Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Colletotrichum lindemuthianum
(anthracnose of bean)



Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (anthracnose of bean)


  • Last modified
  • 18 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Colletotrichum lindemuthianum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • anthracnose of bean
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (anthracnose of bean); lesions on bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris).
CaptionColletotrichum lindemuthianum (anthracnose of bean); lesions on bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Copyright©Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (anthracnose of bean); lesions on bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris).
SymptomsColletotrichum lindemuthianum (anthracnose of bean); lesions on bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris).©Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Briosi & Cavara

Preferred Common Name

  • anthracnose of bean

Other Scientific Names

  • Gloeosporium lindemuthianum Sacc.
  • Gloeosporium socium Sacc.
  • Glomerella lindemuthiana Shear

International Common Names

  • English: anthracnose of legumes; bean anthracnose; pea anthracnose; pod canker of bean
  • Spanish: anthracnosis (guisante); anthracnosis del frijol
  • French: anthracnose du haricot; anthracnose du pois

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Brennfleckenkrankheit: Bohne; Brennfleckenkrankheit: Erbse

EPPO code

  • COLLLD (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Glomerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Colletotrichum
  •                                 Species: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ArmeniaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
AzerbaijanPresentOvchinnikova and Zaitsev, 1992
BangladeshPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Brunei DarussalamPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ChinaWidespreadUK CAB International, 1985
-Hong KongPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-ShandongPresentGao et al., 2018
IndiaWidespreadUK CAB International, 1985
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresentSingh et al., 1994
-KeralaPresentPurushothaman et al., 2007
-Madhya PradeshPresentThakur and Khare, 1992
-OdishaPresentMahanta et al., 2000
IndonesiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
IranPresentBehroozin and Fatehi, 1989
JapanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
JordanPresentQandah and Al-Momany, 2003
Korea, DPRPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MalaysiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MyanmarPresentUK CAB International, 1985
NepalPresentUK CAB International, 1985
OmanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
PakistanPresentQureshi et al., 1985
PhilippinesPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Bahkali, 1992
TaiwanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ThailandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
TurkeyPresentUK CAB International, 1985
VietnamPresentUK CAB International, 1985


BurundiPresentCIAT, 1981
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCIAT, 1981; UK CAB International, 1985
EthiopiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
KenyaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
LibyaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MadagascarPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MalawiPresentAllen, 1983; UK CAB International, 1985
MaliPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MauritiusPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MoroccoPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MozambiquePresentUK CAB International, 1985
NigeriaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
RwandaPresentCIAT, 1981; Trutmann and Graf, 1993
SenegalPresentUK CAB International, 1985
South AfricaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
TanzaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
UgandaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ZambiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ZimbabwePresentUK CAB International, 1985

North America

CanadaWidespreadTu, 1988; Tu, 1995
-ManitobaPresentRío et al., 2003
-OntarioPresentTu, 1995
MexicoPresentCrispin-Medina and Campos-Avila, 1976; Balardin, 1997
USAWidespreadBalardin, 1997
-HawaiiPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-New YorkPresent
-North DakotaPresentRío et al., 2003

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentBalardin, 1997
GuatemalaPresentEchandi, 1976
HondurasPresentBalardin, 1997
NicaraguaPresentEchandi, 1976

South America

ArgentinaPresentPloper, 1983; Balardin, 1997
BrazilPresentRava et al., 1994; Alzate-Marin et al., 1997; Balardin, 1997
-GoiasPresentTeixeira et al., 2008
-Minas GeraisPresentGoulart, 1988
-Rio Grande do SulPresentBalardin, 1997
-Santa CatarinaPresentGonçalves-Vidigal et al., 2008
-Sao PauloPresentVechiato et al., 1997
ColombiaPresentGuzman-Vargas and de la Rosa, 1975; Balardin, 1997
EcuadorPresentGuzman-Vargas and de la Rosa, 1975
PeruPresentGuzman-Vargas and de la Rosa, 1975; Balardin, 1997


AustriaWidespread****UK CAB International, 1985
BulgariaWidespread****UK CAB International, 1985
Czech RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1985
DenmarkRestricted distributionUK CAB International, 1985
FinlandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
FrancePresentUK CAB International, 1985
GermanyPresent, few occurrences****UK CAB International, 1985
GreecePresentBardas et al., 2007
PolandPresentMarcinkowska, 1994
RomaniaPresentTrotus et al., 1996
Russian FederationPresent
-Russia (Europe)PresentOvchinnikova and Zaitsev, 1992
-SiberiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
SloveniaPresentMunda et al., 2009
SpainPresentFernández et al., 2000


AustraliaWidespreadUK CAB International, 1985
New CaledoniaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
New ZealandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Papua New GuineaPresentUK CAB International, 1985

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / lesions on seeds

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants


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Allen DJ, 1983. The Pathology of Tropical Food Legumes: Disease Resistance in Crop Improvement. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Alzate-Marin AL, Bafa GS, Faleiro FG, Carvalho GA, Paula J·nior TJ, Moreira MA, Barros EGde, 1997. Genetic diversity analysis of races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum that occur in some regions of Brazil by RAPD markers. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 22(1):85-88; 10 ref.

Andersen AL, Adams MW, Whitford G, 1963. Charlevoix anthracnose-resistant Dark Red Kidney bean. Michigan, USA: Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report, 6:1-3.

Andrus CF, Wade BL, 1942. The factorial interpretation of anthracnose resistance in beans. Technical Bulletin 810. Washington DC, USA: USDA-ARS.

Anselme C, Champion R, 1981. Bean anthracnose. In: ISTA Handbook of Seed Health Testing Working Sheet No 46. Zurich, Switzerland: International Seed Testing Association.

Araya Fernandez CM, Dhingra OD, Kushalappa AC, 1987. Influence of primary inoculum on bean anthracnose prevalence. Seed Science and Technology, 15(1):45-54

Ashok Kumar, Sharma PN, Sharma OP, 1997. Resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (bean anthracnose) in kidney bean accessions of diverse origin in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology, 50(1):59-64; 23 ref.

Augustin E, Costa JGC da, 1971. Sources of resistance to two physiologic races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in bean breeding in southern Brazil. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Agronomia, 6:265-272

Bahkali AH, 1992. In vitro production of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolated from soybean grown in Saudi Arabia. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 8(1):55-59

Balardin RS, 1997. Identification of physiological races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 22(1):50-53; 14 ref.

Balardin RS, Kelly JD, 1996. Identification of race 65-Epsilon of bean anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) in Michigan. Plant Disease, 80(6):712; 2 ref.

Bannerot H, Derieux M, Fouilloux G, 1971. Mise en evidence d'un second gene de resistance totale de I'anthracnose chez le haricot. Annales de l'Amelioration des Plantes, 21(1):83-85.

Bardas GA, Koutita O, Tzavella-Klonari K, 2007. Geographical distribution, pathotype characterization, and molecular diversity of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Greece and resistance of Greek bean cultivars. Plant Disease, 91(11):1379-1385. HTTP://

Bardas GA, Lagopodi AL, Kadoglidou K, Tzavella-Klonari K, 2009. Biological control of three Colletotrichum lindemuthianum races using Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365. Biological Control, 49(2):139-145.

Barrus MF, 1911. Variation of varieties of beans in their susceptibility to anthracnose. Phytopathology, 1(6):190-195.

Barrus MF, 1921. Bean anthracnose. New York Agricultural Experimental Station. Cornell Memoirs, 42:97-209.

Beebe SE, Pastor-Corrales MA, 1991. Breeding for Disease Resistance. In: van Schoonhoven A, Voyest O, eds. Common Beans: Research for Crop Improvement. Wallingford UK: CAB International, 561-617.

Behroozin M, Fatehi J, 1989. Bean anthracnose in Ahar. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 25(1/4):28.

Burkholder WH, 1923. The gamma strain of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Magn.) B et C. Phytopathology, 13(7):316-323.

Cardenas-Soriano E, Engleman EM, 1981. Cambios anatomicos en la semilla de Phaseolus vulgaris durante la infeccion por Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Revista Mexicana Fitopatologfa, 1(1):9-15.

Chaves G, 1980. Anthracnose. In: Schwartz HF, GaIvez GE, eds. Bean Production Problems: Disease, Insect, Soil and Climatic Constraints of Phaseolus Vulgaris CIAT Series No 09EB-1. Cali, Colombia: CIAT, 37-54.

Chhetry GKN, Mishra RR, Sharma GD, 1994. Effect of microclimatic factors on epidemiology of leaf-spot disease caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Phaeoisariopsis griseola of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 64(9):667-670

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Copeland LO, Adams MW, Bell DC, 1975. An improved seed programme for maintaining disease-free seed of field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Seed Science and Technology, 3(3/4):719-724

Costa AS, 1972. Investigacoes sobre molestias do feijoeiro no Brasil. In: Anais Do I Simposio Brasileiro De Feijao, Campinas. Vicosa, MG, Brazil: Universidade Federal De Vicosa, 2:306-311.

Crispin A, Campos J, 1976. Bean diseases of importance in Mexico in 1975. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(6):534-535

Cruickshank IAM, 1966. Strains of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc.& Magn.) in eastern Australia. Journal of Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 32(2):134-135.

Dey PK, 1919. Studies in the physiology of parasitism, V: infection by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Ann. Bot. (Lond.), 33:305-312.

Dhingra OD, Fernandez CMA, Kushalappa AC, 1986. Lack of relationship between field incidence of bean anthracnose and production of seeds, transmitting Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 11(1):95-101

Echandi E, 1976. Principal fungus diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the American tropics in different ecological zones. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 1(3):171-177

Edgington LV, French B, 1981. Failure of benzamidazole seed treatment to control anthracnose of bean. In: Proceedings of the Phytopathological Society Western Ontario Region Canada.

Edgington LV, MacNeill BH, 1978. Control of bean anthracnose by seed treatment with systemic fungicides. Phytopathology News, 12(10):235.

English PD, Albersheim P, 1969. Host-pathogen interactions, 1: a correlation between a-galactosidase production and virulence. Plant Physiology (Bethesda), 44(2):217-224.

Fernández MT, Fernández M, Casares A, Rodriguez R, Fueyo M, 2000. Bean germplasm evaluation for anthracnose resistance and characterization of agronomic traits: a new physiological strain of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infecting Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Spain. Euphytica, 114(2):143-149.

Ferrante GM, Bisiach M, 1976. Comparison of methods for experimental infection of bean with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, IV, 12(3/4):99-118

Fouilloux G, 1976. Haricot bean anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Sacc. & Magn.): new sources of resistance and new physiologic races. Annales de l'Amelioration des Plantes, 26(3):443-453

Gao, Y. Y., He, L. F., Li, B. X., Mu, W., Liu, F., 2018. First report of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum causing anthracnose on pepper in China., 102(5), 1030. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1086-PDN

Gonçalves-Vidigal MC, Thomazella C, Vidigal Filho PS, Kvitschal MV, Elias HT, 2008. Characterization of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolates using differential cultivars of common bean in Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 51(5):883-888.

Goulart ACP, 1988. Bean diseases in the northern region of Minas Gerais. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 13(3):230-242; 6 ref.

Guzman-Vargas P, de la Rosa MD, 1975. Estudios sobre la antracnosis del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causada por Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Scrib, en la zona de Popaydn. Thesis. Colombia: Ing. Agr. Palmira, Universidad Nacional De Colombia.

Hubbeling N, 1957. New aspects of breeding for disease resistance in beans. Euphytica, 6:111-141.

Hwang SW, Andersen AL, Papavizas GC, Converse RH, 1968. Cryopreservation and pathogenicity of selected isolates of Colletotrichum, Rhizoctonia, and Phytophthora. Phytopathology, 58(3):362-364.

ISTA, 2008. .

Kelly JD, Afanador L, Cameron LS, 1994. New races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Michigan and implications in dry bean resistance breeding. Plant Disease, 78(9):892-894

Kimati H, Galli F, 1970. Glomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. et V. Schrenk. f. sp. phaseoli n. f, fase ascogena do agente causal da antracnose do feijoeiro. An. Esc. Super. Agric. Luis De Queiroz (Sao Paulo), 27:411-437.

Lauritzen JI, 1919. The relation of temperature and humidity to infection by certain fungi. Phytopathology, 9(1):7-35.

Leach JG, 1923. The parasitism of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 14.

Leakey CLA, Simbwa-Bunnya M, 1972. Races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and implications for bean breeding in Uganda. Annals of Applied Biology, 70(1):25-34.

Mahanta IC, Dhal A, Mohanty AK, Mohapatra SS, 2000. Integrated management of diseases of kidney bean or rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in North Central Plateau Zone of Orissa. Orissa Journal of Horticulture, 28(2):25-28.

Marcinkowska J, 1994. Diseases of bean recorded in Poland. Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Ros^acute~lin, No. 190:169-175; 14 ref.

Marcinkowska JZ, Borucka K, 2001. Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. Plant Breeding and Seed Science, 45(2):59-64; 17 ref.

Markell S, Wunsch M, Rio Del, L, 2012. Anthracnose of Dry Beans. Anthracnose of Dry Beans. North Dakota, USA: NSDU.

Mercer PC, Wood RKS, Greenwood AD, 1975. Ultrastructure of the parasitism of Phaseolus vulgaris by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiological Plant Pathology, 5(3):203-214

Mordue JEM, 1971. Glomerella cingulata. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi & Bacteria No. 315. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Mordue JEM, 1971a. Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria Set 32, Sheet No. 316. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Munda A, Radisek S, ?u?tar-Vozlic J, Javornik B, 2009. Genetic variability of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolates from Slovenia and resistance of local Phaseolus vulgaris germplasm. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 116(1):23-29.

Nunes WM de C, Bergamin Filho A, 1996. Assessment of damage caused by anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) of bean. Avaliacao dos danos causados pela antracnose (Colletrotrichum lindemuthianum) do feijoeiro. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 21(4):436-442.

Olarte MD, Osorio G, Puerta OD, Isaza L, 1981. Mechanisms for primary infection by anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Eastern Antioch. Fitopatologia Colombiana, 10(1/2):23-28

Onesirosan PT, Barker LN, 1971. Stem anthracnose of cowpeas in Nigeria. Plant Disease Reporter, 55(9):820-822.

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Padder BA, Sharma PN, Renu Kapil, Anju Pathania, Sharma OP, 2010. Evaluation of bioagents and biopesticides against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and its integrated management in common bean. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 2(3):72-76.

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Qandah IS, Al-Momany A, 2003. The occurrence and seed transmission of bean anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Jordan. Dirasat. Agricultural Sciences, 30(2):205-210.

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Río LEdel, Lamppa RS, Gross PL, 2003. Characterization of the reaction of North Dakota dry bean cultivars to three races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Plant Disease, 87(3):263-265.

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Distribution Maps

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