Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Conyza sumatrensis
(tall fleabane)

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Datasheet

Conyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Conyza sumatrensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tall fleabane
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. sumatrensis is a mainly annual herbaceous weed which spreads by producing high numbers of wind-dispersed seeds. It prefers undisturbed sites and is a particular problem in low-tillage systems such as orchards and plantations, but also in some agri...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Infestation, showing growth form.
TitleInfestation
CaptionInfestation, showing growth form.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Infestation, showing growth form.
InfestationInfestation, showing growth form.©Sheldon Navie
Flowering plant of C. sumatrensis.
TitleFlowering plant
CaptionFlowering plant of C. sumatrensis.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Flowering plant of C. sumatrensis.
Flowering plantFlowering plant of C. sumatrensis.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Mature seed heads.
TitleSeed heads
CaptionMature seed heads.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Mature seed heads.
Seed headsMature seed heads.©Sheldon Navie
Mature and immature seed heads.
TitleSeed heads
CaptionMature and immature seed heads.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Mature and immature seed heads.
Seed headsMature and immature seed heads.©Sheldon Navie
Comparison between Conyza sumatrensis (arrowed) seed heads and C. bonariensis.
TitleComparison
CaptionComparison between Conyza sumatrensis (arrowed) seed heads and C. bonariensis.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Comparison between Conyza sumatrensis (arrowed) seed heads and C. bonariensis.
ComparisonComparison between Conyza sumatrensis (arrowed) seed heads and C. bonariensis.©Sheldon Navie
Comparison between Conyza sumatrensis foliage (arrowed) and C. bonariensis.
TitleComparison
CaptionComparison between Conyza sumatrensis foliage (arrowed) and C. bonariensis.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Comparison between Conyza sumatrensis foliage (arrowed) and C. bonariensis.
ComparisonComparison between Conyza sumatrensis foliage (arrowed) and C. bonariensis.©Sheldon Navie

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker

Preferred Common Name

  • tall fleabane

Other Scientific Names

  • Conyza albida Willd. ex Sprengel
  • Conyza floribunda (H.B. & K.)
  • Coyza bonariensis var. microcephala (Cabrera) Cabrera
  • Erigeron floribundus (Sch. Bip.)
  • Erigeron sumatrensis Retz. (1789)

International Common Names

  • English: broad-leaved fleabane; fleabane; Guernsey fleabane
  • French: erigeron blanc

Local Common Names

  • Japan: ooarechinogiku
  • Peru: pichana

EPPO code

  • ERIFL (Erigeron floribundus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page C. sumatrensis is a mainly annual herbaceous weed which spreads by producing high numbers of wind-dispersed seeds. It prefers undisturbed sites and is a particular problem in low-tillage systems such as orchards and plantations, but also in some agricultural crops. It may be controlled by tillage at a suitable growth stage, but otherwise, it has developed resistance to many herbicides in a large number of countries. It has been introduced internationally as a seed contaminant and there is a risk of further similar introductions to countries where it is not yet established. It is less widespread that either C. bonariensis or C. canadensis but is observed to be spreading, for example in northern Europe. It could become a problem invasive species in protected areas, but may be controlled naturally as it is an early- to mid-successional species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Conyza
  •                                 Species: Conyza sumatrensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The specific names 'sumatrensis' and 'floribunda' have unfortunately been widely and persistently confused. Although Conyza floribunda (H. B. & K.) (=Erigeron floribundus) has been listed as a weed in many parts of the world, it is the type more strictly known as C. sumatrensis (= E. sumatrensis) which is almost certainly more widespread. Conyza floribunda Kunth is considered a separate species, though confusion between it and both C. bonariensis (see the datasheet on C. bonariensis) and C. sumatrensis evidently remains.

In addition, Michael (1977) points out that the name C. sumatrensis is not supported by a type specimen, and should be abandoned in favour of C. albida. However, McClintock and Marshall (1988) suggest this is not fully valid either and have designated a neotype to support the name C. sumatrensis. On this latter basis, C. sumatrensis is now generally accepted (e.g. Missouri Botanical Garden, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004) and is the name retained for the purposes of this datasheet. The distribution map provided with this datasheet includes records based on both names, floribunda(us) and sumatrensis and may not therefore be a completely reliable indication of the distribution of C. sumatrensis in the stricter sense, but it is probable that most records do correspond to that species. C. altissima may be a valid synonym (USDA-ARS, 2004) though this requires further confirmation in the light of the confusing taxonomy within the genus. See Similarities to Other Species for the characters that distinguish C. sumatrensis from true C. floribunda and C. bonariensis. It has been suggested that C. sumatrensis might be a hybrid between C. sumatrensis and C. canadensis, but Thebaud and Abbott (1995) show quite conclusively that this is not so, and neither the hexaploid C. sumatrensis (2n=54), nor C. floribunda (uncertain polyploidy) has any close relationship with the diploid C. canadensis (2n=18).

Description

Top of page An erect annual or short-lived perennial, up to 3 m tall, usually about 1-1.5 m. For full description and illustration see Kostermans et al. (1987), Reutelingsperger (2000).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Biennial
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page In spite of its name, C. sumatrensis originates in sub-tropical South America rather than Indonesia. As noted under Taxonomy and Nomenclature, there has been confusion between S. sumatrensis and the closely related C. floribunda and some records on the distribution map may belong to the latter. Even so the distribution map is likely to be far from complete.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
BhutanPresentIntroducedParker, 1992
ChinaPresentLiu et al., 2012
IndonesiaWidespreadIntroducedMichael, 1977; Kostermans et al., 1987
-JavaPresentIntroducedKostermans et al., 1987
JapanPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedItoh et al., 1992
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedItoh et al., 1992
PhilippinesWidespreadIntroducedMichael, 1977; Holm et al., 1979
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979

Africa

BotswanaPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986
CameroonPresentIntroducedAdams, 1963
CongoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2004
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedAdams, 1963; Holm et al., 1979
GabonPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2004
GhanaWidespreadIntroducedAdams, 1963; Holm et al., 1979
GuineaPresentIntroducedAdams, 1963
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedAdams, 1963
KenyaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
MadagascarPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2004
NamibiaPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986
NigeriaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedAdams, 1963
South AfricaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentSiverio et al., 2011
SwazilandPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986
UgandaWidespreadIntroducedLind and Tallantire, 1971
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2004
BoliviaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2004
BrazilPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2004
GuyanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2004
ParaguayPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2004
UruguayPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2004
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2004

Europe

BulgariaPresentEPPO, 2014
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive Thebaud and Abbott, 1995; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentBaliousis, 2014; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentIntroducedPliszko, 2016
RomaniaPresentIntroducedAnastasiu and Memedemin, 2012; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive Carretero, 1989
UKPresentIntroduced Invasive Wurzell, 1988
Yugoslavia (former)PresentIntroduced Invasive Arsenovic et al., 1988

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedRogers, 2000
FijiPresentIntroducedParham, 1958; Holm et al., 1979
New ZealandPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedHenty and Pritchard, 1975

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page Kostermans et al. (1987) note that it was found for the first time in Java, Indonesia in 1860. Michael (1977) indicates that C. albida (=C. sumatrensis) is now widespread in southeastern Asia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Records in Flora Europaea (Cronquist, 1976) are unfortunately confused, but Thebaud and Abbott (1995) indicate that C. sumatrensis is now widespread throughout western Europe and around the Mediterranean basin (quoting Jovet and de Vilmorin, 1975; Guillerm et al., 1990), while C. floribunda has only recently begun to spread in western France and northern Spain.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page There is a risk of accidental introduction of C. sumatrensis, and this, along with its more limited range in comparison with other Conyza species, means that the phytosanitary risk is relatively high as compared with other members of the genus. This is compounded with the polyploid nature of the species and the risks of hybridization with existing species in an area, possibly leading to more invasive types. Certain quarantine measures may ensure that it does not spread into specified areas within a country or region, such as protected areas. Being a weed of mainly undisturbed ground, the potential risks to such sites may be considerable.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
turfgrassesOther

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

C. sumatrensis is a hexaploid species (2n=54), differing in ploidy level from the diploid C. canadensis and other polyploid species in the genus, indicating that it may have arisen from a hybridization event. Thebaud and Abbot (1996) noted that it was probably a allopolyploid (rather than an autopolyploid), possibly confirming this hypothesis.

Physiology and Phenology

Not known to differ markedly from C. bonariensis. See also ecological aspects of C. canadensis, which have been well studied, and Thebaud et al. (1996) note comparisons between the the latter species and C. sumatrensis as exotic invaders in Mediterranean ecosystems.

Reproductive Biology

Not known to differ markedly from C. bonariensis.

Environmental Requirements

Not known to differ markedly from C. bonariensis.

Associations

Invasions by other Conyza species have been studied in detail, such as C. bonariensis in the Mediterranean (Prieur-Richard et al., 2002; see the datasheet on C. bonariensis), and C. canadensis (e.g. Escarré et al., 1998; see datasheet on C. canadensis). In Japan, C. sumatrensis was noted as dominant in two-year-old fields, being able to grow as shade-tolerant rosettes under the canopy of other annuals, and being gradually succeeded by perennial grasses in later years (Mineta et al., 1997). Thebaud et al. (1996) observed, however, differences between the species, with C. canadensis colonizing immediately, and C. sumatrensis being an early- to mid-successional species.

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow
  • sodic

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Phoma macrostoma Pathogen Liu et al., 2012

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

C. sumatrensis is principally a wind-dispersed species; it has light seed accompanied by a pappus which aids flight.

Vector Transmission

No information is available on the possibility of spread by animals, but if it occurs, it is likely to be of onlyminor significance in comparison to wind dispersal.

Agricultural Practices

Mowing along roadsides, especially during seed production, is also likely to increase spread. Also, late tillage or other practices at such inappropriate times will also facilitate seed dispersal.

Accidental Introduction

Seed of several Conyza species now widely present as weeds outside of their native ranges were probably introduced to most of their introduced ranges accidentally as contaminants in cotton, cereals or forage grains/seed. Also a weed in nurseries, Conyza spp. may be spread as seed present in the soil in pots or other planting containers that accompany nursery stock, either as ornamentals or for establishing forest plantations (see the datasheets on C. bonariensis and C. canadensis). The spread of Conyza spp., along with numerous other weeds in central European forests, was thought to have been assisted by seeds in tree containers, and thus, presence in soil must be considered as a potential pathway.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds in potting compost Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page Specific impacts from competition in annual and perennial crops have not been assessed in economic terms. See also the datasheets on C. bonariensis and C. canadensis for more information. C. sumatrensis is a known host for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Spain (Jordá et al., 2001) and Turnip mosaic virus in Zimbabwe (Chivasa et al., 2002).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page C. sumatrensis is a source for an essential oil (Machado et al., 1995), which is noted to have antimicrobial and antifungal effects (Deans et al., 1992) and thus possible pharmaceutical uses.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page C. sumatrensis differs from C. bonariensis mainly in its taller, more robust growth and broader serrate leaves, usually at least 1 cm wide. The flowering heads are slightly smaller than those of C. bonariensis and the pappus has a dirtier, brownish colour. The key provided by Jauzein (1988) indicates that the inflorescence is narrower in outline than that of C. bonariensis, and secondary branches do not exceed the primary. See also Reuetlingsperger (2000) for a key differentiating the main species.

C. floribunda differs mainly in being less vigorous, usually less than 1 m high, the foliage and flower heads being relatively glabrous and the leaves being somewhat more deeply toothed. Thebaud and Abbott (1995) provide further detailed comparison.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Cultural Control

Noting the requirement for light for the germination of seed of Conyza spp., mulching is likely to be an effective means of control. A greenhouse experiment showed that the use of forestry plantation residues did indeed reduce the germination of C. sumatrensis seeds, with medium-grade residues proving more effective than either coarse or fine grades (Schumann et al., 1995). Also, flooding in paddy fields had a marked effect in reducing C. sumatrensis populations, in contrast to the effects caused by no-tillage or even mulching (Mineta et al., 1997).

Chemical Control

Kostermans et al. (1987) indicate susceptibility of seedlings to 2,4-D and MCPA. See also the datasheets on C. bonariensis and C. canadensis for more information. Resistance of C. sumatrensis to paraquat is reported from Japan (Yamasue et al., 1992), Malaysia (Itoh et al., 1992) and from South-East Asia in general (Itoh, 1994).

References

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Adams CD, 1963. Compositae. In: Hepper FN, ed. Flora of West Tropical Africa Second Edition. London, UK: Crown Agents. 225-297.

Anastasiu P; Memedemin D, 2012. Conyza sumatrensis: a new alien plant in Romania. Botanica Serbica, 36(1):37-40. http://botanicaserbica.bio.bg.ac.rs/arhiva/pdf/2012_36_1_551_full.pdf

Arsenovic M; Zivanovic M; Pekez M, 1988. Results of testing some new herbicides for weed control on railway tracks in Vojvodina. Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 17(1-2):133-138.

Baliousis E, 2014. Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 71(2):275-285. http://www.journals.cup.org/action/displayJournal?jid=EJB

Carretero JL, 1989. The alien weed flora of the Valencian community (Spain). Proceedings of the 4th EWRS symposium on weed problems in Mediterranean climates. Vol. 2. Problems of weed control in fruit, horticultural crops and rice, 113-124.

Chivasa S; Ekpo EJA; Hicks RGT, 2002. New hosts of Turnip mosaic virus in Zimbabwe. Plant Pathology, 51(3):386; 4 ref.

Cronquist A, 1976. Conyza Less. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Volume 4, Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Deans SG; Svoboda KP; Gundidza M; Brechany EY, 1992. Essential oil profiles of several temperate and tropical aromatic plants: their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Acta Horticulturae, No. 306:229-232; 4 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EscarrT J; Debussche M; Imbert E; Lepart J; ThTbaud C, 1998. Life history traits of three exotic invasive Compositae: Conyza canadensis, Conyza sumatrensis and Crepis sancta. Comptes-rendus 6e^grave~me Symposium Me^acute~diterrane^acute~en EWRS, Montpellier, France, 13-15 Mai 1998., 11-17; 28 ref.

Guillerm JL; Floc'h E le; Maillet J; Boulet C, 1990. The invading weeds within the Mediterranean Basin. Biological invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin Dordrecht, Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers, 61-84.

Henty EE; Pritchard GH, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their Control. Lp, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bulletin No.7.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Itoh K, 1994. Weed ecology and its control in south-east tropical countries. Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 38(4):369-373

Itoh K; Azmi M; Ahmad A, 1992. Paraquat resistance in Solanum nigrum, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Amaranthus lividus and Conyza sumatrensis in Malaysia. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress. Melbourne, Australia; Weed Science Society of Victoria, 2:224-228

Jauzein P, 1988. Three unrecognized weeds of the French flora. VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'écologie et la Systématique des Mauvaises Herbes., Vol. 1:199-208; 7 ref.

Jordá C; Font I; Martfnez P; Juarez M; Ortega A; Lacasa A, 2001. Current status and new natural hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Spain. Plant Disease, 85(4):445; 2 ref.

Jovet P; Vilmorin R de, 1975. Conyza. In: Coste H, ed. Flore Descriptive et Illustree de la France, 3eme Supplement. Paris, France: Librairie Scientifique et Technique Albert Blanchard, 187-192.

Kang BH; Shim SI, 2002. Overall status of naturalized plants in Korea. Korean Journal of Weed Science, 22:207-226.

Kooij MS; Bredenkamp GJ; Theron GK, 1990. The vegetation in the deep sandy soils of the A land type in the north western Orange Free State, South Africa. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 31(3):235-243.

Kostermans AJGH; Wirjahardja S; Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565

Lind EM; Tallantire AC, 1971. Some Flowering Plants of Uganda. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.

Liu J; Luo HD; Tan WZ; Hu L, 2012. First report of a leaf spot on Conyza sumatrensis caused by Phoma macrostoma in China. Plant Disease, 96(1):148. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Machado SMF; Militao JSLT; Facundo VA; Ribeiro A; Morais SM; Alencar JW; Braz Filho R, 1995. Essential oil of Conyza sumatrensis (Retz) Walk. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 7(1):83-84.

McClintock D; Marshall JB, 1988. On Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker and certain hybrids in the genus. Watsonia, 17:1172-1173.

Michael PW, 1977. Some weedy species of Amaranthus (amaranths) and Conyza/Erigeron (fleabanes) naturalized in the Asian-Pacific region. Proceedings of the 6th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Indonesia. Volume 1, 87-95.

Mineta T; Hidaka K; Enomoto T; Oki Y, 1997. Changes in weed communities in direct-seeded paddy fields under Astragalus sinicus L. living mulch and no-tillage cultivation during three years. Journal of Weed Science and Technology, 42(2):88-96; 15 ref.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2004. VAScular Tropicos database. Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri, USA. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.

Ohtsuka T, 1999. Early stages of secondary succession on abandoned cropland in north-east Borneo Island. Ecological Research, 14(3):281-290; 32 ref.

Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35. Suava, Fiji: Government Press.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp.

Pliszko A, 2016. Erigeron sumatrensis (Asteraceae), casual alien new to the Polish flora. Botanica Lithuanica, 22(2):182-184. https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/botlit.2016.22.issue-2/botlit-2016-0020/botlit-2016-0020.xml?format=INT

Prach K; Hadinec J; Michßlek J; Pysek P, 1995. Forest planting as a way of species dispersal. Forest Ecology and Management, 76(1/3):191-195; 13 ref.

Prieur-Richard AH; Lavorel S; Santos Ados; Grigulis K, 2002. Mechanisms of resistance of Mediterranean annual communities to invasion by Conyza bonariensis: effects of native functional composition. Oikos, 99(2):338-346; 37 ref.

Reutelingsperger LFPM, 2000. Conyza sumatrensis: starting to spread into the Netherlands?. Gorteria, 26(5):224-226; 13 ref.

Rogers RW, 2000. Weeds in the germinable seed populations from the Heron Island National Park, Great Barrier Reef. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 109:131-134; 10 ref.

Schumann AW; Little KM; Eccles NS, 1995. Suppression of seed germination and early seedling growth by plantation harvest residues. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 12(4):170-172

Siverio A; Sobrino E; Rodríguez H; Arévalo JR, 2011. Weeds of golf courses on the island of Tenerife. (Malas hierbas de los campos de golf de la isla de Tenerife.) In: Plantas invasoras resistencias a herbicidas y detección de malas hierbas. XIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología, La Laguna, Spain, 22-24 November 2011 [ed. by Arévalo JR, Fernández S, López F, Recasens J, Sobrino E]. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología (Spanish Weed Science Society), 83-86.

Thebaud C; Abbott RJ, 1995. Characterization of invasive Conyza species (Asteraceae) in Europe: quantitative trait and isozyme analysis. American Journal of Botany, 82(3):360-368.

Thebaud C; Finzi AC; Affre L; Debussche M; Escarre J, 1996. Assessing why two introduced Conyza differ in their ability to invade Mediterranean old fields. Ecology, 77(3):791-804.

USDA-ARS, 2004. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Wurzell B, 1988. Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker established in England. Watsonia, 17:145-148.

Yamasue Y; Kamiyama K; Hanioka Y; Kusanagi T, 1992. Paraquat resistance and its inheritance in seed germination of the foliar-resistant biotypes of Erigeron canadensis L. and E. sumatrensis Retz. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 44(1):21-27.

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