Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Colletotrichum coccodes
(black dot of potato)

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Datasheet

Colletotrichum coccodes (black dot of potato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 April 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Colletotrichum coccodes
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black dot of potato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • There are no reports indicating C. coccodes to be an invasive species.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Colletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes showing symptomatic sclerotia on the grey lesion.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionColletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes showing symptomatic sclerotia on the grey lesion.
Copyright©Dr Leah Tsror
Colletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes showing symptomatic sclerotia on the grey lesion.
SymptomsColletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes showing symptomatic sclerotia on the grey lesion.©Dr Leah Tsror
Colletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionColletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes.
Copyright©Dr Leah Tsror
Colletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes.
SymptomsColletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes.©Dr Leah Tsror
Colletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionColletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes.
Copyright©Dr Leah Tsror
Colletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes.
SymptomsColletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose); Potato tuber and potato stem infected with Colletotrichum coccodes.©Dr Leah Tsror
C. coccodes (Fusarium oxysporum also present) on potato tubers. Greece 1992.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionC. coccodes (Fusarium oxysporum also present) on potato tubers. Greece 1992.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
C. coccodes (Fusarium oxysporum also present) on potato tubers. Greece 1992.
SymptomsC. coccodes (Fusarium oxysporum also present) on potato tubers. Greece 1992.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes

Preferred Common Name

  • black dot of potato

Other Scientific Names

  • Chaetomium coccodes Wallr.
  • Colletotrichum atramentarium (Berk. & Broome) Taubenhaus
  • Colletotrichum azaleae Ell. & Ev.
  • Colletotrichum commelinae Ell. & Ev.
  • Colletotrichum crotalariae Petch
  • Colletotrichum cyclamenae Halst.
  • Colletotrichum dioscoreae Tehon
  • Colletotrichum eucalypti Bitancourt
  • Colletotrichum hibisci Pollacci
  • Colletotrichum ipomoeae De Camara
  • Colletotrichum melongenae Ell. & Halst.
  • Colletotrichum nigrum Ell. & Halst.
  • Colletotrichum papayae P. Henn./Petr.
  • Colletotrichum phomoides (Sacc.) Chester
  • Colletotrichum piperatum Ellis & Everh.
  • Colletotrichum primulae Halst.
  • Colletotrichum vanillae Scal.
  • Gloeosporium alborubrum Petch
  • Gloeosporium amygdalinum Britzelm.
  • Gloeosporium cactorum Stonem.
  • Gloeosporium callae Oudem.
  • Gloeosporium cingulatum Atk.
  • Gloeosporium dendrobii Maubl.
  • Gloeosporium elasticae Cooke & Mass.
  • Gloeosporium eucalypti Mcalp.
  • Gloeosporium foliicolum (=foliicola) Nishida
  • Gloeosporium fructigenum Berk.
  • Gloeosporium hawaiense Thuem.
  • Gloeosporium kaki Hori
  • Gloeosporium lycopersici Krüger
  • Gloeosporium mangifera P. Henn.
  • Gloeosporium manihotis P. Henn.
  • Gloeosporium ochraceum Patters.
  • Gloeosporium oleae Patters.
  • Gloeosporium oleandri Sacc.
  • Gloeosporium olivarum J.V. Ameida
  • Gloeosporium opuntiae Ellis & Ev.
  • Gloeosporium passiflorae
  • Gloeosporium phomoides Sacc.
  • Gloeosporium piperatum Ell. & Ev.
  • Gloeosporium psidii Delacr.
  • Gloeosporium rubicola Ellis & Ev.
  • Gloeosporium syringae Allescher
  • Gloeosporium vanillae Cooke
  • Gloeosporium vexans Atkinson
  • Glomerella lycopersici Krüger

International Common Names

  • English: anthracnose of potato; anthracnose of strawberry; anthracnose of tomato; biocontrol of velvetleaf; bitter rot; black dot disease of potato; brown root rot of tomato; fruit anthracnose of tomato, capsicum and squash; fruit rot; ripe rot of tomato; twig blight
  • Spanish: antracnosis (patata); antracnosis de la berenjena; antracnosis de la papa y del tomate; antracnosis de las manzanas; antracnosis del agrios; antracnosis del aguacate; antracnosis del almendro; antracnosis del limonero; antracnosis del mango; dartrosis (patata); olivo Aceitunas jabonosas; podredumbre amarga de las cerezas
  • French: anthracnose de la pomme de terre et de la tomate; anthracnose de la tomate; anthracnose de l'airelle; anthracnose de l'amandier; anthracnose de l'hevea; anthracnose des agrumes; anthracnose des pommes; bitter-rot ordinaire; brulure des rameaux de l'airelle; dartrose de la pomme de terre; dartrose de la tomate; pourriture amere de la vigne; pourriture amere du cerisier; pourriture amere du groseillier; pourriture amere du pommier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Anthraknose; Anthraknose: Erdbeere; Anthraknose: Kartoffel; Anthraknose: Tomate; Bitterfaeule; Blattduerre: Kartoffel; Blattfleckenkrankheit; Duerrfleckenkrankheit; Fruchtfaeule; Knollenwelke: Kartoffel; Mykoherbizid; Reifefaeule: Tomate; Spitzenduerre; Welke: Kartoffel

EPPO code

  • COLLCC

Summary of Invasiveness

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There are no reports indicating C. coccodes to be an invasive species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Glomerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Colletotrichum
  •                                 Species: Colletotrichum coccodes

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent
-HebeiPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-BiharPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Central RussiaPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent
-Channel IslandsPresent
-ScotlandPresent

North America

BarbadosPresent
BermudaPresent
CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Costa RicaPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuatemalaPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-FloridaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ChilePresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

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Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Stems / discoloration
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / early senescence

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Epicoccum nigrum Antagonist

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionThe pathogen can be spread on seed tubers, through soil and air Yes Yes Tsror et al. (1999a); Johnson and Miliczky (1993)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes Tsror et al. (1999a)
WindPathogen inoculum carried by blowing soil can infect potato leaves Yes Johnson and Miliczky (1993)

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Alananbeh, K. M., Lahkim, L. T., Gudmestad, N. C., 2014. Genetic diversity of a global population of Colletotrichum coccodes using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. American Journal of Potato Research, 91(1), 75-87. doi: 10.1007/s12230-013-9331-2

Alkan, N., Fluhr, R., Sherman, A., Prusky, D., 2008. Role of ammonia secretion and pH modulation on pathogenicity of Colletotrichum coccodes on tomato fruit. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 21(8), 1058-1066. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-21-8-1058

Andrivon, D., Lucas, J. M., Guérin, C., Jouan, B., 1998. Colonization of roots, stolons, tubers and stems of various potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars by the black-dot fungus Colletotrichum coccodes. Plant Pathology, 47(4), 440-445. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.1998.00267.x

Andrivon, D., Ramage, K., Guérin, C., Lucas, J. M., Jouan, B., 1997. Distribution and fungicide sensitivity of Colletotrichum coccodes in French potato-producing areas. Plant Pathology, 46(5), 722-728. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.1997.d01-60.x

Aqeel, A. M., Pasche, J. S., Gudmestad, N. C., 2008. Variability in morphology and aggressiveness among North American vegetative compatibility groups of Colletotrichum coccodes. Phytopathology, 98(8), 901-909. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-98-8-0901

Barkdoll, A. W., Davis, J. R., 1992. Distribution of Colletotrichum coccodes in Idaho and variation in pathogenicity on potato. Plant Disease, 76(2), 131-135. doi: 10.1094/PD-76-0131

Bellé, C., Ramos, R. F., Moccellin, R., Farias, C. R. J. de, 2020. Detection of Colletotrichum coccodes causing leaf anthracnose on Pisum sativum in southern Brazil. Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(1), 255-255. doi: 10.1007/s42161-019-00392-6

Ben-Daniel, B. H., Bar-Zvi, D., Tsror, L., 2012. Pectate lyase affects pathogenicity in natural isolates of Colletotrichum coccodes and in pelA gene-disrupted and gene-overexpressing mutant lines. Molecular Plant Pathology, 13(2), 187-197. doi: 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2011.00740.x

Ben-Daniel, B., Bar-Zvi, D., Johnson, D., Harding, R., Hazanovsky, M., Tsror, L., 2010. Vegetative compatibility groups in Colletotrichum coccodes subpopulations from Australia and genetic links with subpopulations from Europe/Israel and North America. Phytopathology, 100(3), 271-278. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-100-3-0271

Ben-Daniel, B., Bar-Zvi, D., Tsror, L., 2010. Transmission of Colletotrichum coccodes via tomato seeds. Phytoparasitica, 38(2), 167-174. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r67141hh3768w442/?p=afb3d317a1334befb235e92226274c39&pi=8

Blaisdell B, Geary B, Morton J, Kearns M, Johnson DA, 2009. Available nitrogen levels influence Colletotrichum coccodes infection severity of Russet Burbank potato roots. Phytopathology, 99, S12.

CABI/EPPO, 2011. Colletotrichum coccodes. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 190 (Edition 5)

Cannon, P. F., Damm, U., Johnston, P. R., Weir, B. S., 2012. Colletotrichum - current status and future directions. Studies in Mycology, (No.73), 181-213. doi: 10.3114/sim0014

Cano, J., Guarro, J., Gené, J., 2004. Molecular and morphological identification of Colletotrichum species of clinical interest. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42(6), 2450-2454. doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.6.2450-2454.2004

Carnegie, S. F., Choiseul, J. W., Roberts, A. M. I., 2003. Detection of Colletotrichum coccodes and Helminthosporium solani in soils by bioassay. Plant Pathology, 52(1), 13-21. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00794.x

Chakradhar Mattupalli, Genger, R. K., Charkowski, A. O., 2013. Evaluating incidence of Helminthosporium solani and Colletotrichum coccodes on asymptomatic organic potatoes and screening potato lines for resistance to silver scurf. American Journal of Potato Research, 90(4), 369-377. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12230-013-9314-3

Chesters, C. G. C., Hornby, D., 1965. Studies on Colletotrichum coccodes. II. Alternative host tests and tomato fruit inoculations using a typical tomato root isolate. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 48, 583-94.

Cullen, D. W., Lees, A. K., Toth, I. K., Duncan, J. M., 2002. Detection of Colletotrichum coccodes from soil and potato tubers by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR. Plant Pathology, 51(3), 281-292. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2002.00690.x

Cummings, T. F., Johnson, D. A., 2008. Effectiveness of early-season, single applications of azoxystrobin for the control of potato black dot as evaluated by three assessment methods. American Journal of Potato Research, 85(6), 422-431. doi: 10.1007/s12230-008-9040-4

Dauch, A. L., Ahn, B., Watson, A. K., Seguin, P., Jabaji-Hare, S. H., 2006. Molecular monitoring of wild-type and genetically engineered Colletotrichum coccodes biocontrol strains in planta. Plant Disease, 90(12), 1504-1510. doi: 10.1094/PD-90-1504

Dauch, A. L., Watson, A. K., Jabaji-Hare, S. H., 2003. Detection of the biocontrol agent Colletotrichum coccodes (183088) from the target weed velvetleaf and from soil by strain-specific PCR markers. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 55(1), 51-64. doi: 10.1016/S0167-7012(03)00116-7

Davis JR, Johnson DA, 2001. Black dot. In: Compendium of Potato Diseases, [ed. by Stevenson WR, Loria R, Franc GD, Weingartner DP]. St. Paul, USA: APS Press. 14-16.

De Hoog GS, Guarro J, Gené J, Figueras MJ, 2000. Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd ed, Utrecht, Netherlands: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.

Denner, F. D. N., Millard, C. P., Wehner, F. C., 2000. Effect of soil solarisation and mouldboard ploughing on black dot of potato, caused by Colletotrichum coccodes. Potato Research, 43(3), 195-201. doi: 10.1007/BF02358079

Dillard, H. R., Cobb, A. C., 1997. Disease progress of black dot on tomato roots and reduction in incidence with foliar applied fungicides. Plant Disease, 81(12), 1439-1442. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.12.1439

Dillard, H. R., Cobb, A. C., 1998. Survival of Colletotrichum coccodes in infected tomato tissue and in soil. Plant Disease, 82(2), 235-238. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.2.235

Frederick, Z. A., Cummings, T. F., Brown, C. R., Quick, R. A., Johnson, D. A., 2017. Evaluation of Solanum sisymbriifolium as a potential inoculum source of Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes. Plant Disease, 101(7), 1300-1305. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-16-1077-RE

Geary B, Kearns MJ, Song E, Blaisedel B, Johnson DA, Hopkins BG, Jolly VD, 2009. Infection severity of Colletotrichum coccodes in Russet Burbank potatoes with respect to environmental potassium. Phytopathology, 99, S41.

Gilardi G, Baudino M, Ortu G, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2012. Colletotrichum coccodes on Capsicum rootstocks in northern-Italy. (Attacchi di Colletotrichum coccodes su portainnesti di peperone in Piemonte.) Protezione delle Colture, No.5:34-36. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Glais, I., Andrivon, D., 2004. Deep sunken lesions - an atypical symptom on potato tubers caused by Colletotrichum coccodes during storage. Plant Pathology, 53(2), 254. doi: 10.1111/j.0032-0862.2004.00970.x

Gotlieb, A. R., Watson, A. K., Poirier, C., 1987. First report of Colletotrichum coccodes on velvetleaf. Plant Disease, 71(3), 281. doi: 10.1094/PD-71-0281A

Hay FS, Strickland D, Maloney E, Hoepting C, Pethybridge SJ, 2016. Anthracnose of onion caused by Colletotrichum coccodes in New York. Plant Disease, 100(11):2171. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Hong JeumKyu, Hwang ByungKook, 1998. Influence of inoculum density, wetness duration, plant age, inoculation method, and cultivar resistance on infection of pepper plants by Colletotrichum coccodes. Plant Disease, 82(10), 1079-1083. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.10.1079

Hughes SJ, 1958. (Revisiones Hyphomycetum aliquot cum appendice de nominibus rejiciendis). Canadian Journal of Botany, 36(6), 727-836.

Hunger, R. M., McIntyre, G. A., 1979. Occurrence, development, and losses associated with silver scurf and black dot on Colorado potatoes. American Potato Journal, 56(6), 289-306. doi: 10.1007/BF02855598

Ingram, J., Johnson, D. A., 2010. Colonization of potato roots and stolons by Colletotrichum coccodes from tuberborne inoculum. American Journal of Potato Research, 87(4), 382-389. doi: 10.1007/s12230-010-9144-5

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

Johnson, D. A., 1994. Effect of foliar infection caused by Colletotrichum coccodes on yield of Russet Burbank potato. Plant Disease, 78(11), 1075-1078. doi: 10.1094/PD-78-1075

Johnson, D. A., Cummings, T. F., 2015. Effect of extended crop rotations on incidence of black dot, silver scurf, and Verticillium wilt of potato. Plant Disease, 99(2), 257-262. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-03-14-0271-RE

Johnson, D. A., Douhan, L. I., Geary, B., 2002. Report of Colletotrichum coccodes associated with Mentha. Plant Disease, 86(6), 695. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.6.695B

Johnson, D. A., Geary, B., Tsror, L., 2018. Potato black dot - the elusive pathogen, disease development and management. American Journal of Potato Research, 95(4), 340-350. doi: 10.1007/s12230-018-9633-5

Johnson, D. A., Miliczky, E. R., 1993. Effects of wounding and wetting duration on infection of potato foliage by Colletotrichum coccodes. Plant Disease, 77(1), 13-17. doi: 10.1094/PD-77-0013

Lees, A. K., Hilton, A. J., 2003. Black dot (Colletotrichum coccodes): an increasingly important disease of potato. Plant Pathology, 52(1), 3-12. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00793.x

Liu Fang, Cai Lei, Crous, P. W., Damm, U., 2013. Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum. Mycologia, 105(4), 844-860. doi: 10.3852/12-315

Liu Fang, Hyde, K. D., Cai Lei, 2011. Neotypification of Colletotrichum coccodes, the causal agent of potato black dot disease and tomato anthracnose. Mycology - An International Journal on Fungal Biology, 2(4), 248-254. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tmyc20

Maas, J. L., Howard, C. M., 1985. Variation of several anthracnose fungi in virulence to strawberry and apple. Plant Disease, 69(2), 164-166. doi: 10.1094/PD-69-164

Maneval, W. E. , 1937. A list of Missouri fungi with special reference to plant pathogens and wood-destroying fungi. Univ. Mo. Stud, 12(3), 1-150 pp.

Mcguire, J. U., Crandall, B. S., 1967. Survey of insect pests and plant diseases of selected food crops of Mexico, central America and Panama, USDA Int. agric. Development Service.157 pp.

Mohan SK, Davis JR, Sorensen LH, Schneider AT, 1992. Influence of aerial parts of potato plants by Colletotrichum coccodes and its effects on premature vine death and yield. American Potato Journal, 69(9), 547-559.

Nitzan, N., Cummings, T. F., Johnson, D. A., 2008. Disease potential of soil- and tuberborne inocula of Colletotrichum coccodes and black dot severity on potato. Plant Disease, 92(11), 1497-1502. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-92-11-1497

Nitzan, N., Evans, M. A., Cummings, T. F., Johnson, D. A., Batchelor, D. L., Olsen, C., Haynes, K. G., Brown, C. R., 2009. Field resistance to potato stem colonization by the black dot pathogen Colletotrichum coccodes. Plant Disease, 93(11), 1116-1122. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-93-11-1116

Nitzan, N., Hazanovsky, M., Tal, M., Tsror, L., 2002. Vegetative compatibility groups in Colletotrichum coccodes, the causal agent of black dot on potato. Phytopathology, 92(8), 827-832. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.8.827

Nitzan, N., Lucas, B. S., Christ, B. J., 2006. Colonization of rotation crops and weeds by the potato black dot pathogen Colletotrichum coccodes. American Journal of Potato Research, 83(6), 503-507. http://www.umaine.edu/paa/

Nitzan, N., Tsror, L., Johnson, D. A., 2006. Vegetative compatibility groups and aggressiveness of North American isolates of Colletotrichum coccodes, the causal agent of potato black dot. Plant Disease, 90(10), 1287-1292. doi: 10.1094/PD-90-1287

Orieux, L., Felix, S., 1968. List of plant diseases in Mauritius. In: Phytopathological Papers , (No. 7) . Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.48 pp.

Pasche, J. S., Taylor, R. J., Gudmestad, N. C., 2010. Colonization of potato by Colletotrichum coccodes: effect of soil infestation and seed tuber and foliar inoculation. Plant Disease, 94(7), 905-914. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-94-7-0905

Peters, J. C., Harper, G., Brierley, J. L., Lees, A. K., Wale, S. J., Hilton, A. J., Gladders, P., Boonham, N., Cunnington, A. C., 2016. The effect of post-harvest storage conditions on the development of black dot (Colletotrichum coccodes) on potato in crops grown for different durations. Plant Pathology, 65(9), 1484-1491. doi: 10.1111/ppa.12535

Raid, R. N., Pennypacker, S. P., 1987. Weeds as hosts for Colletotrichum coccodes. Plant Disease, 71(7), 643-646. doi: 10.1094/PD-71-0643

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Rodeva R, Karov I, Stoyanova Z, Kovacevik B, Manova V, Georgieva R, 2012. Phomopsis capsici and Colletotrichum coccodes infecting pepper in Macedonia. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Current Trends in Plant Protection, Belgrade, Serbia, 25-28th September, 2012 [ed. by Marisavljevic, D.]. Belgrade, Serbia: Institute for Plant Protection and Environment, 257-263

Rodriguez-Salamanca LM, Enzenbacher TB, Derie ML, Toit LJdu, Feng C, Correll JC, Hausbeck MK, 2012. First report of Colletotrichum coccodes causing leaf and neck anthracnose on onions (Allium cepa) in Michigan and the United States. Plant Disease, 96(5):769. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sharma PN, Katoch A, Sharma P, Sharma SK, Sharma OP, 2011. First report on association of Colletotrichum coccodes with chili anthracnose in India. Plant Disease, 95(12):1584. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Shcolnick, S., Dinoor, A., Tsror, L., 2007. Additional vegetative compatibility groups in Colletotrichum coccodes subpopulations from Europe and Israel. Plant Disease, 91(7), 805-808. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-7-0805

Stevenson, W. R., Green, R. J., Bergeson, G. B., 1976. Occurrence and control of potato black dot root rot in Indiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(3), 248-251.

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Tsror L, Hazanovsky M, 2001. Effect of coinfection by Verticillium dahlia and Colletotrichum coccodes on disease symptoms and fungal colonization in four potato cultivars. Plant Pathology, 50(4), 483-488.

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Distribution References

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Rodeva R, Karov I, Stoyanova Z, Kovacevik B, Manova V, Georgieva R, 2012. Phomopsis capsici and Colletotrichum coccodes infecting pepper in Macedonia. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Current Trends in Plant Protection, Belgrade, Serbia, 25-28th September, 2012. [ed. by Marisavljević D]. Belgrade, Serbia: Institute for Plant Protection and Environment. 257-263.

Rodriguez-Salamanca L M, Enzenbacher T B, Derie M L, Toit L J du, Feng C, Correll J C, Hausbeck M K, 2012. First report of Colletotrichum coccodes causing leaf and neck anthracnose on onions (Allium cepa) in Michigan and the United States. Plant Disease. 96 (5), 769. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0022-PDN

Sharma P N, Katoch A, Sharma P, Sharma S K, Sharma O P, 2011. First report on association of Colletotrichum coccodes with chili anthracnose in India. Plant Disease. 95 (12), 1584. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-11-0270

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Tian ZaiMin, Wu YuHuan, Guo HuiJing, Gong XueChen, Zhang HongJie, 2019. First report of potato black dot caused by Colletotrichum coccodes in Hebei Province of China. Plant Disease. 103 (10), 2669-2669. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-19-0357-PDN

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