Invasive Species Compendium

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Commelina benghalensis
(wandering jew)

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Datasheet

Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Commelina benghalensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wandering jew
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. benghalensis seedling.
TitleSeedling
CaptionC. benghalensis seedling.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
C. benghalensis seedling.
SeedlingC. benghalensis seedling.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Leaves ovate or elliptical, acuminate, 3-7 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide with base narrowed into a petiole.
TitlePlant
CaptionLeaves ovate or elliptical, acuminate, 3-7 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide with base narrowed into a petiole.
Copyright©S.D. Sawant
Leaves ovate or elliptical, acuminate, 3-7 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide with base narrowed into a petiole.
PlantLeaves ovate or elliptical, acuminate, 3-7 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide with base narrowed into a petiole.©S.D. Sawant
Flowers are subtended by bracts with their edges fused to a length of about 10 mm to form a flattened funnel-shaped spathe, 1.5 cm long and wide. Flowers have three lilac blue petals 3-4 mm long, the lower rather smaller than the two laterals and occasionally white.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionFlowers are subtended by bracts with their edges fused to a length of about 10 mm to form a flattened funnel-shaped spathe, 1.5 cm long and wide. Flowers have three lilac blue petals 3-4 mm long, the lower rather smaller than the two laterals and occasionally white.
Copyright©S.D. Sawant
Flowers are subtended by bracts with their edges fused to a length of about 10 mm to form a flattened funnel-shaped spathe, 1.5 cm long and wide. Flowers have three lilac blue petals 3-4 mm long, the lower rather smaller than the two laterals and occasionally white.
Flowers and leavesFlowers are subtended by bracts with their edges fused to a length of about 10 mm to form a flattened funnel-shaped spathe, 1.5 cm long and wide. Flowers have three lilac blue petals 3-4 mm long, the lower rather smaller than the two laterals and occasionally white.©S.D. Sawant
Base of shoot showing flower-bearing stolons.
TitleFlowering shoot
CaptionBase of shoot showing flower-bearing stolons.
CopyrightFAO, Rome
Base of shoot showing flower-bearing stolons.
Flowering shootBase of shoot showing flower-bearing stolons.FAO, Rome
C. benghalensis root system.
TitleRoot system
CaptionC. benghalensis root system.
Copyright©S.D. Sawant
C. benghalensis root system.
Root systemC. benghalensis root system.©S.D. Sawant
a1, Inflorescence inside the bract, bract torn open; a2, inflorescence; b, flower; c, seed (two views).
TitleWhole plant - line drawing
Captiona1, Inflorescence inside the bract, bract torn open; a2, inflorescence; b, flower; c, seed (two views).
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
a1, Inflorescence inside the bract, bract torn open; a2, inflorescence; b, flower; c, seed (two views).
Whole plant - line drawinga1, Inflorescence inside the bract, bract torn open; a2, inflorescence; b, flower; c, seed (two views).SEAMEO-BIOTROP
Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew); flower.
Titleflower
CaptionCommelina benghalensis (wandering jew); flower.
CopyrightPublic Domain (orginal image by Herb Pilcher, USDA ARS)
Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew); flower.
flowerCommelina benghalensis (wandering jew); flower.Public Domain (orginal image by Herb Pilcher, USDA ARS)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Commelina benghalensis L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • wandering jew

Other Scientific Names

  • Commelina prostrata Regel

International Common Names

  • English: benghal dayflower; tropical spiderwort
  • French: herbe aux cochons

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: kanaibashi
  • Germany: Commeline, Bengalische
  • India: kanasiri; kanchara; kankaua; kena; konasimalu; krishnaghas; mankawa
  • Indonesia: gewor
  • Japan: tsuyukusa
  • Myanmar: myet-cho
  • Philippines: alikbangon; bias-bias; kuhasi; kulkulasi; sabilau
  • Taiwan: ju-ye-tsai
  • Zimbabwe: chidyahumba; gezi; goche; idabane

EPPO code

  • COMBE (Commelina benghalensis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Commelinales
  •                         Family: Commelinaceae
  •                             Genus: Commelina
  •                                 Species: Commelina benghalensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Commelina benghalensis belongs to the Commelineae (Commelinaceae).

Variability

Populations of C. benghalensis represent several clones, as propagation is both vegetative and sexual (Vernon, 1983; Terry, 1983; Drummond, 1984; Chivinge and Kawisi, 1989).

Description

Top of page C. benghalensis belongs to a family with 500-600 species with distinct characteristics. C. benghalensis has creeping stems which assume an ascending position, are 15-40 cm long, branched and rooting at the nodes. The leaves are ovate or elliptical, acuminate, 3-7 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide with a base narrowed into a petiole. The flowers are subtended by bracts with their edges fused to a length of about 10 mm to form a flattened funnel-shaped spathe, 1.5 cm long and wide. Flowers have three lilac blue petals 3-4 mm long, the lower rather smaller than the two laterals and occasionally white. There are two anterior cells which are two-ovuled. The fruit consists of a pear-shaped capsule with five seeds and the capsule open when mature(dehiscent). Seeds which sometimes appear sugar-coated are 2 mm long, ribbed-rough (rugose) and greyish brown in colour. C. benghalensis produces white underground rhizomes with reduced leaves and closed modified flowers which produce subterranean seeds. These seeds are fewer but remain viable longer than the aerial ones. The species is distinguished from others by the blue flowers, the short flower stalk which does not extend above the spathe, the partially joined spathe margins and the reddish brown hairs on the leaf sheath (Ivens, 1967; Holm et al., 1977; Drummond, 1984).

Distribution

Top of page C. benghalensis is a weed of the tropics and subtropics. It is widely distributed in West Africa, East Africa, Central, Southern and South-East Asia extending as far as Japan, the Philippines and Australia (Drummond, 1984; Holm et al., 1977). It is reported as a serious and troublesome weed in most arable crops in the Eastern and Southern African countries, but only sporadically in the Americas.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentParker, 1992
ChinaRestricted distributionCiba, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentHolm et al., 1979
IndiaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-KalimantanPresentHolm et al., 1979
IsraelPresentWilson, 1981
JapanRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentCiba, 1982
MalaysiaRestricted distributionWilson, 1981; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentHolm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993
PhilippinesRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SingaporePresentWilson, 1981
Sri LankaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
ThailandRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
VietnamRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AngolaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
BotswanaPresentCiba, 1982
CameroonPresentBrenan, 1968
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentBrenan, 1968
Côte d'IvoireRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentTerry & Michieka, 1984; EPPO, 2014
GambiaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Terry, 1981
GhanaRestricted distributionCarson, 1977; Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
GuineaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
KenyaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
LesothoPresentCiba, 1982
MadagascarRestricted distributionWilson, 1981; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentBanda and Morris, 1985
MauritiusRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
MozambiqueRestricted distributionSouth, 1972; EPPO, 2014
NamibiaPresentWilson, 1981
NigeriaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; Wilson, 1981; EPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentTerry & Michieka, 1984
SenegalRestricted distributionWilson, 1981; EPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentBrenan, 1968
SomaliaPresentTerry & Michieka, 1984
South AfricaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
SwazilandRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
-ZanzibarPresentWilson, 1981
TogoPresentBrenan, 1968
UgandaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaRestricted distributionWilson, 1981; Vernon, 1983; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabweRestricted distributionChivinge, 1983; Drummond, 1984; EPPO, 2014

North America

USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentHayden, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentAdams et al., 1968
JamaicaPresentAdams et al., 1968
Saint Kitts and NevisRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
Windward IslandsPresentHammerton, 1981

South America

ArgentinaPresentWilson, 1981
BrazilPresentCiba, 1982

Europe

Russian FederationPresentShcherbakova, 1974

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionCiba, 1982; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentWilson, 1981

Habitat

Top of page C. benghalensis is an annual or perennial herb with fleshy creeping stems that root readily at the nodes. It is equally abundant on all soil types and pH; grows in a wide range of habitats, varying from water-saturated to dry soils; grows rapidly and forms dense mats at the nodes under optimum conditions. C. benghalensis is found in arable and plantation crops, and non-crop lands.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page C. benghalensis is reported as a principal weed in upland rice in India and the Philippines, tea in India, coffee in Tanzania and Kenya, soyabeans in the Philippines and cotton and maize in Kenya (Holm et al., 1977). It is also a common weed in rice in Sri Lanka, sugarcane in India, the Philippines and Mozambique; cassava in Taiwan; maize in Zimbabwe (Chivinge, 1983), Angola, India, the Philippines and Taiwan; peanuts in Zimbabwe, India and the Philippines; pineapples in Taiwan and Swaziland; cowpeas and sorghum in the Philippines; tea and citrus in Mozambique and roselles in Indonesia; cotton in Zimbabwe (Chivinge, 1988). It is also a weed of barley, jute, sisal, beans, pastures, sweet potatoes, vineyards and cereals in many countries.

See Awatigeri (1975) for further details on bitter gourds and Madri and Manimtim (1978) for further details of mung beans as hosts of C. benghalensis.

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page C. benghalensis is a fleshy, herbaceous, creeping annual which becomes perennial depending on moisture conditions. It is found in wet and dry lands making it a troublesome weed in arable and plantation crops. C. benghalensis grows best in moist and highly-fertile soils. Stems have a high moisture content, and once well rooted the plant can survive for long periods without moisture availability (Wilson, 1981) and can then grow rapidly on the onset of rains (Holm et al., 1977). It reproduces both vegetatively and by seeds. It spreads by runners which root at the nodes and by re-establishment of stem fragments. It also produces underground stolons which bear cleistogamous flowers and seeds, in addition to the normal aerial flowers (Budd et al., 1979).

One C. benghalensis plant can produce about 1600 seeds (Pancho, 1964). Freshly shed aerial seeds have a dormancy depending on an impermeable seedcoat, but will germinate following scarification or pricking of the seed. Aerial seeds germinate mainly from the upper 5 cm, while the larger subterranean seeds may emerge from depths down to 14 cm (Budd et al., 1979). These authors found that a majority of seedlings in the field in Zimbabwe derived from subterranean seeds. However, Walker and Evenson (1985a, b) concluded that the aerial seeds were the more important in Queensland, Australia. They also distinguished large and small classes of seed within the aerial and subterranean, and showed each of the four classes to have characterisitc germination behaviour. Subterranean seeds had a more pronounced light requirement for germination and a higher optimum germination temperature (28 v. 24°C). They comment on the long persistence of the seeds due to dormancy and the corresponding difficulty of control. Fertilizer application reduced seed production and resulted in stunted growth when grown under artificial dense competition in cereals in Russia (Shcherbakova, 1974).

The rate of stem elongation, branch and leaf formation increases as the node number on the stem increases (Chivinge and Kawisi, 1989). Broken stems may persist on the soil surface for several weeks or months in low moisture conditions and easily form leaves 10-14 days after moisture becomes available. Though stem cuttings on the surface regenerate easily (Chivinge and Kawisi, 1989), cuttings buried deeper than 2 cm fail to regenerate (Budd et al., 1979).

The weed is used as fodder for pigs and rabbits in Zimbabwe.

Crops are affected most severely during the first 2-5 weeks of crop growth, but mature plants can also be affected.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amauromyza Herbivore Leaves
Kordyana celebensis Pathogen
Liriomyza commelinae Herbivore Leaves
Pyricularia oryzae var. commelinae Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The few natural enemies of C. benghalensis have been listed by Waterhouse (1994). They include insects, nematodes and fungi but most relate to polyphagous species, many of which are pests. However, there are records of agromyzid leaf miners, likely to have narrow host ranges from the Americas. One of them, Liriomyza commelinae, has also been reared from Tradescantia spp., which is presumeably its original host as Commelina spp. are believed to be of Old World origin.

The fungus Kordyana celebensis has been recorded from C. diffusa as well as C. benghalensis.

Commelina is an alternative host of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Valdez, 1968), of the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus spp. (Edmunds, 1971), groundnut rosette virus [groundnut rosette assistor luteovirus] (Valdez, 1968) and of groundnut mosaic virus [groundnut rosette umbravirus] (Adams, 1967). In the Dharwar district of India the weed is a host of Cuscuta chinensis (Awatigeri et al., 1975) and an alternative host of Corticium sasakii [Thanatephorus sasakii], a leaf blight of rice (Roy, 1973).

Impact

Top of page The economic importance of C. benghalensis is related to its persistence in cultivated lands and the difficulty associated with its control. C. benghalensis seriously competes with arable and plantation crops in most of Africa. It is one of the troublesome weeds which affects several crops in Eastern and Southern Africa, sugarcane in the Philippines, maize in India, Indonesia, the Philippines and Taiwan and pineapples in Taiwan and Swaziland.

Its effects on crop growth and yield varies with each crop and with environmental conditions. Groundnut flower production may be delayed by 1-2 weeks and nodules are also reduced depending on the intensity of infestation.

Removal of C. benghalensis in India increased groundnut yield by 27% (Mehrotra and Singh, 1973). The price of rice was reduced in Texas when the C. benghalensis seed contamination was 20 seed/kg rice (Palmer, 1972).

The plant is used for medicinal purposes by many African tribes for treating sore throats, eyes and burns. In India and the Philippines the weed is used for food during famine periods.

Uses List

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Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Confusion can occur with a number of other weedy Commelina species, but the following combination of characters may be used to distinguish C. benghalensis: all three petals blue, leaves broadly elliptical (length up to twice width only), spathe sealed to form triangular pocket, seeds rugose, presence of stolons, leaf sheaths with reddish-brown-tipped hairs. C. diffusa, the commonest of other species, has blue petals, but spathe open along one edge, leaves narrower, seeds smooth, and no stolons. C. forskalaei has stolons and rough seeds, and spathe sealed, but leaves are narrower, length up to 4 times width, and wavy-edged (Holm et al, 1977; Drummond, 1984). None of the other weedy species have brown-tipped hairs. Hence this is an especially useful character when looking at vegetative material.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Introduction

The method of control depends on the crop infested, land size, level of technology available, value of the crop, labour availability and costs, availability of draft power and the associated equipment and availability of herbicides. The methods currently used include proper land preparation, hand hoeing and pulling, removing the plants from the fields and drying, use of ox-drawn and tractor-drawn cultivation, slashing and herbicide application. However, mechanical control and hand hoeing and pulling are not very effective as the cut stems quickly regenerate into new plants, especially in wet conditions (Chivinge and Kawisis, 1989). When plants are removed they should be shaken to remove all the soil, spread and left to dry for more than a week. Walker and Evenson (1985a) emphasize the importance of growing crops which will smother the weed as quickly as possible. Le Bourgeois and Marnotte (1997) emphasise the need to control the weed when young but also list some new herbicides under test in maize.

Chemical Control

In the review by Wilson (1981) it is noted that C. benghalensis is relatively difficult to control by herbicide, especially when well established. However, young plants in cereal crops are susceptible to 2,4-D and related herbicides. Bentazon is useful in both cereals and in some broad-leaved crops such as soyabean. Among pre-emergence treatments, metribuzin is especially effective, e.g. in sugarcane and soyabeans while substituted urea, triazine, acetanilide and dinitroaniline treatments, alone or in combinations, give variable results. In plantation crops and non-crop situations, paraquat is relatively ineffective but glyphosate is effective on younger plants, especially with the addition of surfactant or other additives such as 2,4-D or ammonium sulphate.

Biological Control

There have not been any attempts to use biological control against Commelina spp. and the possibilities have not been explored. However, Waterhouse (1994) notes that although Commelina spp. are believed to be of Old World origin, it is curious that there are no records of agromyzid leaf miners, except from the Americas, and therefore tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas may be promising sources of candidate biological control agents.

References

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Adams A, 1967. The vectors and alternate hosts of groundnuts resette virus in Central Province, Malawi. Rhodesian, Zambian, Malawian Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(2):145-151.

Adams CD, 1963. Compositae. In: Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, eds. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume 2, Second edition. London, UK: Crown Agents.

Awatigeri; MB; Hosamani MM; Setty RA; Vijayakumar N, 1975. Note on Cuscuta menace on crops in Dharwar. Current Research Monthly Newsletter, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, No. 3:47-48

Banda AK; Morris B, 1985. Common Weeds of Malawi. Lilangwe, Malawi: University of Malawi.

Budd GD; Thomas PEL; Allison JCS, 1979. Vegetation regeneration, depth of germination and seed dormancy in Commelina benghalensis L. Rhodesia Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(2):151-154

Carson AG, 1977. Chemical weed control in groundnuts and soybeans. [Mimeograph of paper presented at the Ghana Weed Science Conference, February 1977]., 4 pp.

Chivinge AO, 1983. A weed survey of arable lands in the commercial sector of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Agricultural Journal, 80(4):139-141

Chivinge OA, 1988. A weed survey of arable lands of the small-scale farming sector of Zimbabwe.

Chivinge OA; Kawisi M, 1989. The effect of node numbers on the regeneration of wandering jew (Commelina benghalensis L.). Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research, 27(2):131-138

Ciba Geigy, 1982. Moroco Weed 3. Basel, Switzerland: Ciba Geigy Ltd.

Drummond RB, 1984. Arable weeds of Zimbabwe. A guide to the recognition of more important arable weeds of crops. Harare, Zimbabwe: Agricultural Research Trust.

Edmunds JE, 1971. Association of Rotylenchulus reniformis with `Robusta' banana and Commelina sp. roots in the Windward Islands. Tropical Agriculture Trinidad, 48(1):55-61.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Frans R; Tollervey FE; Lara R; Unterladstatter R, 1978. Weed control investigations in Bolivian crops 1976-1977. Weed control investigations in Bolivian crops 1976-1977. CIAT. Bolivia, 53 pp.

Hammerton JL, 1981. Weed problems and weed control in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Tropical Pest Management, 27(3):379-387

Hayden WJ, 2013. Virginia Commelina benghalensis new to Virginia. Castanea, 78(4):329.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Holm LG; Plucknett DL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

Ivens GW, 1964. East African Weeds and their Control. Oxford University Press, Nairobi, Kenya.

Le Bourgeois T; Marnotte P, 1997. Commelina benghalensis. Agriculture et Developpement Special Issue - May, 1997:64-65.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Madrid MT Jr; Manimtim MB, 1978. Weed control in mungbean [Vigna radiata]. Weed Science Report 1976-77, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines at Los Banos., 43-49

Mehrotra ON; Singh I, 1973. Chemical control of weeds in groundnut. Allahabad Farmer, 47(1):51-54

Palmer RD, 1972. Dayflower and spangle top survey in the Texas rice belt. In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, 473-477.

Pancho J, 1964. Seed size and production capabilities of common weed species in rice fields of Philippines. Philippines Agriculturalist, 48:307-316.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp.

Roy AK, 1973. Natural occurrence of Corticium sesakii on some weeds. Current Science, 43(3):842-433.

Shcherbakova TA, 1974. The effect of sowing depth of agricultural crops and fertilizers on the growth and development of Commelina communis. Sibirskii Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki, No.6:33-37

South African Sugar Association, 1972. Herbicides. Annual Report 1971-72, Experiment Station., 18-19

Terry PJ, 1981. Weeds and their control in the Gambia. Tropical Pest Management, 27(1):44-52.

Terry PJ, 1983. Some common crop weeds of West Africa and their control. USAID Regional Food Crop Protection Project Dakar Senegal, 132 pp.

Terry PJ; Michieka RW, 1987. Common Weeds of East Africa. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Tutin TG, 1976. Galinsoga Ruiz & Pavon. In: Flora Europeae, Volume 4. (Ed. by Tutin TG, Haywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM & Webb DA, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

USDA, 1970. Selected Weeds of the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 366. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 324-325.

Valdez R, 1968. Survey, identification and host-parasite relationships of root-knot nematodes occurring in some parts of the Phillippines. Phillippine Agriculturist, 51:802-824.

Vernon R, unda. Field guide to important arable weeds of Zambia. Field guide to important arable weeds of Zambia. Department of Agriculture Chilanga Zambia, 151pp.

Walker SR; Evenson JP, 1985. Biology of Commelina benghalensis L. in south-eastern Queensland. 1. Growth, development and seed production. Weed Research, UK, 25(4):239-244

Walker SR; Evenson JP, 1985. Biology of Commelina benghalensis L. in south-eastern Queensland. 2. Seed dormancy, germination and emergence. Weed Research, UK, 25(4):245-250

Waterhouse DF(Editor), 1994. Biological control of weeds: Southeast Asian prospects. Canberra, Australia; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), v + 302 pp.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Wetala MPE, 1978. The relationship between weeds and soyabean yields. In: Proceedings of the 6th East African Weed Science Conference (1976), 156-168.

Wilson AK, 1981. Commelinaceae - a review of the distribution, biology and control of the important weeds belonging to this family. Tropical Pest Management, 27(3):405-418

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