inoculation experiments and cultural studies. Annals of Applied Biology, 26:262-278.

Lacey MS, 1961. The development of filter-passing organisms in Corynebacterium fascians cultures. Annals of Applied Biology, 49:634-644.

Lebedeva ME; Metlitskii OZ; Drozdovskii EM, 1972. Chrysanthemum eelworm as a parasite of strawberry in southern Ukraine. Kul'tura zemlyaniki v SSSR. Doklady simpoziuma, (28 iyunya - 1 iyulya 1971). "Kolos". Moscow USSR, 446-450

Lindfors T, 1938. En f÷r Sverige ny bakterios. VSxtskyddsnotiser, Statens VSxtskyddsanstalt, Stockholm, 6:81-82.

Macnaughton SJ; Booth T; Embley TM; O'Donnell AG, 1996. Physical stabilization and confocal microscopy of bacteria on roots using 16S rRNA targeted, fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotide probes. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 26(3):279-285.

Marwaha SS; Puri M; Bhullar MK; Kothari RM, 1994. Optimization of parameters for hydrolysid of limonin for debittering of kinnow mandarin juice by Rhodococcus fascians. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 16(8):723-725.

Matveeva MA; Yakubovich TN, 1972. Methods of detecting Aphelenchoides fragariae-Corynebacterium fascians infection in strawberry fields. Materialy Nauchnykh Issledovanii Chlenov Vsesoyuznogo Obshchestva Gel'mintologov, 1970-1971, No. 24, 103-109.

Miller HJ; Janse JD; Kamerman W; Muller PJ, 1980. Recent observations on leafy gall in Liliaceae and some other families. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 86(2):55-68

Miller ML; Putnam ML, 2010. Sorbaria sorbifolia \is a new host for Rhodococcus fascians. Plant Health Progress, No.April:PHP-2010-0408-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=8685&photo=4889

Misra A; Jha V; Jha S; Sharma BP, 1982. Seed borne bacterial tumors in tobacco. In: Lozano JC, ed. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical Cali Colombia, 210-212

Mohanty U, 1951. Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford)Dowson; its morphology, physiology, nutrition and taxonomic position. Transactions British Mycological Society, 34:23-34.

Muller PJ, 1979. Ziekten bij bloementeelt lelies. Vakblad voor Bloemisterij, 40:33-35.

Muncie JH; Patel MK, 1930. Fasciation of sweet peas. American Journal of Botany, 17:218-230.

Nikolaeva EV; Kang SC; Olson TN; Kim SH, 2012. Real-time PCR detection of Rhodococcus fascians and discovery of new plants associated with R. fascians in Pennsylvania. Plant Health Progress, No.February:PHP-2012-0227-02-RS. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=10193&photo=5578

Oduro KA, 1975. Factors affecting epidemiology of bacterial fasciation of Chrysanthemum maximum. Phytopathology, 65(6):719-721

Oksent'yan UG, 1976. The pathogens of diseases of soybean in the Khaborovsk region. Tr. VNII Mikrobiol. Sredstv Zashchity Rast. i Bakter. Preparatov, No.4:127-131

Pape H, 1938. Eine noch wenig beachtete Krankheit der Zierpflanzen. Blumen und Pflanzen Bau ver. Gartenwelt, 42:384-386.

Pennycook SR; Young JM; Fletcher MJ, 1989. Bacterial plant diseases recorded in New Zealand. In: Pennycook SR, ed. Plant Diseases Recorded in New Zealand, vol. 3. Auckland, New Zealand: Plant Disease Division DSIR, 23-83.

Prasad NS; Rao AR; Rao GM, 1997. Fasciation in Casuarina equisetifolia. Indian Forester, 123(8):773-774; 1 ref.

Putnam ML; Miller M, 2006. Pathogenic isolates of Rhodococcus fascians from new hosts in the United States. Plant Disease, 90(4):526.

Rahimian H; Zarei A, 1998. Characteristics of Rhodococcus fascians strains isolated from Petunia and Geranium in Tehran and Semnan provinces. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 34(3/4):197-212 (Pe), 60-62 (En); 16 ref.

Rodriguez de Ramirez E; Fucikovsky Zal L, 1978. Bacterial fasciation of Chrysanthemum maximum. Avances en la Ensenanza y la Investigacion (Mexico), 1977-78.

Roussaux J, 1965. Etude préliminaire des modifications induites chez le pois express Alaska par le Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford) Dowson. Revue Générale de Botanie, 72:21-53.

Roussaux J, 1975. Stimulation and inhibition reactions in plants infected by Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford) Dowson. Marcellia, 38(4):305-310

Schaad NW; Jones JB; Chun W, 2001. Laboratory guide for the identification of plant pathogenic bacteria. Laboratory guide for the identification of plant pathogenic bacteria, Ed. 3:xii + 373 pp.; 24 ref.

Scolari GL; Vescovo M; Caravaggi L; Bottazzi V, 1993. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus strains. Annali di Microbiologia ed Enzimologia, 43(1):85-90; 10 ref.

Scortichini M, 1988. Bacterial diseases of Lilium species. Informatore Fitopatologico, 38(9):23-27

Scortichini M; Todisco C; Varvaro L, 1990. Specificity of antisera against Rhodococcus fascians (Tilford) Goodfellow in indirect immunofluorescence. Journal of Phytopathology, 129(4):327-332

Skerman VBD; McGowan V; Sneath PHA, 1980. Approved lists of bacterial names. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 30(1):255-420

Smith EF, 1922. Fasciation and prolepsis due to crown gall. Phytopathology, 12:265-270.

Stange RRJr; Jeffares D; Young C; Scott DB; Eason JR; Jameson PE, 1996. PCR amplification of the fas-1 gene for the detection of virulent strains of Rhodococcus fascians. Plant Pathology, 45(3):407-417; 32 ref.

Stark C, 1955. BlSttrige gallen an Lorraine-Begonien. Mitt. Biol. Bundesannst. BerlinDahlem, 115:223-225.

Starr MP, 1949. The nutrition of phytopathogenic bacteria III. The Gram-positive phytopathogenic Corynebacterium species. Journal of Bacteriology, 57:253-258.

Sule S, 1976. Bacterial fasciation of Pelargonium hortorum in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 11(3/4):223-230

Takayama M; Kawai A; Suetsugu T, 1985. Studies on the diagnosis of foreign bacterial diseases of quarantine significance. V. A selective medium for isolation and detection of Corynebacterium fascians.. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No.21:33-40; 13 ref.

Temmerman W; Vereecke D; Dreesen R; Montagu Mvan; Holsters M; Goethals K, 2000. Leafy gall formation is controlled by fasR, an AraC-type regulatory gene in Rhodococcus fascians. Journal of Bacteriology, 182(20):5832-5840; 69 ref.

Thimann KV; Sachs T, 1966. The role of cytokinins in the 'fasciation' disease caused by Corynebacterium fascians. American Journal of Botany, 53:731-739.

Tilford PE, 1936. Fasciation of sweet peas caused by Phytomonas fascians n. sp. Journal of Agricultural Research, 53:383-394.

Ulrychova M; Petru E, 1983. Isolation of some strains of Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford) Dowson in Czechoslovakia. Biologia Plantarum, 25(1):63-67

Vantomme R; Elia S; Swings J; Ley Jde, 1982. Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford 1936) Dowson 1942, the causal agent of leafy gall on lily crops in Belgium. Parasitica, 38(4):183-192; [4 fig., 3 tab.]; 21 ref.

Vazquez Garcia LM, 1984. Fasciation of daisy caused by Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford) Dowson. Thesis.

Vereecke D; Burssens S; Simon-Mateo C; Inze D; Montagu M van; Goethals K; Jaziri M, 2000. The Rhodococcus fascians-plant interaction: morphological traits and biotechnological applications. Planta, 210(2):241-251; 37 ref.

Vikalne M, 1962. The study of Corynebacterium fascians in the Latvian SSR. Sborn. Dokl. Nauchn. Konf. Zashch. Rast. Tartu., 1960:33-40.

Werbrouck S; Goethals K; Montagu Mvan; Debergh P, 1999. Surprising micropropagation tools. Plant biotechnology and in vitro biology in the 21st century. Proceedings of the IXth International Congress of the International Association of Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology, Jerusalem, Israel, 14-19 June 1998., 667-672; [^italic~Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture Vol. 36^roman~]; 15 ref.

Zacha V, 1979. Corynebacterium fascians (Tilf.) Dows. as parasite on cauliflower. Ochrana Rostlin, 15(4):305

Zacha V; Moravcik E, 1975. Bacterial fasciation of gladiolus. Ochrana Rostlin, 11(2):163-164

Zutra D; Cohen J; Gera A; Loebenstein G, 1994. Association of Rhodococcus (Corynebacterium) fascians with the stunting-fasciation syndrome of carnation in Israel. Acta Horticulturae, No. 377:319-323; 8 ref.

Distribution References

BAKER K F, 1950. Bacterial fasciation disease of ornamental plants in California. Plant Disease Reporter. 34 (5), 121-125 pp.

Balazs E, Sziraki I, 1974. Altered levels of indoleacetic acid and cytokinin in geranium stems infected with Corynebacterium fascians. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 9 (3/4), 387-292.

Bradbury J F, 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. xviii + 332pp.

Brother H, 1979. On the role of bacterial pathogens in Pelargonium. (Zur Rolle bacterieller Krankheitserreger an Pelargonien.). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR. 33 (11), 225-228.

BROWN NELLIE A, 1927. Sweet Pea fasciation, a form of crowngall. Phytopathology. 17 (1), 29-30 pp.

Buchwald N F, 1942. [English title not available]. (Knippebaktriose (Bacterium fascians (Tilford) Lacey). En for Danmark ny bakteriesygdom.). Gartner Tidende. 421-423.

CABI, EPPO, 2006. Rhodococcus fascians. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 426 (Edition 4).

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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