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Datasheet

Colletotrichum kahawae
(coffee berry disease)

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Datasheet

Colletotrichum kahawae (coffee berry disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Colletotrichum kahawae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • coffee berry disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Under humid conditions, pink spore masses become visible on the surface of the lesions.
TitleSporulation on coffee berries (detail)
CaptionUnder humid conditions, pink spore masses become visible on the surface of the lesions.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Under humid conditions, pink spore masses become visible on the surface of the lesions.
Sporulation on coffee berries (detail)Under humid conditions, pink spore masses become visible on the surface of the lesions.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Coffee berry disease symptoms: young diseased berries on branch. A progressive anthracnose causes the rot of the whole berry. Berries are often shed from the branch
TitleSymptoms on coffee berries
CaptionCoffee berry disease symptoms: young diseased berries on branch. A progressive anthracnose causes the rot of the whole berry. Berries are often shed from the branch
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Coffee berry disease symptoms: young diseased berries on branch. A progressive anthracnose causes the rot of the whole berry. Berries are often shed from the branch
Symptoms on coffee berriesCoffee berry disease symptoms: young diseased berries on branch. A progressive anthracnose causes the rot of the whole berry. Berries are often shed from the branch©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Old scab lesion developing acervuli. 

(Scab lesions are pale, corky lesions that appear on young and mature berries and are resistant reactions to infection. They may completely heal, or remain dormant until the berry begins to ripen when they may develop into active anthracnose lesions as seen here.)
TitleAcervuli development
CaptionOld scab lesion developing acervuli. (Scab lesions are pale, corky lesions that appear on young and mature berries and are resistant reactions to infection. They may completely heal, or remain dormant until the berry begins to ripen when they may develop into active anthracnose lesions as seen here.)
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Old scab lesion developing acervuli. 

(Scab lesions are pale, corky lesions that appear on young and mature berries and are resistant reactions to infection. They may completely heal, or remain dormant until the berry begins to ripen when they may develop into active anthracnose lesions as seen here.)
Acervuli developmentOld scab lesion developing acervuli. (Scab lesions are pale, corky lesions that appear on young and mature berries and are resistant reactions to infection. They may completely heal, or remain dormant until the berry begins to ripen when they may develop into active anthracnose lesions as seen here.)©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Coffee Berry Disease symptoms on coffee.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCoffee Berry Disease symptoms on coffee.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Coffee Berry Disease symptoms on coffee.
SymptomsCoffee Berry Disease symptoms on coffee.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
In culture, C. kahawae produces dark, slower-growing colony compared to pale, faster-growing colony of C. gloeosporioides.
TitleC. kahawae colony (& C. gloeosporioides)
CaptionIn culture, C. kahawae produces dark, slower-growing colony compared to pale, faster-growing colony of C. gloeosporioides.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
In culture, C. kahawae produces dark, slower-growing colony compared to pale, faster-growing colony of C. gloeosporioides.
C. kahawae colony (& C. gloeosporioides)In culture, C. kahawae produces dark, slower-growing colony compared to pale, faster-growing colony of C. gloeosporioides.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Conidia are generally 12.5-19 x 4 µm, but some larger conidia exceeding 20 x 6 µm may often occur in culture. Simple, dark-brown, ovate appressoria are commonly produced in mature cultures.
TitleConidia and appressoria
CaptionConidia are generally 12.5-19 x 4 µm, but some larger conidia exceeding 20 x 6 µm may often occur in culture. Simple, dark-brown, ovate appressoria are commonly produced in mature cultures.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Conidia are generally 12.5-19 x 4 µm, but some larger conidia exceeding 20 x 6 µm may often occur in culture. Simple, dark-brown, ovate appressoria are commonly produced in mature cultures.
Conidia and appressoriaConidia are generally 12.5-19 x 4 µm, but some larger conidia exceeding 20 x 6 µm may often occur in culture. Simple, dark-brown, ovate appressoria are commonly produced in mature cultures.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Coffee berry disease - conidia and appressoria x 40.
TitleConidia and appressoria
CaptionCoffee berry disease - conidia and appressoria x 40.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Coffee berry disease - conidia and appressoria x 40.
Conidia and appressoriaCoffee berry disease - conidia and appressoria x 40.©CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Colletotrichum kahawae J.M. Waller & Bridge

Preferred Common Name

  • coffee berry disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noack (sensu Hindorf, 1970)
  • Colletotrichum coffeanum 'var. virulans' (Rayner, 1952)

International Common Names

  • English: anthracnose of coffee; brown blight of coffee
  • Spanish: antracnosis del cafeto
  • French: anthracnose de baies du cafeier d'arabie

Local Common Names

  • Germany: krankheiten das kaffeebaumes

EPPO code

  • COLLCO (Colletotrichum coffeanum)
  • COLLKA (Colletotrichum kahawae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Glomerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Colletotrichum
  •                                 Species: Colletotrichum kahawae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit / premature drop
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Agwanda CO, Lashermes P, Trouslot P, Combes MC, Charrier A, 1997. Identification of RAPD markers for resistance to coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum kahawae, in Arabica coffee. Euphytica, 97(2):241-248; 34 ref

Bedimo, J. A. M., Bieysse, D., Cilas, C., Nottéghem, J. L., 2007. Spatio-temporal dynamics of arabica coffee berry disease caused by Colletotrichum kahawae on a plot scale. Plant Disease, 91(10), 1229-1236. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-10-1229

Beynon SM, Coddington A, Lewis BG, Varzea V, 1995. Genetic variation in the coffee berry disease pathogen, Colletotrichum kahawae. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 46(6):457-470; 22 ref

Bock KR, 1956. Investigations of coffee berry disease - laboratory studies. East African Agricultural Journal, 29:97-103

Boisson C, 1960. L'anthracnose du Caféier. Revue de Mycologie 25: 263-292

Da Ponte AM, 1966. Spraying arabica coffee with calcium superphosphate for the control of coffee berry disease usually attributed to Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack. Kenya Coffee, 31:21-22

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Firman ID, Waller JM, 1977. Coffee berry disease and other Colletotrichum diseases of coffee. Phytopathological Papers Commonwealth Mycological Institute. Kew UK, No. 20:53 pp

Garibaldi, A., Gilardi, G., Franco-Ortega, S., Gullino, M. L., 2016. First report of leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum kahawae on American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 98(2), 370. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3572/2239

Garibaldi, A., Gilardi, G., Puglisi, I., Cacciola, S. O., Gullino, M. L., 2016. First report of leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum kahawae on cultivated rocket (Eruca sativa) in Italy. Plant Disease, 100(6), 1240. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-11-15-1243-PDN

Gibbs JN, 1969. Inoculum sources for coffee berry disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 64:515-522

Griffiths E, 1972. `Negative' effects of fungicides on coffee. Tropical Science, 14:79-89

Griffiths E, Gibbs JN, Waller JM, 1971. Control of coffee berry disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 67: 45-74

Griffiths E, Waller JM, 1971. Rainfall and cropping patterns in relation to coffee berry disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 67:75-91

Grifiths E, 1969. CBD: Kenya's biggest coffee problem. SPAN, 12:92-95

Hendrickx FL, 1939. Observations sur la maladie verruqueuse des fruits du caféier. Institut National pour l'Etude Agronmique du Congo Belge, INEAC. Serie Scientifique No. 19

Hindorf H, 1970. Colletrichum species isolated from Coffea arabica in Kenya. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 77:328-331

IPPC-Secretariat, 2005. Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003. xii + 301 pp

Kumlachew Alemu, Girma Adugna, Fikre Lemessa, Diriba Muleta, 2016. Current status of coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae Waller & Bridge) in Ethiopia. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 49(17/18), 421-433. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Masaba DM, 1991. The role of saprophytic surface micrflora in the development of coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum coffeanum, in Kenya. PhD thesis, University of Reading

Masaba DM, King'ori PN, Muthangya PM, 1990. Control of coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum coffeanum) using tank mixtures of copper and organic fungicides. Kenya Coffee, 55(648):949-954

Masaba DM, King'ori PN, Opilo VL, 1993. Effectiveness of new fungicides against coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum coffeanum) in Kenya. Kenya Coffee, 58(678):1517-1524

Masaba DM, Vossen HAMVan der, 1982. Evidence of cork barrier formation as a resistance mechanism to berry disease (Colletotrichum coffeanum) in arabica coffee. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 88(1):19-32

Masaba DM, Waller JM, 1992. Coffee berry disease: the current status. Ch. 12 in Colletotrichum : Biology, Pathology and Control. Eds JA Bailey and MJ Edge. Wallingford: CAB International

McCulloch, M. J., Gauthier, N. W., Vaillancourt, L. J., 2020. First report of bitter rot of apple caused by a Colletotrichum sp. in the C. kahawae clade in Kentucky. Plant Disease, 104(1), 289-289. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-19-1247-PDN

McDonald J, 1926. A preliminary account of a disease of green coffee berries in Kenya. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 11:145-154

Mulinge SK, 1973. Outbreaks and new records in Ethiopia coffee berry disease. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 21:85-86

Muller RA, 1964. L'anthracnose de baies du café d'arabie, Coffea arabica. due á une fille forme virulente du Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack. I. Variations de la sensibilité des fruits au cours de leur development. II. L'irrigation méthôde preventive de la contrôle de la maladie. Café - Cacao - Thé, 17:281-312

Muller RA, 1973. L'anthracnose de baies du caféier d'arabie, Coffea arabica. due à une forme virulente du Colletrichum coffeanum Noack. I. Variations de la sensibilité des fruits au cours de leur développement. II. L'irrigation, méthode préventive de contrôle de la maladie. Café - Cacao-Thé 17:218-31

Nutman FJ, Roberts FM, 1960. Investigations on a disease of Coffea arabica cuased by a form of Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack II. Some factors affecting germination and infection and their relation to disease distribution. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 43:643-659

Nutman FJ, Roberts FM, 1961. Investigations on a disease of Coffea arabica caused by a form of Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack. III. The relation between infection of bearing wood and disease incidence. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 44:511-521

Nyange NE, Williamson B, Lyon GD, McNicol RJ, Connolly T, 1997. Responses of cells and protoplasts of Coffea arabica genotypes to partially purified culture filtrates produced by Colletotrichum kahawae. Plant Cell Reports, 16(11):763-769; 45 ref

Nyange NE, Williamson B, McNicol RJ, Hackett CA, 1995. In vitro screening of coffee genotypes for resistance to coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae). Annals of Applied Biology, 127(2):251-261; 33 ref

Okioga DM, 1976. Occurrence of strains of Colletotrichum coffeanum resistant to methyl benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate (carbendazim) and chemically-similar compounds. Annals of Applied Biology, 84(1):21-30

Okioga DM, 1978. The role of copper fungicides in the control of coffee diseases. Kenya Coffee, 43(509):221-230

Perrone, G., Magistà, D., Ismail, A. M., 2016. First report of Colletotrichum kahawae subsp. Ciggaro on Mandarin in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 98(3), 682. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3686/2341

RAYNER RW, 1952. Coffee berry disease-a survey of investigations carried out up to 1950. East African Agricultural Journal, 17(3):130-158 pp

Rojas, P., Pardo-de Hoz, C. J. la, Calderón, C., Vargas, N., Cabrera, L. A., Restrepo, S., Jiménez, P., 2018. First report of Colletotrichum kahawae subsp. ciggaro causing anthracnose disease on tree Tomato in cundinamarca, Colombia. Plant Disease, 102(10), 2031. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-18-0353-PDN

Saccas AM, Charpentier J, 1969a. L'anthracnose des caféiers robusta et excelsa due á Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack en République Centrafricaine. Café-Cacao-Thé, 13:131-150

Saccas AM, Charpentier J, 1969b. L'anthracnose des caféiers robusta et excelsa due á Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack en République Centrafricaine. Cafe-Cacao-Thé, 13:221-230

Small W, 1926. On the occurrence of a species of Colletotrichum. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 11:112-137

Sreenivasaprasad S, Brown AE, Mills PR, 1993. Coffee berry disease pathogen in Africa: genetic structure and relationship to the group species Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Mycological Research, 97(8):995-1000

Tapley RG, 1964. Coffee berry disease in Tanganyika. Tanganyika Coffee News, 38:45

Tenckhoff V, 1982. Studies on the biology of the agents causing anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and eye spot disease (Cercospora coffeicola Berk. & Cke.) in the Republic of Cuba. Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin, 20(1):75-84

UK CAB International, 1996. Colletotrichum kahawae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, December (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 716

van der Graaff NA, 1983. Resistance to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia. In: Pieters R, Lamberti F, Waller JM, van derGraaff NA, eds. Durable Resistance in Crops. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 317-334

Van der Vossen, HAM, Walyaro DJ, 1981. The coffee breeding programme in Kenya: A review of progress made since 1971 and plan of action for the coming years. Kenya Coffee, 46:541,113-130

Vossen HAMVan der, Cook RTA, Murakaru GNW, 1976. Breeding for resistance to coffee berry disease caused by Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack (sensu Hindorf) in Coffea arabica L. I. Methods of preselection for resistance. Euphytica, 25(3):733-745

Waller JM, 1972. Water-borne spore dispersal in coffee berry disease and its relation to control. Annals of Applied Biology, 71:1-18

Waller JM, 1987. Coffee diseases: current status and recent developments. Review of Tropical Plant Pathology, 4:1-33

Waller JM, Bridge PD, Black R, Hakiza G, 1993. Characterization of the coffee berry disease pathogen, Colletotrichum kahawae sp. nov. Mycological Research, 97(8):989-994

Distribution References

Boisson C, 1960. Coffee anthracnose. (L'anthracnose du Caféier.). Revue de Mycologie. 25 (5), 263-292 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Da Ponte A M, 1966. Spraying Arábica Coffee with calcium superphosphate for the control of Coffee berry disease usually attributed to Colletoirichum coffeanum Noack. Kenya Coffee. 31 (351), 21-22.

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Franco-Ortega S, Gullino M L, 2016a. First report of leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum kahawae on American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (2), 370. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3572/2239

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Puglisi I, Cacciola S O, Gullino M L, 2016. First report of leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum kahawae on cultivated rocket (Eruca sativa) in Italy. Plant Disease. 100 (6), 1240. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-15-1243-PDN

Hendrickx F L, 1939. [English title not available]. (Observations sur la maladie verruqueuse des fruits du caféier.). In: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronmique du Congo Belge, INEAC. Serie Scientifique.

IPPC-Secretariat, 2005. Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003. In: Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003 [Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003.], Rome & Braunschweig, Italy & Germany: FAO. xii + 301 pp.

Mcdonald J, 1926. A preliminary account of a disease of green Coffee berries in Kenya Colony. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 11 (1-2), 145-154 pp.

Mulinge S K, 1973. Outbreaks and new records, Ethiopia, Coffee berry disease. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 21 (4), 85-86.

Muller RA, 1964. (L'anthracnose de baies du café d'arabie, Coffea arabica. due á une fille forme virulente du Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack. I. Variations de la sensibilité des fruits au cours de leur development. II. L'irrigation méthôde preventive de la contrôle de la maladie). In: Café - Cacao - Thé, 17 281-312.

Perrone G, Magistà D, Ismail A M, 2016. First report of Colletotrichum kahawae subsp. Ciggaro on Mandarin in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (3), 682. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3686/2341

Rojas P, Pardo-de Hoz C J la, Calderón C, Vargas N, Cabrera L A, Restrepo S, Jiménez P, 2018. First report of Colletotrichum kahawae subsp. ciggaro causing anthracnose disease on tree Tomato in cundinamarca, Colombia. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 2031. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-18-0353-PDN

Small W, 1926. On the occurrences of a species of Colletotrichum. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 11 (1-2), 112-137 pp.

Tapley R G, 1964. Coffee berry disease in Tanganyika. Tanganyika Coffee News. 38-45.

UK, CAB International, 1996. Colletotrichum kahawae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 716. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20056500716

Waller J M, 1987. Coffee diseases current status and recent developments. In: Review of tropical plant pathology. Volume 4.. [ed. by Raychaudhuri SP, Verma JP]. New Delhi, India: Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers. 1-33.

Zhang H, Wei Y, Shi H, 2020. First report of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum kahawae subsp. ciggaro on areca in China. Plant Disease. 104 (6), 1871-1872. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-19-2628-PDN

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