Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Colletotrichum truncatum
(soyabean anthracnose)

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Datasheet

Colletotrichum truncatum (soyabean anthracnose)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Colletotrichum truncatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • soyabean anthracnose
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Black acervuli on soyabean stem.
TitleSymptoms on soyabean
CaptionBlack acervuli on soyabean stem.
CopyrightISU
Black acervuli on soyabean stem.
Symptoms on soyabeanBlack acervuli on soyabean stem.ISU
Close-up of pod blight on soyabean showing acervuli on pod arranged in concentric rings.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionClose-up of pod blight on soyabean showing acervuli on pod arranged in concentric rings.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Close-up of pod blight on soyabean showing acervuli on pod arranged in concentric rings.
SymptomsClose-up of pod blight on soyabean showing acervuli on pod arranged in concentric rings.Ved Prakash Gupta
Symptoms: pod blight of soyabean caused by C. truncatum, showing acervuli on pods arranged in concentric rings.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms: pod blight of soyabean caused by C. truncatum, showing acervuli on pods arranged in concentric rings.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Symptoms: pod blight of soyabean caused by C. truncatum, showing acervuli on pods arranged in concentric rings.
SymptomsSymptoms: pod blight of soyabean caused by C. truncatum, showing acervuli on pods arranged in concentric rings.Ved Prakash Gupta
Acervuli of C. truncatum on stem of soyabean.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAcervuli of C. truncatum on stem of soyabean.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Acervuli of C. truncatum on stem of soyabean.
SymptomsAcervuli of C. truncatum on stem of soyabean.Ved Prakash Gupta
Anthracnose on the stem of soyabean showing the white growth of the fungus along with acervuli on the stem between the soil and the first node. This is the first symptom to appear on plants, which are symptomless until the VN and R1 growth stage.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAnthracnose on the stem of soyabean showing the white growth of the fungus along with acervuli on the stem between the soil and the first node. This is the first symptom to appear on plants, which are symptomless until the VN and R1 growth stage.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Anthracnose on the stem of soyabean showing the white growth of the fungus along with acervuli on the stem between the soil and the first node. This is the first symptom to appear on plants, which are symptomless until the VN and R1 growth stage.
SymptomsAnthracnose on the stem of soyabean showing the white growth of the fungus along with acervuli on the stem between the soil and the first node. This is the first symptom to appear on plants, which are symptomless until the VN and R1 growth stage. Ved Prakash Gupta

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Colletotrichum truncatum (Schwein.) Andrus & W.D. Moore, 1934

Preferred Common Name

  • soyabean anthracnose

Other Scientific Names

  • Colletotrichum dematium forma truncatum (Schwein.) Arx
  • Vermicularia truncata Schwein. 1832

International Common Names

  • English: brown blotch of cowpea; colletotrichum leaf spot of moth bean; lentil anthracnose; pod blight of soyabean; pod blight of soybean; soybean anthracnose; stem anthracnose of lima bean and pigeon pea
  • Spanish: antracnosis del tallo
  • French: anthracnose de la tige

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Anthraknose: Limabohne; Anthraknose: Sojabohne

EPPO code

  • COLLDU (Colletotrichum truncatum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Glomerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Colletotrichum
  •                                 Species: Colletotrichum truncatum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 02 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresentIRAT (1978); CABI and EPPO (2001); Ellison et al. (2015)
CameroonPresentBernaux (1979); CABI and EPPO (2001)
Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: IRAT (1980)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
GabonPresentNdzoumba et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2001)
GhanaPresentTwumasi et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001)
GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
MadagascarPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: IRAT (1980)
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
MozambiquePresentVernetti et al. (1985); Tarp et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001)
NigeriaPresentAmusa (1994); CABI and EPPO (2001)
SenegalPresentGirard (1979); CABI and EPPO (2001)
Sierra LeonePresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
South AfricaPresentKoch et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
ZambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO (2001)

Asia

BangladeshPresentMridha et al. (1984); Fakir and Mridha (1985); CABI and EPPO (2001)
ChinaPresentWei et al. (1989); Wei et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-FujianPresentDiao et al. (2014)
-GuangdongPresentCheng et al. (2014)
-YunnanPresentGuo LiWe et al. (2014)
GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
IndiaPresentRao and Rao (1987); Singh and Gupta (1992); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Andhra PradeshPresentMosses and Reddy (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-AssamPresentSaikia and Phookan (1983); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Himachal PradeshPresentBhardwaj and Thakur (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-KarnatakaPresentBanu et al. (1990)
-KeralaPresentSharma et al. (1987)
-Madhya PradeshPresentNicholson and Sinclair (1973); Singh (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-MaharashtraPresentRao (1986); Rao et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-PunjabPresentBains et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-RajasthanPresentSingh and Srivastava (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-Uttar PradeshPresentSaxena and Sinha (1978); Singh and Shukla (1988); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
IndonesiaPresentKobayashi and Zinno (1984); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-SumatraPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
IranPresentZad (1979); CABI and EPPO (2001)
JapanPresentFuse et al. (1981); Chikuo et al. (1984); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
MalaysiaPresentNik and Lim (1984); CABI and EPPO (2001); Mahmodi et al. (2013); Suzianti Iskandar Vijaya et al. (2015)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
MyanmarPresentMyo Zaw et al. (2020)
NepalPresentManandhar and Sinclair (1982); Manandhar et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001)
PakistanPresentMirza and Rehman (1985); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentKobayashi and Zinno (1984); CABI and EPPO (2001)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
SingaporePresentLim and Tang (1984)
South KoreaPresentKim et al. (1989); Yum and Park (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001)
TaiwanPresentKuo et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2001)
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
TurkeyPresentEken and Demİrcİ (2000); CABI and EPPO (2001)
United Arab EmiratesPresentBurhan (1986); CABI and EPPO (2001)
VietnamPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)

Europe

BulgariaPresentKaiser et al. (1998)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentJasnić (1983); CABI and EPPO (2001)
FrancePresentIRAT (1978); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresentErsek (1979); CABI and EPPO (2001)
ItalyPresentCalzolari et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
MoldovaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
RussiaPresentSkripka et al. (1986); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
SlovakiaPresentOndřej (1994); CABI and EPPO (2001)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)

North America

BarbadosPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
BelizePresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-ManitobaPresentMorrall (1988); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-SaskatchewanPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
CubaPresentGarcia et al. (1980); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
GuatemalaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
HondurasPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
Puerto RicoPresentHepperly et al. (1983); Ortiz et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2001)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
United StatesPresentRoy (1982); Kunwar et al. (1985); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-AlabamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-ArkansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-FloridaPresentLenne and Sonoda (1979); Cardina et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-IllinoisPresentManandhar et al. (1985); Hartman et al. (1986); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-IndianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-KansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-KentuckyPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-LouisianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-MarylandPresentBarksdale (1972); Miller et al. (1984); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-MississippiPresentBoyette (1991); Boyette et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-MissouriPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-North DakotaPresentVenette et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-OklahomaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-South CarolinaPresentGrabke et al. (2014)
-South DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-TennesseePresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-WisconsinPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentLenne and Sonoda (1979); Shipton (1979); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-New South WalesPresentAllen (1972); Walker et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-QueenslandPresentWalker et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Western AustraliaPresentBarbetti (1985); CABI and EPPO (2001)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
SamoaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
TongaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)

South America

ArgentinaPresentMena et al. (1978); CABI and EPPO (2001)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-AmazonasPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-BahiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-GoiasPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-ParanaPresentAlmeida et al. (2001)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentFinger and Minussi (1980); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
GuyanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
VenezuelaPresentSanabria de Albarracín (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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1980. Annual report 1979. Report, Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales et des Cultures Vivrieres, France, 212 pp.

Abbas HK; Boyette CD, 2000. Solid substrate formulations of the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum truncatum for hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) control. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 10(3):291-300; 27 ref.

Adebitan SA; Fawole B; Hartman GL, 1996. Effect of plant spacing and cropping pattern on brown blotch (Colletotrichum truncatum) of cowpea. Tropical Agriculture, 73(4):275-280; 21 ref.

Albuquerque MCde Fe; Carvalho NMde, 2003. Effect of the type of environmental stress on the emergence of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) and maize (Zea mays L.) seeds with different levels of vigor. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland), 31(2):465-479.

Allen RN, 1972. Diseases of Golden Tares in the Richmond Valley of New South Wales. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 83(4):244-246

Almeida ÂMR; Saraiva OF; Farias JRB; Gaudêncio CA; Torres E, 2001. Survival of pathogens on soybean debris under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 36(10):1231-1238.

Amusa NA, 1994. Production, partial purification and bioassay of toxic metabolites of three plant pathogenic species of Colletotrichum in Nigeria. Mycopathologia, 128(3):161-166

Amusa NA; Ikotun T; Osikanlu YOK, 1994. Screening cowpea and soybean cultivars for resistance to anthracnose and brown blotch diseases using phytotoxic metabolites. African Crop Science Journal, 2(2):221-224; 13 ref.

Ariana Maharaj; Rampersad SN, 2012. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting. Molecular Biotechnology, 50(3):237-249. http://www.springerlink.com/content/x8408883 g6v68q81/

Backman PA; Rodriguez-Kabana R; Hammond JM; Thurlow DL, 1979. Cultivar, environment, and fungicide effects on foliar disease losses in soybeans. Phytopathology, 69(6):562-564

Backman PA; Williams JC; Crawford MA, 1982. Yield losses in soybeans from anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum truncatum. Plant Disease, 66(11):1032-1034

Bains SS; Livinder Kaur; Dhaliwal HS; Gill AS, 1989. Outbreak of a new anthracnose of mung and mash in Punjab. Indian Botanical Reporter, 8(2):164-165

Baird RE; Mullinix BG; Peery AB; Lang ML, 1997. Diversity and longevity of the soybean debris mycobiota in a no-tillage system. Plant Disease, 81(5):530-534; 23 ref.

Bankole SA; Adebanjo A, 1996. Biocontrol of brown blotch of cowpea caused by Colletotrichum truncatum with Trichoderma viride. Crop Protection, 15(7):633-636; 27 ref.

Banu ISKF; Shivanna MB; Shetty HS, 1990. Seed-borne nature and transmission of Colletotrichum dematium in chilli. Advances in Plant Sciences, 3(2):200-206

Barbetti MJ, 1985. Survey of fungi associated with subterranean clover leaves and petioles in Western Australia. Plant Pathology, 34(1):49-53; [3 tab.]; 20 ref.

Barksdale TH, 1972. Resistance in tomato to six anthracnose fungi. Phytopathology, 62(6):660-663.

Begum MM; Sariah M; Puteh AB; Abidin MAZ, 2007. Detection of seed-borne fungi and site of infection by Colletotrichum truncatum in naturally-infected soybean seeds. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(9):812-819. http://www.academicjournals.net/2/c4p.php?id=2&theme=2&jid=ijar

Begum MM; Sariah M; Puteh AB; Zainal Abidin MA; Rahman MA; Siddiqui Y, 2010. Field performance of bio-primed seeds to suppress Colletotrichum truncatum causing damping-off and seedling stand of soybean. Biological Control, 53(1):18-23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WBP-4XVK3Y2-1&_user=10&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2010&_rdoc=4&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236716%232010%23999469998%231723116%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6716&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=20&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=ae49d8908e2156d6a7d33d740679af51

Bernaux P, 1979. Identification of some soybean diseases in Cameroon. Agronomie Tropicale, 34(3):301-304

Bhardwaj CL; Thakur DR, 1991. Efficacy and economics of fungicide spray schedules for control of leaf spots and pod blights in urdbean. Indian Phytopathology, 44(4):470-475

Boyette CD, 1991. Host range and virulence of Colletotrichum truncatum, a potential mycoherbicide for hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata). Plant Disease, 75(1):62-64

Boyette CD; Quimby PC Jr; Bryson CT; Egley GH; Fulgham FE, 1993. Biological control of hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) under field conditions with Colletotrichum truncatum formulated in an invert emulsion. Weed Science, 41(3):497-500

Burhan MJ, 1986. Outbreaks and new records. United Arab Emirates, anthracnose of alfalfa. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 34(2):111

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Colletotrichum truncatum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 835, edition 1. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Calzolari A; Cavanni P; Ponti I, 1987. Bacterial and fungus diseases of soyabean. Informatore Fitopatologico, 37(3):7-12; 8 ref.

Cardina J; Littrell RH; Hanlin RT, 1988. Anthracnose of Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum) caused by Colletotrichum truncatum. Weed Science, 36(3):329-334

Castro PRC; Kimati H; Morps RS, 1982. Behaviour of Glycine max cv. Davis treated with growth regulators on inoculation with Colletotrichum dematium f. truncata. Revista de Agricultura, Brazil, 57(3):183-191

Cerkauskas RF; Dhingra OD; Sinclair JB, 1983. Effect of three desiccant-type herbicides on fruiting structures of Colletotrichum truncatum and Phomopsis spp. on soybean stems. Plant Disease, 67(5):620-622

Chandrasekaran A; Narasimhan V; Rajappan K, 2000. Changes in the activity of phenolics and oxidizing enzymes in soybean cultivars resistant and susceptible to Colletotrichum truncatum. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 8(2):176-178; 9 ref.

Chandrasekaran A; Narasimhan V; Rajappan K, 2000. Integrated management of anthracnose and pod blight of soybean. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 8(2): 163-165.

Cheng BP; Huang YH; Peng AT; Ling JF; Song XB; Chen X, 2014. First report of leaf and fruit spot of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Nian Ju caused by Colletotrichum truncatum in China. Plant Disease, 98(3):422. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0712-PDN

Chikuo Y; Sugimoto T; Endo T, 1984. Sugar beet anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum dematium f. spinaciae (Ellis et Halst.) v. Arx. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 50(1):46-52

Chongo G; Bernier CC, 1999. Field and growth chamber evaluation of components of partial resistance to Colletotrichum truncatum in lentil. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 21(1):58-63; 14 ref.

Chongo G; Bernier CC, 2000. Disease incidence, lesion size, and sporulation in Colletotrichum truncatum as influenced by lentil genotype and temperature. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22(3):236-240; 13 ref.

Chongo G; Bernier CC, 2000. Effects of host, inoculum concentration, wetness duration, growth stage, and temperature on anthracnose of lentil. Plant Disease, 84(5):544-548; 14 ref.

Chongo G; Bernier CC; Buchwaldt L, 1999. Control of anthracnose in lentil using partial resistance and fungicide applications. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 21(1):16-22.

Connick WJJr; Daigle DJ; Boyette CD; Williams KS; Vinyard BT; Quimby PCJr, 1996. Water activity and other factors that affect the viability of Colletotrichum truncatum conidia in wheat flour-kaolin granules ('Pesta'). Biocontrol Science and Technology, 6(2):277-284; 33 ref.

Connick WJJr; Jackson MA; Williams KS; Boyette CD, 1997. Stability of microsclerotial inoculum of Colletotrichum truncatum encapsulated in wheat flour-kaolin granules. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 13(5):549-554; 15 ref.

Daigle DJ; Connick WJJr; Boyette CD; Jackson MA; Dorner JW, 1998. Solid-state fermentation plus extrusion to make biopesticide granules. Biotechnology Techniques, 12(10):715-719; 17 ref.

Daigle DJ; Connick WJJr; Boyette CD; Lovisa MP; Williams KS; Watson M, 1997. Twin-screw extrusion of 'Pesta'-encapsulated biocontrol agents. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 13(6):671-676; 18 ref.

Dhingra OD; SediyamaC; Carraro IM; Reis MS, 1978. Behavior of four soybean cultivars to seed-infecting fungi in delayed harvest. Fitopatol. Brasil., 3:277-282.

Diao YZ; Zhang C; Lin D; Liu XL, 2014. First report of Colletotrichum truncatum causing anthracnose of tomato in China. Plant Disease, 98(5):687-688. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Eken C; Demirci E, 2000. First report of Colletotrichum truncatum on alfalfa in Turkey. Plant Disease, 84(1):100; 1 ref.

Ellis MA; Paschal EH; Powell PE; Tenne FD, 1979. Internally seedborne fungi of soya bean in Puerto Rico and their effect on seed germination and field emergence. Tropical Agriculture, 56(2):171-174

Ellison CA; Sawadogo A; Braman S; Nacro S, 2015. First report of Colletotrichum truncatum causing stem cankers on Jatropha curcas in Burkina Faso. Plant Disease, 99(1):14-20. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ersek T, 1979. Occurrence of charcoal rot and anthracnose of soybeans in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 14(1/2):17-21

Fakir GA; Mridha U, 1985. Die-back, a new disease of lady's finger (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 1(1):25-28

Finger CAG; Minussi E, 1980. Causal agent of anthracnose of timba·va (Enterolobium contortisiliquum): symptomatology and in vitro inhibition tests of the pathogen. Floresta, 11(2):26-34; 11 ref.

Franca Neto JB; West SH, 1989. Effects of Colletotrichum truncatum and Cercospora kikuchii on viability and quality of soybean seed. Journal of Seed Technology, 13(2):136-149

Fulco WS; Lehman PS; Crespo AT, 1979. Harvesting time of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) as a factor influencing seed quality. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 4(1):25-39

Furgal-Wegrzycka H, 1997. Genetic relatedness of Colletotrichum species from Leguminosae by examination of vegetative compatibility. Acta Microbiologica Polonica, 46(1):83-93; 42 ref.

Fuse H; Suzuki H; Ishiguro K; Saito S; Saito T, 1981. On the diseases and insect pests of soybean in the upland field converted from paddy field in Shonai-district II. Stem rot occurred in the early growing stage of soybean in 1980, especially anthracnose and its control. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No.32:127-129

Galli JA; Panizi Rde C; Vieira RD, 2007. Soybean seed health after six months of storage. (Sobrevivência de patógenos associados a sementes de soja armazenadas durante seis meses.) Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 29(2):205-213. http://www.abrates.org.br/revista

Gamarnik A; Frydman RB; Barreto D, 1994. Prevention of infection of soybean seeds by Colletotrichum truncatum by polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors. Phytopathology, 84(12):1445-1448

García JL; Díaz Carrasco H; González LA, 1988. Major pathogens observed in soyabean seeds. Ciencias de la Agricultura, No. 33:142-143; 3 ref.

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