Conyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker
Preferred Common Name
- tall fleabane
Other Scientific Names
- Conyza albida Willd. ex Sprengel
- Conyza floribunda (H.B. & K.)
- Coyza bonariensis var. microcephala (Cabrera) Cabrera
- Erigeron floribundus (Sch. Bip.)
- Erigeron sumatrensis Retz. (1789)
International Common Names
- English: broad-leaved fleabane; fleabane; Guernsey fleabane
- French: erigeron blanc
Local Common Names
- Japan: ooarechinogiku
- Peru: pichana
- ERIFL (Erigeron floribundus)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Conyza
- Species: Conyza sumatrensis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
In addition, Michael (1977) points out that the name C. sumatrensis is not supported by a type specimen, and should be abandoned in favour of C. albida. However, McClintock and Marshall (1988) suggest this is not fully valid either and have designated a neotype to support the name C. sumatrensis. On this latter basis, C. sumatrensis is now generally accepted (e.g. Missouri Botanical Garden, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004) and is the name retained for the purposes of this datasheet. The distribution map provided with this datasheet includes records based on both names, floribunda(us) and sumatrensis and may not therefore be a completely reliable indication of the distribution of C. sumatrensis in the stricter sense, but it is probable that most records do correspond to that species. C. altissima may be a valid synonym (USDA-ARS, 2004) though this requires further confirmation in the light of the confusing taxonomy within the genus. See Similarities to Other Species for the characters that distinguish C. sumatrensis from true C. floribunda and C. bonariensis. It has been suggested that C. sumatrensis might be a hybrid between C. sumatrensis and C. canadensis, but Thebaud and Abbott (1995) show quite conclusively that this is not so, and neither the hexaploid C. sumatrensis (2n=54), nor C. floribunda (uncertain polyploidy) has any close relationship with the diploid C. canadensis (2n=18).
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Congo, Republic of the||Present||Introduced|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Introduced|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
C. sumatrensis is a hexaploid species (2n=54), differing in ploidy level from the diploid C. canadensis and other polyploid species in the genus, indicating that it may have arisen from a hybridization event. Thebaud and Abbot (1996) noted that it was probably a allopolyploid (rather than an autopolyploid), possibly confirming this hypothesis.
Physiology and Phenology
Not known to differ markedly from C. bonariensis. See also ecological aspects of C. canadensis, which have been well studied, and Thebaud et al. (1996) note comparisons between the the latter species and C. sumatrensis as exotic invaders in Mediterranean ecosystems.
Not known to differ markedly from C. bonariensis.
Not known to differ markedly from C. bonariensis.
Invasions by other Conyza species have been studied in detail, such as C. bonariensis in the Mediterranean (Prieur-Richard et al., 2002; see the datasheet on C. bonariensis), and C. canadensis (e.g. Escarré et al., 1998; see datasheet on C. canadensis). In Japan, C. sumatrensis was noted as dominant in two-year-old fields, being able to grow as shade-tolerant rosettes under the canopy of other annuals, and being gradually succeeded by perennial grasses in later years (Mineta et al., 1997). Thebaud et al. (1996) observed, however, differences between the species, with C. canadensis colonizing immediately, and C. sumatrensis being an early- to mid-successional species.
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
C. sumatrensis is principally a wind-dispersed species; it has light seed accompanied by a pappus which aids flight.
No information is available on the possibility of spread by animals, but if it occurs, it is likely to be of onlyminor significance in comparison to wind dispersal.
Mowing along roadsides, especially during seed production, is also likely to increase spread. Also, late tillage or other practices at such inappropriate times will also facilitate seed dispersal.
Seed of several Conyza species now widely present as weeds outside of their native ranges were probably introduced to most of their introduced ranges accidentally as contaminants in cotton, cereals or forage grains/seed. Also a weed in nurseries, Conyza spp. may be spread as seed present in the soil in pots or other planting containers that accompany nursery stock, either as ornamentals or for establishing forest plantations (see the datasheets on C. bonariensis and C. canadensis). The spread of Conyza spp., along with numerous other weeds in central European forests, was thought to have been assisted by seeds in tree containers, and thus, presence in soil must be considered as a potential pathway.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Soil, sand and gravel||Seeds in potting compost||Yes|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||weeds/seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||weeds/seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Pest and disease transmission
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
C. floribunda differs mainly in being less vigorous, usually less than 1 m high, the foliage and flower heads being relatively glabrous and the leaves being somewhat more deeply toothed. Thebaud and Abbott (1995) provide further detailed comparison.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
Noting the requirement for light for the germination of seed of Conyza spp., mulching is likely to be an effective means of control. A greenhouse experiment showed that the use of forestry plantation residues did indeed reduce the germination of C. sumatrensis seeds, with medium-grade residues proving more effective than either coarse or fine grades (Schumann et al., 1995). Also, flooding in paddy fields had a marked effect in reducing C. sumatrensis populations, in contrast to the effects caused by no-tillage or even mulching (Mineta et al., 1997).
Kostermans et al. (1987) indicate susceptibility of seedlings to 2,4-D and MCPA. See also the datasheets on C. bonariensis and C. canadensis for more information. Resistance of C. sumatrensis to paraquat is reported from Japan (Yamasue et al., 1992), Malaysia (Itoh et al., 1992) and from South-East Asia in general (Itoh, 1994).
ReferencesTop of page
Adams CD, 1963. Compositae. In: Hepper FN, ed. Flora of West Tropical Africa Second Edition. London, UK: Crown Agents. 225-297.
Baliousis E, 2014. Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 71(2):275-285. http://www.journals.cup.org/action/displayJournal?jid=EJB
Carretero JL, 1989. The alien weed flora of the Valencian community (Spain). Proceedings of the 4th EWRS symposium on weed problems in Mediterranean climates. Vol. 2. Problems of weed control in fruit, horticultural crops and rice, 113-124.
Cronquist A, 1976. Conyza Less. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Volume 4, Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Deans SG; Svoboda KP; Gundidza M; Brechany EY, 1992. Essential oil profiles of several temperate and tropical aromatic plants: their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Acta Horticulturae, No. 306:229-232; 4 ref.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
EscarrT J; Debussche M; Imbert E; Lepart J; ThTbaud C, 1998. Life history traits of three exotic invasive Compositae: Conyza canadensis, Conyza sumatrensis and Crepis sancta. Comptes-rendus 6e^grave~me Symposium Me^acute~diterrane^acute~en EWRS, Montpellier, France, 13-15 Mai 1998., 11-17; 28 ref.
Guillerm JL; Floc'h E le; Maillet J; Boulet C, 1990. The invading weeds within the Mediterranean Basin. Biological invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin Dordrecht, Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers, 61-84.
Itoh K; Azmi M; Ahmad A, 1992. Paraquat resistance in Solanum nigrum, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Amaranthus lividus and Conyza sumatrensis in Malaysia. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress. Melbourne, Australia; Weed Science Society of Victoria, 2:224-228
Jovet P; Vilmorin R de, 1975. Conyza. In: Coste H, ed. Flore Descriptive et Illustree de la France, 3eme Supplement. Paris, France: Librairie Scientifique et Technique Albert Blanchard, 187-192.
Kang BH; Shim SI, 2002. Overall status of naturalized plants in Korea. Korean Journal of Weed Science, 22:207-226.
Kooij MS; Bredenkamp GJ; Theron GK, 1990. The vegetation in the deep sandy soils of the A land type in the north western Orange Free State, South Africa. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 31(3):235-243.
Kostermans AJGH; Wirjahardja S; Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565
Lind EM; Tallantire AC, 1971. Some Flowering Plants of Uganda. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.
Machado SMF; Militao JSLT; Facundo VA; Ribeiro A; Morais SM; Alencar JW; Braz Filho R, 1995. Essential oil of Conyza sumatrensis (Retz) Walk. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 7(1):83-84.
McClintock D; Marshall JB, 1988. On Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker and certain hybrids in the genus. Watsonia, 17:1172-1173.
Michael PW, 1977. Some weedy species of Amaranthus (amaranths) and Conyza/Erigeron (fleabanes) naturalized in the Asian-Pacific region. Proceedings of the 6th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Indonesia. Volume 1, 87-95.
Mineta T; Hidaka K; Enomoto T; Oki Y, 1997. Changes in weed communities in direct-seeded paddy fields under Astragalus sinicus L. living mulch and no-tillage cultivation during three years. Journal of Weed Science and Technology, 42(2):88-96; 15 ref.
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2004. VAScular Tropicos database. Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri, USA. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.
Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35. Suava, Fiji: Government Press.
Pliszko A, 2016. Erigeron sumatrensis (Asteraceae), casual alien new to the Polish flora. Botanica Lithuanica, 22(2):182-184. https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/botlit.2016.22.issue-2/botlit-2016-0020/botlit-2016-0020.xml?format=INT
Prieur-Richard AH; Lavorel S; Santos Ados; Grigulis K, 2002. Mechanisms of resistance of Mediterranean annual communities to invasion by Conyza bonariensis: effects of native functional composition. Oikos, 99(2):338-346; 37 ref.
Siverio A; Sobrino E; Rodríguez H; Arévalo JR, 2011. Weeds of golf courses on the island of Tenerife. (Malas hierbas de los campos de golf de la isla de Tenerife.) In: Plantas invasoras resistencias a herbicidas y detección de malas hierbas. XIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología, La Laguna, Spain, 22-24 November 2011 [ed. by Arévalo JR, Fernández S, López F, Recasens J, Sobrino E]. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología (Spanish Weed Science Society), 83-86.
USDA-ARS, 2004. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.
Wurzell B, 1988. Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker established in England. Watsonia, 17:145-148.
Yamasue Y; Kamiyama K; Hanioka Y; Kusanagi T, 1992. Paraquat resistance and its inheritance in seed germination of the foliar-resistant biotypes of Erigeron canadensis L. and E. sumatrensis Retz. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 44(1):21-27.
Adams CD, 1963. Compositae. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa Second Edition, [ed. by Hepper FN]. London, UK: Crown Agents. 225-297.
Arsenović M, Živanović M, Pekez M, 1988. Results of testing some new herbicides for weed control on railway tracks in Vojvodina. (Efikasnost nekih novih herbicida za suzbijanje biljnog pokrivaca na nekim železničkim prugrama u Vojvodini.). In: Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 17 (1-2) 133-138.
Baliousis E, 2014. Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island. Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 71 (2), 275-285. http://www.journals.cup.org/action/displayJournal?jid=EJB DOI:10.1017/S0960428614000110
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Carretero J L, 1989. The alien weed flora of the Valencian community (Spain). (Flora exotica arvense da la comunidad Valenciana (Spain).). In: Proceedings of the 4th EWRS symposium on weed problems in Mediterranean climates. Vol. 2. Problems of weed control in fruit, horticultural crops and rice. [Proceedings of the 4th EWRS symposium on weed problems in Mediterranean climates. Vol. 2. Problems of weed control in fruit, horticultural crops and rice.], 113-124.
Itoh K, Azmi M, Ahmad A, 1992. Paraquat resistance in Solanum nigrum, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Amaranthus lividus and Conyza sumatrensis in Malaysia. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress. [Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress.], Melbourne, Australia: Weed Science Society of Victoria. 224-228.
Jordá C, Font I, Martínez P, Juarez M, Ortega A, Lacasa A, 2001. Current status and new natural hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Spain. Plant Disease. 85 (4), 445. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.4.445C
Kajita H, 2000. Geographical distribution and species composition of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci-complex (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 35 (1), 155-162. DOI:10.1303/aez.2000.155
Kashina B D, Mabagala R B, Mpunami A A, 2002. Reservoir weed hosts of tomato yellow leaf curl Begomovirus from Tanzania. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 35 (4), 269-278. DOI:10.1080/03235400216134
Kostermans A J G H, Wirjahardja S, Dekker R J, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. In: Weeds of rice in Indonesia. [ed. by Soerjani M, Kostermans AJGH, Tjitrosoepomo G]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka. 24-565.
Lee WonHoon, Kim ChangSeok, Lee KyeongYeoll, Lee GwanSeok, 2016. The JpL species of the Bemisia tabaci complex in Korea: detection by an extensive field survey and analysis of COI sequence variability. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 19 (1), 23-29. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226861515300728
Lind EM, Tallantire AC, 1971. Some Flowering Plants of Uganda., Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.
Liu J, Luo H D, Tan W Z, Hu L, 2012. First report of a leaf spot on Conyza sumatrensis caused by Phoma macrostoma in China. Plant Disease. 96 (1), 148. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0228
Michael PW, 1977. Some weedy species of Amaranthus (amaranths) and Conyza/Erigeron (fleabanes) naturalized in the Asian-Pacific region. [Proceedings of the 6th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Indonesia], 1 87-95.
Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. In: Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35 Suava, Fiji: Government Press.
Pliszko A, 2016. Erigeron sumatrensis (Asteraceae), casual alien new to the Polish flora. Botanica Lithuanica. 22 (2), 182-184. https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/botlit.2016.22.issue-2/botlit-2016-0020/botlit-2016-0020.xml?format=INT
Siverio A, Sobrino E, Rodríguez H, Arévalo J R, 2011. Weeds of golf courses on the island of Tenerife. (Malas hierbas de los campos de golf de la isla de Tenerife.). In: Plantas invasoras resistencias a herbicidas y detección de malas hierbas. XIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología, La Laguna, Spain, 22-24 November 2011. [ed. by Arévalo J R, Fernández S, López F, Recasens J, Sobrino E]. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología (Spanish Weed Science Society). 83-86.
Thébaud C, Abbott R J, 1995. Characterization of invasive Conyza species (Asteraceae) in Europe: quantitative trait and isozyme analysis. American Journal of Botany. 82 (3), 360-368. DOI:10.2307/2445581
USDA-ARS, 2004. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx
Vuković N, Miletić M, Milović M, Jelaska S D, 2014. Grime's CSR strategies of the invasive plants in Croatia. Periodicum Biologorum. 116 (3), 323-329. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=199334
Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.
Wurzell B, 1988. Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker established in England. In: Watsonia, 17 145-148.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/