Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Colletotrichum capsici
(leaf spot of peppers)

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Datasheet

Colletotrichum capsici (leaf spot of peppers)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Colletotrichum capsici
  • Preferred Common Name
  • leaf spot of peppers
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleLesions on leaves
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Lesions on leaves©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Colletotrichum capsici (Syd.) E.J. Butler & Bisby

Preferred Common Name

  • leaf spot of peppers

Other Scientific Names

  • Vermicularia capsici Syd.

International Common Names

  • English: anthracnose of capsicum fruits; anthracnose: pepper; dry rot of capsicum fruits; fruit rot of peppers; ripe rot of pepper
  • Spanish: antracnosis del pimiento
  • French: anthracnose du poivron; dépérissement des tiges de l'aubergine; taches sur fruits dépéris

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Anthraknose: Paprika

EPPO code

  • COLLCA (Colletotrichum capsici)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Glomerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Colletotrichum
  •                                 Species: Colletotrichum capsici

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
GhanaPresent
MalawiPresent
NigeriaPresent
SeychellesPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent
-BeijingPresent
-GuangdongPresent, Widespread
-GuangxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
JapanPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
PakistanPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent2017
ThailandPresent

Europe

PolandPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
CubaPresent
MexicoPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-ArkansasPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-TexasPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
VanuatuPresent
Wallis and FutunaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Epicoccum nigrum Antagonist
Streptomyces anulatus Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Acharya A; Das JN, 1995. Control of anthracnose of betelvine by fungicidal chemicals. Current Agricultural Research, 8(2):58-60; 7 ref.

Alabi O; Emechebe AM, 1990. Field evaluation of seed treatment and foliar spray fungicides for the control of cowpea brown blotch induced by Colletotrichum capsici. Samaru Journal of Agricultural Research, 7:151-158

Alabi O; Emechebe AM, 1992. Effect of temperature on growth and sporulation of cowpea brown blotch pathogen (Colletotrichum capsici (Syd.) Butler and Bisby). Samaru Journal of Agricultural Research, 9:99-102

Ali MS; Saikia UN, 1991. New host records. Indian Phytopathology, 44(4):558-559

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Bailey JA; O'Connell RJ; Pring RJ; Nash C, 1992. Infection strategies of Colletotrichum species. Colletotrichum: biology, pathology and control., 88-120; 7 pp. of ref.

Basak AB, 1994. A comparative study on dry weight loss due to major fruit rot diseases of chilli. Chittagong University Studies, Science, 18(1):129-131; 15 ref.

Basak AB; Fakir GA; Mridha MAU, 1994. Studies on the prevalence of six major fruit rot diseases of chilli at different stages of fruit development in Chittagong District. Chittagong University Studies, Science, 18(1):125-128; 17 ref.

Beura SK; Dash SC, 1991. Relation of anthracnose-bacterial leaf spot complex of betelvine with weather parameters. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(1-2):105-106

Beura SK; Dash SC, 1992. Chemical control of anthracnose-bacterial leaf spot complex in betelvine. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(3-4):241-243; 5 ref.

Biswas A, 1992. Efficacy of fungicides in control of anthracnose disease of chilli in Sundarban region of West Bengal. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 30(1):31-35

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Colletotrichum capsici. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 865. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cartwright DK, 1992. Preliminary assessment of Colletotrichum capsici as a potential mycoherbicide for control of pitted morningglory. Plant Disease, 76(10):995-998

Chang GM; Chi PK, 1993. Identification of falcate spores of Colletotrichum on medical plants cultured in Guangdong Province. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 23(2):121-129

Chauhan MS; Duhan JC, 1986. Reaction of genetic stock entries of chillies against important diseases in Haryana State. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(2):146-149

Chlebicki A; Lembicz M, 2001. Graminicolous fungi from Poland. I. Fungi on halophyte Puccinellia distans. Acta Mycologica, 36(2):173-190.

Dubey SC; Birendra Singh; Singh KP, 2006. Blight of tuberose caused by Colletotrichum capsici - a new disease. Indian Phytopathology, 59(1):128-129.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Fatema Yeasmin; Shamim Shamsi, 2013. Phylloplane mycoflora of Gerbera spp. and their pathogenic potentiality. Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences, 37(2):211-217. http://banglajol.info/bd/index.php/JBAS/article/view/17562/12320

Gupta BD, 1988. Variation in spore morphology among isolates of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose of betelvine. Journal of Plantation Crops, 16(1):65-66

Hashmi MH, 1989. Seedborne mycoflora of Capsicum annuum L. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 21(2):302-308; 9 ref.

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Jogi MG; Padule DN; Kamdi SR, 2010. Detection of seed mycoflora of chilli and it's impact on seed germination and seedling vigour. International Journal of Plant Sciences (Muzaffarnagar), 5(2):502-504.

Johnston PR; Jones D, 1997. Relationships among Colletotrichum isolates from fruit-rots assessed using rDNA sequences. Mycologia, 89(3):420-430; 35 ref.

Johri JK; Banerji R; Chaurasia RS; Misra G; Siddiqui SA; Balasubrahmanyam VR; Nigam SK, 1992. Coumarins as potent biocides against Colletotrichum capsici and Phytophthora palmivora. Fitoterapia, 63(1):78-80

Joi MB; Sonone HN, 1980. Chemical control of leaf-curl, fruit-rot and powdery mildew of chilli. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 5(3):219-222

Juangbhanich P; Chana C, 1975. Efficacy of some fungicides against seed-borne infection of Colletotrichum anthracnose and ripe rot of pepper (Capsicum frutescens). Kasetsart Journal, 9(2):115-118

Khaleeque MI; Khan SM, 1991. Fungi associated with fruit-rot and die-back diseases of chillies in Faisalabad. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 3(1-2):50-52; 6 ref.

Khilendra Singh; Vishunavat K; Rashmi Tewari, 2009. Detection, transmission and management of seed-borne inoculum of anthracnose (Colletotrichum capsici) in chilli. Seed Research, 37(1/2):143-146.

Kolte SO; Sapkal KN, 1994. Variation in Colletotrichum capsici isolates causing fruit-rot and dieback of chilli (Capsicum annuum). Journal of Soils and Crops, 4(1):88; 2 ref.

LennT JM, 1992. Colletotrichum diseases of legumes. In: Bailey JA, Jeger MJ, eds. Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 134-166

Li BJ; Chai AL; Zhang XY, 2014. First report of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose on Hosta plantaginea in China. Plant Disease, 98(4):571. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lim G, 1988. Plant diseases in Singapore. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 16(2, Supplement):12-29

Mahmodi F; Kadir JB; Wong MY; Nasehi A; Soleimani N; Puteh A, 2013. First report of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum capsici on bok choy (Brassica chinensis) in Malaysia. Plant Disease, 97(5):687. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Maiti S; Sen C, 1982. Incidence of major diseases of betel vine in relation to weather. Indian Phytopathology, 35(1):14-17

Majumder D; War A; Lyngdoh D; Suting EG, 2015. Anthracnose of Bhut Jolokia (King chilli) caused by Colletotrichum capsici in Meghalaya - a new report. Plant Disease Research, 30(1):82-83. http://insopp.org.in/

McLean KS; Roy KW, 1991. Weeds as a source of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose on tomato fruit and cotton seedlings. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 13(2):131-134

Mesta RK; Kulkarni VR; Rao MSL, 2007. Studies on seed borne nature of Colletotrichum capsici causing seedling blight and its control through chemicals. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(1):35-38.

Mordue JEM, 1971. Colletotrichum capsici. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 317. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Mridha MAU; Siddique ABM, 1989. Fruit rot disease of chilli in relation to seed infection. Seed Research, 17(2):174-177; 4 ref.

Okoli CAN; Erinle ID, 1989. Factors responsible for market losses of tomato fruits in the Zaria area of Nigeria. Journal of Horticultural Science, 64(1):69-71; 9 ref.

Padaganur GM; Naik KS, 1991. Mycoflora of chilli seeds from fruit rot affected and healthy fruit. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences (Bangalore), 23(9):183-184; 1 ref.

Pan FY; Huang Y; Lin L; Zhou YM; Wei RF; Guo WF; Yin L; Lu J, 2016. First report of Colletotrichum capsici causing grape ripe rot in Guangxi, China. Plant Disease, 100(12):2531. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Patil BK; Moniz L, 1973. Leaf-blotch of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) caused by Colletotrichum capsici (Syd.) Butler and Bisby in Maharashtra State. Research Journal of Mahatma Phule Agricultural University, 4(1):62-66

Pearson MN; Bull PB; Speke H, 1984. Anthracnose of Capsicum in Papua New Guinea; varietal reaction and associated fungi. Tropical Pest Management, 30(3):230-233, 333

Prakasam V, 1991. Red leaf spot of cinnamon in Lower Pulney hills of Tamil Nadu. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices Journal, 14(3):123

Pring RJ; Nash C; Zakaria M; Bailey JA, 1995. Infection process and host range of Colletotrichum capsici. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 46(2):137-152

Rahman DMM; Khan AA; Mian IH, 2005. Control of seed borne fungi of chilli by seed treatment with fungicides and botanicals. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 21(1/2):63-66.

Raj Kumar; Mukhopadhyay AN, 1990. Chemical control of anthracnose of urd bean in field conditions. Indian Phytopathology, 43(1):102-105

Rao TGN, 1995. Diseases of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and their management. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 4(1):49-56; 44 ref.

Rathaiah Y, 1987. Diseases of turmeric in Assam. Pesticides, 21(8):15-17

Roberts RG; Snow JP, 1990. Morphological and pathological studies of Colletotrichum capsici and C. indicum. Mycologia, 82(1):82-90

Sá DACde; Santos GRdos; Furtado GQ; Erasmo EAL; Nascimento IRdo, 2011. Transport, pathogenicity and transmissibility of fungi associated with physic nut seeds. (Transporte, patogenicidade e transmissibilidade de fungos associados às sementes de pinhão manso.) Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 33(4):663-670. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-31222011000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Sakoda T; Kimishima E, 2003. Pathogenicity of some isolates of Verticillium tricorpus and Colletotrichum capsici found in Japan. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No.39:103-107.

Sangchote S; Juangbhanich P, 1984. Seed transmission of Colletotrichum capsici on pepper (Capsicum spp.). Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences, 18(1):7-13

Sawant IS; Narkar SP; Shetty DS; Upadhyay A; Sawant SD, 2012. First report of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose on grapes in Maharashtra, India. New Disease Reports, 25:2. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=025002

Singh RP; Singh AK; Kiran Singh, 2006. Seed-borne mycoflora of chilli and their management. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 14(2):485-487. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Sinha PP, 1990. Cost effective control of die-back and fruit rot of chillies. Vegetable Science, 17(1):110-112

Srivastava KK; Soni KK, 1993. Seedling blight of Albizia falcataria and its control. Annals of Forestry, 1(1):82-84; 5 ref.

Sulochana KK; Rajagopalan B; Wilson KI, 1992. Fungicidal control of fruit rot of chilli caused by Colletotrichum capsici (Syd.) Butl. & Bisby. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala, 30(1):65-67; 5 ref.

Sultana N; Khanzada AK; Aslam M, 1992. A new cause of fruit rot of chillies in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 35(11):461-462

Sutton BC, 1980. The Coelomycetes. Fungi imperfecti with pycnidia, acervuli and stromata. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Sutton BC, 1992. The genus Glomerella and its anamorph Colletotrichum. In: Bailey JA, Jeger MJ, eds. Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 1-26.

Swagatika Mohanty; Nibedita Nayak; Beura SK, 2015. Colletotrichum capsici - a new report of leaf spot disease of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) from Odisha. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 53(2):267-270. http://www.imskolkata.org/

Tapia-Tussell R; Quijano-Ramayo A; Cortes-Velazquez A; Lappe P; Larque-Saavedra A; Perez-Brito D, 2008. PCR-based detection and characterization of the fungal pathogens Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose in papaya (Carica papaya L.) in the Yucatan Peninsula. Molecular Biotechnology, 40(3):293-298. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p657k30632g25144/?p=e54ae85cdf6c4ef9b814127c29527eb7&pi=8

Thind TS; Jhooty JS, 1987. Relative performance of some fungicides in controlling anthracnose and black rot of chillies. Indian Phytopathology, 40(4):543-545

Thind TS; Jhooty JS, 1990. Studies on variability in two Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose and fruit rot of chillies in Punjab. Indian Phytopathology, 43(1):53-58

Ushakiran L; Chhetry GKN; Singh NI, 2006. Fruit rot diseases of chilli and their management in agro-climatic conditions of Manipur. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 44(2):257-262.

Vinaya Hemannavar; Rao MSL; Yashoda Hegde; Mohankumar HD, 2009. Status of seed borne incidence of anthracnose of chilli in northern Karnataka and evaluation of seed health testing methods for the detection of Colletotrichum capsici. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22(4):807-809.

Yun HaKwan; Abdul Hamid Ahmad; Sepiah Muid; Jaya Seelan SS, 2009. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 1(8):419-424. http://www.threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/August/o221826viii09419-424.pdf

Distribution References

Adhipathi P, Nakkeeran S, Chandrasekaran A, 2015. Survey, phenotypic and genetic characterization of Colletotrichum capsici, incitant of turmeric leafspot. Madras Agricultural Journal. 102 (1/3), 62-66. https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B20TM0cqzsQmQzFZZVYyVzRwUmc

Ali M S, Saikia U N, 1991. New host records. Indian Phytopathology. 44 (4), 558-559.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Basak A B, Fakir G A, Mridha M A U, 1994. Studies on the prevalence of six major fruit rot diseases of chilli at different stages of fruit development in Chittagong District. Chittagong University Studies, Science. 18 (1), 125-128.

Beura S K, Dash S C, 1991. Relation of anthracnose-bacterial leaf spot complex of betelvine with weather parameters. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research. 4 (1-2), 105-106.

Biswas A, 1992. Efficacy of fungicides in control of anthracnose disease of chilli in Sundarban region of West Bengal. Journal of Mycopathological Research. 30 (1), 31-35.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. In: Land Grant Technical Report No. 44, Pago Pago, American Samoa, American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI, EPPO, 2002. Colletotrichum capsici. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 865. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500865

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cartwright D K, 1992. Preliminary assessment of Colletotrichum capsici as a potential mycoherbicide for control of pitted morningglory. Plant Disease. 76 (10), 995-998. DOI:10.1094/PD-76-0995

Chang G M, Chi P K, 1993. Identification of falcate spores of Colletotrichum on medical plants cultured in Guangdong Province. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica. 23 (2), 121-129.

Chauhan M S, Duhan J C, 1986. Reaction of genetic stock entries of chillies against important diseases in Haryana State. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology. 4 (2), 146-149.

Chen Y H, Huang T P, 2018. First report of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum capsici on passion fruit in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2648-2649. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-18-0462-PDN

Chlebicki A, Lembicz M, 2001. Graminicolous fungi from Poland. I. Fungi on halophyte Puccinellia distans. Acta Mycologica. 36 (2), 173-190. DOI:10.5586/am.2001.012

Dubey S C, Birendra Singh, Singh K P, 2006. Blight of tuberose caused by Colletotrichum capsici - a new disease. Indian Phytopathology. 59 (1), 128-129.

Farr D F, Bills G F, Chamuris G P, Rossman A Y, 1989. Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press. viii + 1252 pp.

Gupta B D, 1988. Variation in spore morphology among isolates of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose of betelvine. Journal of Plantation Crops. 16 (1), 65-66.

Joi M B, Sonone H N, 1980. Chemical control of leaf-curl, fruit-rot and powdery mildew of chilli. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 5 (3), 219-222.

Juangbhanich P, Chana C, 1975. Efficacy of some fungicides against seed-borne infection of Colletotrichum anthracnose and ripe rot of pepper (Capsicum frutescens). Kasetsart Journal. 9 (2), 115-118.

Kadam R M, Sumia Fatima, Mumtaz Baig, Kadam V B, 2012. A survey report of leaf spot diseases of certain medicinal plants of Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Plant Protection. 5 (1), 185-186. http://www.hindagrihorticulturalsociety.co.in/ijpp.html

Khaleeque M I, Khan S M, 1991. Fungi associated with fruit-rot and die-back diseases of chillies in Faisalabad. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 3 (1-2), 50-52.

Kondaiah R H, Sreeramulu A, 2014. Survey on fungal diseased crops in Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 4 (1), 244-251. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-1/JLS-040-078-SREERAMULU-SURVEY-PRADESH.pdf

Li B J, Chai A L, Zhang X Y, 2014. First report of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose on Hosta plantaginea in China. Plant Disease. 98 (4), 571. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0931-PDN

Lim G, 1988. Plant diseases in Singapore. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries. 16 (2, Supplement), 12-29.

Majumder D, War A, Lyngdoh D, Suting E G, 2015. Anthracnose of Bhut Jolokia (King chilli) caused by Colletotrichum capsici in Meghalaya - a new report. Plant Disease Research. 30 (1), 82-83. http://insopp.org.in/

Mamle A M, Jolanda R, 2015. Diseases of plantation forestry trees in southern Ghana. International Journal of Phytopathology. 4 (1), 5-13. http://escijournals.net/index.php/phytopath/article/view/908/pdf_PHYTOPATH908b

McLean K S, Roy K W, 1991. Weeds as a source of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose on tomato fruit and cotton seedlings. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 13 (2), 131-134.

Mordue J E M, 1971. Colletotrichum capsici. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. In: IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Sheet 317. DOI:10.1079/DFB/20056400317

Pan F Y, Huang Y, Lin L, Zhou Y M, Wei R F, Guo W F, Yin L, Lu J, 2016. First report of Colletotrichum capsici causing grape ripe rot in Guangxi, China. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2531. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0691-PDN

Patil B K, Moniz L, 1973. Leaf-blotch of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) caused by Colletotrichum capsici (Syd.) Butler and Bisby in Maharashtra State. Research Journal of Mahatma Phule Agricultural University. 4 (1), 62-66.

Pearson M N, Bull P B, Speke H, 1984. Anthracnose of Capsicum in Papua New Guinea; varietal reaction and associated fungi. Tropical Pest Management. 30 (3), 230-233, 333.

Prakasam V, 1991. Red leaf spot of cinnamon in Lower Pulney hills of Tamil Nadu. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices Journal. 14 (3), 123.

Rao T G N, 1995. Diseases of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and their management. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 4 (1), 49-56.

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Rathaiah Y, 1987. Diseases of turmeric in Assam. Pesticides. 21 (8), 15-17.

Roberts R G, Snow J P, 1990. Morphological and pathological studies of Colletotrichum capsici and C. indicum. Mycologia. 82 (1), 82-90. DOI:10.2307/3759966

Sakoda T, Kimishima E, 2003. Pathogenicity of some isolates of Verticillium tricorpus and Colletotrichum capsici found in Japan. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 103-107.

Sakthivel K, Sawhney S, Manigundan K, Pandey V K, Das M M, Shalini B, Singh P K, Gautam R K, 2020. Variability in Colletotrichum infecting chilli plants of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of Environmental Biology. 41 (2), 261-265. http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/202003_mar20/paper_17.pdf

Sangchote S, Juangbhanich P, 1984. Seed transmission of Colletotrichum capsici on pepper (Capsicum spp.). Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences. 18 (1), 7-13.

Sattar A, Alam M, Khaliq A, Shukla R S, Khanuja S P S, 2006. First report of leaf blight of Chlorophytum borivilianum caused by Colletotrichum capsici in northern India. Plant Pathology. 55 (2), 301. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01296.x

Sawant I S, Narkar S P, Shetty D S, Upadhyay A, Sawant S D, 2012. First report of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose on grapes in Maharashtra, India. New Disease Reports. 2. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=025002 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2012.025.002

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