Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cauliflower mosaic virus
(cauliflower mosaic)

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Datasheet

Cauliflower mosaic virus (cauliflower mosaic)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cauliflower mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cauliflower mosaic
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •     Family: Caulimoviridae
  •       Genus: Caulimovirus
  •         Species: Cauliflower mosaic virus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brussels sprout  leaves with interveinal chlorosis.
TitleSymptoms on Brussels sprout leaves
CaptionBrussels sprout leaves with interveinal chlorosis.
CopyrightHorticulture Research International
Brussels sprout  leaves with interveinal chlorosis.
Symptoms on Brussels sprout leavesBrussels sprout leaves with interveinal chlorosis.Horticulture Research International
Cauliflower - initial symptoms of narrow chlorotic vein banding.
TitleSymptoms on cauliflower leaf
CaptionCauliflower - initial symptoms of narrow chlorotic vein banding.
CopyrightHorticulture Research International
Cauliflower - initial symptoms of narrow chlorotic vein banding.
Symptoms on cauliflower leafCauliflower - initial symptoms of narrow chlorotic vein banding.Horticulture Research International
Cauliflower - late symptoms of interveinal chlorosis.
TitleSymptoms on cauliflower leaf
CaptionCauliflower - late symptoms of interveinal chlorosis.
CopyrightHorticulture Research International
Cauliflower - late symptoms of interveinal chlorosis.
Symptoms on cauliflower leafCauliflower - late symptoms of interveinal chlorosis.Horticulture Research International
Chinese cabbage - systemically infected leaf with chlorotic vein banding.
TitleSymptoms on Chinese cabbage
CaptionChinese cabbage - systemically infected leaf with chlorotic vein banding.
CopyrightAlan A. Brunt
Chinese cabbage - systemically infected leaf with chlorotic vein banding.
Symptoms on Chinese cabbageChinese cabbage - systemically infected leaf with chlorotic vein banding.Alan A. Brunt
Cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus particles.
TitleVirus particles
CaptionCauliflower mosaic caulimovirus particles.
CopyrightAlan A. Brunt
Cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus particles.
Virus particlesCauliflower mosaic caulimovirus particles.Alan A. Brunt
Cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
TitleVirus particles
CaptionCauliflower mosaic caulimovirus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
CopyrightIACR-Rothamsted
Cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
Virus particlesCauliflower mosaic caulimovirus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/IACR-Rothamsted

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cauliflower mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • cauliflower mosaic

Other Scientific Names

  • brassica virus 3
  • broccoli mosaic virus
  • cabbage mosaic virus
  • cabbage virus B
  • cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus

International Common Names

  • English: broccoli mosaic; cabbage mosaic

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Adernscheckung des Rettichs; Blumenkohl Mosaikvirus

English acronym

  • CaMV

EPPO code

  • CAMV00 (Cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •         Family: Caulimoviridae
  •             Genus: Caulimovirus
  •                 Species: Cauliflower mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentElnagar et al. (1982)
Sierra LeonePresentCABI (Undated);
South AfricaPresentCABI (Undated);
TanzaniaPresentCABI (Undated);
ZambiaPresentCABI (Undated);
ZimbabwePresentCABI (Undated);

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Abbasov Vlasov (1974)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated);
-XinjiangPresentWang et al. (1980); Ma et al. (1981)
Hong KongPresentCABI (Undated);
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Gupta (1978)
IranPresentFarzadfar et al. (2008)
IsraelPresentMarco (1985)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: CIE, 1977
-HokkaidoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1970)
TaiwanPresentChen et al. (2000)
TurkeyPresentErkan et al. (1990); Erkan et al. (1991)
UzbekistanPresent, LocalizedŠpak and Novikov (1994)
YemenPresentWalkey et al. (1990)

Europe

BulgariaPresentCABI (Undated);
CzechiaPresentŠpak (1989); Špak (1989a)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated);
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentCABI (Undated);
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: CIE, 1977
DenmarkPresentCABI (Undated);
FrancePresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated);
GermanyPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated);
HungaryPresentHorvath et al. (1980)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated);
LithuaniaPresentZitikaitė et al. (2005)
NetherlandsPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated);
PortugalPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Henriques & Heuriques, 1984
RomaniaPresentCABI (Undated);
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1970)
SpainPresentCABI (Undated);
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated);

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-OntarioPresentCABI (Undated);
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated);
-GeorgiaPresentDemski (1973)
-HawaiiPresentNamba and Sylvester (1981)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentCABI (Undated);
-QueenslandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1970)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1970)
-TasmaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1970)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1970)
New ZealandPresentCABI (Undated);

South America

ArgentinaPresentFeldman et al. (1978)
BrazilPresentZerbini et al. (1993)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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References

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Abbasov NM, 1974. Mosaic of cabbage and cauliflower in Azerbaijan. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, 78-79

Alioto D; Stavolone L; Aloj B, 1994. Serious alterations induced by cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) on Matthiola incana. Informatore Fitopatologico, 44(6):43-46

Al-Kaff N; Covey SN, 1994. Variation in biological properties of cauliflower mosaic virus clones. Journal of General Virology, 75(11):3137-3145

Al-Kaff NS; Covey SN, 1995. Biological diversity of cauliflower mosaic virus isolates expressed in two Brassica species. Plant Pathology, 44(3):516-526

Anon., 1970. Cauliflower mosaic virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases; Map No. 373. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Beier H; Shepherd RJ, 1978. Serologically specific electron microscopy in the quantitative measurement of two isometric viruses. Phytopathology, 68(3):533-538

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 2000. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide., Ed. 2:x + 466 pp.; 39 pp. of ref.

Broadbent L, 1957. Agricultural Research Council Report Series, No. 14. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Brunt AA; Barton RJ; Tremaine JH; Stace-Smith R, 1975. The composition of cauliflower mosaic virus protein. Journal of General Virology, 27(1):101-106

Brunt AA; Crabtree K; Dallwitz MJ; Gibbs AJ; Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp.

Caldwell J; Prentice IW, 1942. A mosaic disease of broccoli. Annals of Applied Biology, 29:366-373.

Caldwell J; Prentice IW, 1942. The spread and effect of broccoli mosaic in the field. Annals of Applied Biology, 29:374-379.

Chalfont RB; Chapman RK, 1962. Transmission of cabbage viruses A and B by the cabbage aphid and green peach aphid. Journal of Economic Entomology, 55:584-590.

Chen TH; Wu SF; Chen TJ; Chen HL, 2000. Occurrence and serodiagnosis of virus diseases of crucifers in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 9(2):39-46.

Cheng RH; Olson NH; Baker TS, 1992. Cauliflower mosaic virus: a 420 subunit (T = 7), multilayer structure. Virology (New York), 186(2):655-668

Daubert SD; Shepherd RJ; Gardner RC, 1983. Insertional mutagenesis of the cauliflower mosaic virus genome. Gene, 25:201-208.

Day MF; Venables DG, 1961. The transmission of cauliflower mosaic virus by aphids. Australian Journal of Biological Science, 14:187-197.

Demski JW, 1973. Identity and prevalence of virus diseases of turnip and mustard in Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:978-981.

Elnagar S; Megahed MM; El-Sheikh MAK, 1982. Aphid-borne virus dieases, associated with cruciferous crops in Egypt. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. 64:17-28

Erkan S; Esiyok D; Eser B, 1991. The preliminary studies as to a virus disease affecting cauliflower and cabbage plants in Turkey. Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 14-15:160-161

Erkan S; Esiyok D; Esser B, 1990. A new viral agent affecting cauliflower and cabbage plants in Turkey. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 19(2):95-97

Farzadfar S; Ahoonmanesh A; Mosahebi GH; Pourrahim R; Golnaraghi AR, 2007. Occurrence and distribution of Cauliflower mosaic virus on cruciferous plants in Iran. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad), 6(1):22-29. http://www.ansinet.org/ppj

Farzadfar S; Mosahebi G; Ahoonmanesh A; Koohihabibi M; Ohshima K; Pourrahim R; Golnaraghi AR, 2008. Distribution and some biological and molecular properties of Cauliflower mosaic virus isolates from cauliflower fields in Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 75(2):5 (En), 1-25 (Pe).

Feldman JM; Vega J; Gracia O, 1978. Studies of weed plants as sources of viruses VI. Mixed infection of broccoli necrotic yellows and cauliflower mosaic viruses on Sisymbrium irio in Argentina. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 93(2):187-190

Fenner F, 1976. Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Second report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Intervirology, 7(1/2):115 pp.

Frank A; Guilley H; Jonard G; Richards KE; Hirth L, 1980. Nucleotide sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA. Cell, 21:285-294.

Gardner RC; Howarth AJ; Hahn P; Brown-Luedi M; Shepherd RJ; Messing J, 1981. The complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of cauliflower mosaic virus by M13mp7 shotgun sequencing. Nucleic Acids Research, 9:2871-2888.

Ghabrial SA; Shepherd RJ, 1980. A sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. Journal of General Virology, 48(2):311-317

Gupta VK, 1977. Properties and insect transmission of cauliflower mosaic virus occurring in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology, 30(1):117-118

Hagen TJ; Taylor DB; Meagher RB, 1982. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay for cauliflower mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 72(2):239-242

Hamlyn BMG, 1955. Aphid transmission of cauliflower mosaic virus on turnips. Plant Pathology, 4:13-16.

Harrison BD; Finch JT; Gibbs AJ; Hollings M; Shepherd RJ; Valenta V; Wetter C, 1971. Sixteen groups of plant viruses. Virology, 45:356-363.

Henriques MIC; Henriques FS, 1984. Cauliflower mosaic and broccoli necrotic yellows viruses in Brassica oleracea L. in Portugal. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 23(1):85-87

Hills GJ; Campbell RN, 1968. Morphology of broccoli necrotic yellows virus. Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 24:134-144.

Horvath J; Besada WH; Juretic N; Mamula D, 1980. Some data on properties of cauliflower mosaic virus in Hungary. Tagungsbericht der Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, 53-60

Hull R, 1980. Structure of the cauliflower mosaic virus genome III. Restriction endonuclease mapping of thirty-three isolates. Virology, 100(1):76-90

Hull R, 1995. Caulimovirus genus. Archives of Virology, Supplement, 10:189-192.

Hull R; Howell SH, 1978. Structure of the cauliflower mosaic virus genome II. Variation in DNA structure and sequence between isolates. Virology, 86(2):482-493

Kennedy JS; Day MF; Eastop VF, 1962. A Conspectus of Aphids as Vectors of Plant Viruses. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.

Kerlan C; Mevel S, 1987. Practical use of ELISA to detect cauliflower mosaic virus in cauliflower. Bulletin OEPP, 17(1):125-130

Kerlan C; Mevel S; Valade C; Quelen Fde, 1989. Epidemiology and incidence of cauliflower mosaic virus in Brittany. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France, 75(9):93-102

Larson RH; Walker JC, 1939. A mosaic disease of cabbage. Journal of Agricultural Research, 59:567-592.

Leisner SM; Turgeon R; Howell SH, 1992. Long distance movement of cauliflower mosaic virus in infected turnip plants. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 5(1):41-47

Lopez-Moya JJ; Cubero J; Lopez-Abella D; Diaz-Ruiz JR, 1992. Detection of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in single aphids by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Journal of Virological Methods, 37(2):129-137

Lung MCY; Pirone TP, 1972. Datura stramonium, a local lesion host for certain isolates of cauliflower mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 62(12):1473-1474

Lung MCY; Pirone TP, 1973. Studies on the reason for differential transmissibility of cauliflower mosaic virus isolates by aphids. Phytopathology, 63(7):910-914

Lung MCY; Pirone TP, 1974. Acquisition factor required for aphid transmission of purified cauliflower mosaic virus. Virology, 60(1):260-264

Ma D; Qiu B; Tian B, 1981. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of cauliflower mosaic virus. Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 21(1):63-67

Marco S, 1985. Turnip mosaic and cauliflower mosaic viruses in Israel. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 24(1/2):211-212

Markham PG; Pinner MS; Raccah B; Hull R, 1987. The acquisition of a caulimovirus by different aphid species: comparison with a potyvirus. Annals of Applied Biology, 111(3):571-587

Martinez-Herrera D; Romero J; Martinez-Zapater JM; Ponz F, 1994. Suitability of Arabidopsis thaliana as a system for the study of plant-virus interactions. Fitopatologia, 29(2):132-136

Melcher U; Gardner CO; Essenberg CO, 1981. Clones of cauliflower mosaic virus identified by molecular hybridisation in turnip leaves. Plant Molecular Biology, 1:63-73.

Mevel S; Kerlan C, 1990. Biological properties of different isolates of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). 1. Solanaceous hosts. Agronomie, 10(9):749-758

Namba R; Sylvester ES, 1981. Transmission of cauliflower mosaic virus by the green peach, turnip, cabbage, and pea aphids. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(5):546-551

Pirone TP; Pound GS; Shepherd RJ, 1961. Properties and serology of cauliflower mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 51:541-546.

Plessis DH du; Wechmar MBvon, 1981. Detection of cauliflower mosaic virus in leaf extracts, protoplasts and aphids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 100(3):270-278

Pound GS, 1946. Control of virus diseases of cabbage seed plants in western Washington by plant bed isolation. Phytopathology, 36:1035-1039.

Pound GS; Walker JC, 1945. Differentiation of certain crucifer viruses by the use of temperature and host immunity reactions. Journal of Agricultural Research, 71:255-278.

Prentice IW, 1950. Broccoli mosaic. Agriculture, 56:577-579.

Ragozzino A, 1974. Two diseases of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) in Campania. Annali della Facolta di Scienze Agrarie dell'Universita di Napoli, in Portici, IV, 8:99-104

Schoelz J; Shepherd RJ; Daubert S, 1986. Region VI of cauliflower mosaic virus encodes a host range determinant. Molecular Cell Biology, 6:2632-2637.

Shalla TA; Shepherd RJ; Petersen LJ, 1980. Comparative cytology of nine isolates of cauliflower mosaic virus. Virology, 102(2):381-388

Shepherd RJ, 1981. Cauliflower mosaic virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 243. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biology

Shepherd RJ; Wakeman RJ; Romanko RR, 1968. DNA in cauliflower mosaic virus. Virology, 36:150-152.

Smith KM, 1937. A Textbook of Plant Virus Diseases. London, UK: J & A Churchill, Ltd.

Smith KM, 1937. A Textbook of Plant Virus Diseases. London, UK: J & A Churchill, Ltd.

Spak J, 1989. Characteristics of Czechoslovak isolates of cauliflower mosaic virus from brassicas. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 25(3):177-184

Spak J, 1989. Purification and serological diagnosis of cauliflower mosaic virus. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 25(4):241-247

Spak J; Novikov VK, 1994. The occurrence of mixed infections of turnip mosaic, cauliflower mosaic and cucumber mosaic viruses in winter oilseed rape from the territory of Uzbekhistan. Acta Virologica, 38(1):39-42

Stratford R; Covey SN, 1989. Segregation of cauliflower mosaic virus symptom genetic determinants. Virology, 172:451-459.

TalamT M; Piccirillo F, 1995. The enemies of cauliflower. Informatore Agrario Suplemento, 51(21):25-33.

Tomlinson JA, 1987. Epidemiology and control of virus diseases of vegetables. Annals of Applied Biology, 110(3):661-681

Tomlinson JA; Shepherd RJ, 1978. Studies on mutagenesis and cross-protection of cauliflower mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 90(2):223-231

Tompkins CM, 1937. A transmissible mosaic disease of cauliflower. Journal of Agricultural Research, 55:33-46.

Walker JC; LeBeau FJ; Pound GS, 1945. Viruses associated with cabbage mosaic. Journal of Agricultural Research, 70:379-404.

Walkey DGA; Alhubaishi AA; Webb MJW, 1990. Plant virus diseases in the Yemen Arab Republic. Tropical Pest Management, 36(3):195-206

Walkey DGA; Cooper VC; Crisp P, 1974. The production of virus-free cauliflowers by meristem tip culture. Journal of Horticultural Science, 49:273-275.

Wang XF; Xie DZ; Xu SH; Pei MY, 1980. Studies on the Xingiang isolate of cauliflower mosaic virus. Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 20:365-369.

Zerbini FM Jr; Carvalho MG de; Maciel-Zambolim E; Matsuoka K, 1993. Purification and electrophoresis of structural proteins from CaMV virions and viroplasm. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 18(2):156-161

Zitikaite I; Vasinauskiene M; Surviliene E; ?idlauskiene A, 2005. Virological evaluation of Brassica L. vegetables. (Kopu¯stiniu (Brassica L.) darzoviu virusologines bu¯kles ivertinimas.) Zemes u¯kio Mokslai, No.1:70-76.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chen T H, Wu S F, Chen T J, Chen H L, 2000. Occurrence and serodiagnosis of virus diseases of crucifers in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 9 (2), 39-46.

Demski J W, 1973. Identity and prevalence of virus diseases of turnip and mustard in Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter. 57 (11), 978-981.

Elnagar S, Megahed M M, El-Sheikh M A K, 1982. Aphid-borne virus dieases, associated with cruciferous crops in Egypt. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte. 17-28.

Erkan S, Eșiyok D, Esser B, 1990. A new viral agent affecting cauliflower and cabbage plants in Turkey. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology. 19 (2), 95-97.

Erkan S, Esiyok D, Eser B, 1991. The preliminary studies as to a virus disease affecting cauliflower and cabbage plants in Turkey. Cruciferae Newsletter. 160-161.

Farzadfar S, Mosahebi G, Ahoonmanesh A, Koohihabibi M, Ohshima K, Pourrahim R, Golnaraghi A R, 2008. Distribution and some biological and molecular properties of Cauliflower mosaic virus isolates from cauliflower fields in Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 75 (2), 5 (En), 1-25 (Pe).

Feldman J M, Vega J, Gracia O, 1978. Studies of weed plants as sources of viruses VI. Mixed infection of broccoli necrotic yellows and cauliflower mosaic viruses on Sisymbrium irio in Argentina. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift. 93 (2), 187-190.

Horvath J, Besada W H, Juretic N, Mamula D, 1980. Some data on properties of cauliflower mosaic virus in Hungary. Tagungsbericht der Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. 53-60.

Ma D, Qiu B, Tian B, 1981. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of cauliflower mosaic virus. Acta Microbiologica Sinica. 21 (1), 63-67.

Marco S, 1985. Turnip mosaic and cauliflower mosaic viruses in Israel. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 24 (1/2), 211-212.

Namba R, Sylvester E S, 1981. Transmission of cauliflower mosaic virus by the green peach, turnip, cabbage, and pea aphids. Journal of Economic Entomology. 74 (5), 546-551. DOI:10.1093/jee/74.5.546

Špak J, 1989. Purification and serological diagnosis of cauliflower mosaic virus. (Purifikace a sérodiagnóza viru žilkové mozaiky květáku.). Sborník ÚVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin. 25 (4), 241-247.

Špak J, 1989a. Characteristics of Czechoslovak isolates of cauliflower mosaic virus from brassicas. (Charakterizace československých izolátů viru žilkové mozaiky květáku z brukvovitých plodin.). Sborník ÚVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin. 25 (3), 177-184.

Špak J, Novikov V K, 1994. The occurrence of mixed infections of turnip mosaic, cauliflower mosaic and cucumber mosaic viruses in winter oilseed rape from the territory of Uzbekhistan. Acta Virologica. 38 (1), 39-42.

Walkey D G A, Alhubaishi A A, Webb M J W, 1990. Plant virus diseases in the Yemen Arab Republic. Tropical Pest Management. 36 (3), 195-206.

Wang XF, Xie DZ, Xu SH, Pei MY, 1980. Studies on the Xingiang isolate of cauliflower mosaic virus. In: Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 20 365-369.

Zerbini F M Jr, Carvalho M G de, Maciel-Zambolim E, Matsuoka K, 1993. Purification and electrophoresis of structural proteins from CaMV virions and viroplasm. (Purificação e eletroforese de proteínas do vírus do mosaico da couve-flor (CaMV) e de sua inclusão citoplasmática.). Fitopatologia Brasileira. 18 (2), 156-161.

Zitikaitė I, Vasinauskienė M, Survilienė E, Šidlauskienė A, 2005. Virological evaluation of Brassica L. vegetables. (Kopu¯stinių (Brassica L.) daržovių virusologinės bu¯klės įvertinimas.). Žemės u¯kio Mokslai. 70-76.

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