Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Colletotrichum acutatum
(black spot of strawberry)

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Datasheet

Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Colletotrichum acutatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black spot of strawberry
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on a strawberry fruit. Brazil. October 2015.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on a strawberry fruit. Brazil. October 2015.
Copyright©Jonas Janner Hamann/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on a strawberry fruit. Brazil. October 2015.
SymptomsColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on a strawberry fruit. Brazil. October 2015.©Jonas Janner Hamann/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on a strawberry fruit. Brazil. October 2015.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on a strawberry fruit. Brazil. October 2015.
Copyright©Jonas Janner Hamann/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on a strawberry fruit. Brazil. October 2015.
SymptomsColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on a strawberry fruit. Brazil. October 2015.©Jonas Janner Hamann/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on eggplant (Solanum melongena). USA.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on eggplant (Solanum melongena). USA.
Copyright©Cesar Calderon/Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on eggplant (Solanum melongena). USA.
SymptomsColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); symptoms on eggplant (Solanum melongena). USA.©Cesar Calderon/Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds ex Simmonds

Preferred Common Name

  • black spot of strawberry

Other Scientific Names

  • Colletotrichum xanthii Halsted

International Common Names

  • English: crown rot (of anemone and celery); leaf curl of anemone; post-bloom fruit drop of citrus; terminal crook disease (of pine)
  • Spanish: antracnosis del fresón; manchas negras del fresón
  • French: anthracnose du fraisier; taches noires du fraisier

EPPO code

  • COLLAC (Glomerella acutata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Glomerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Colletotrichum
  •                                 Species: Colletotrichum acutatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The classification of the genus Colletotrichum is currently very unsatisfactory, and several species occur on the principal economic host (strawberry) which are regularly confused. As well as C. acutatum, these include the Glomerella cingulata anamorphs C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides, all of which can be distinguished by isoenzyme analysis (Bonde et al., 1991). Studies are continuing. Colletotrichum xanthii appears to be an earlier name for C. acutatum, but more research is necessary before it is adopted in plant pathology circles.

Description

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Colonies in culture are usually white, pale grey or pale orange, sometimes producing strong pinkish-purple pigments. Conidiomata are usually poorly developed, with few or no setae, especially in culture. Conidiogenous cells are roughly cylindrical, sometimes borne in weak clusters, and produce conidia successively from single loci. Conidia are 8-16 x 2.5-4 µm in size, fusiform, thin-walled, aseptate and hyaline. Appressoria are few in number, 6.5-11 x 4.5-7.5 µm in size, clavate to circular and light to dark brown.

Full descriptions are given by Dyko and Mordue (1979), Sutton (1980), Baxter et al. (1983) and Gunnell and Gubler (1992).

Distribution

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Some country records may refer instead to the Glomerella cingulata-Colletotrichum fragariae aggregate.

A record of C. acutatum in Chile (EPPO, 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2010) published in previous versions of the Compendium has been removed as the pathogen in the original source (Peredo et al., 1979) is now confirmed as a separate species, Colletotrichum pseudoacutatum (Damm et al., 2012). C. acutatum is a quarantine pest for Chile (Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero, 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Republic of thePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
MauritiusPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
-ChongqingPresent
-FujianPresent
-HainanPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-YunnanPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-KeralaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-ShikokuPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
NepalPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent, Few occurrences
BelgiumPresent
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent, Localized
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent, Localized
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
FinlandPresent, Localized
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent, Few occurrences
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent, Few occurrences
IrelandPresent, Few occurrences
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent, Few occurrences
MaltaPresent, Localized
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RussiaPresent, Few occurrences
-Central RussiaPresent, Few occurrences
-Southern RussiaPresent, Few occurrences
SerbiaPresent
SloveniaPresent, Few occurrences
SpainPresent, Localized
SwedenPresent, Few occurrences
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent, Localized
-Channel IslandsPresent
-EnglandPresent, Localized
-Northern IrelandPresent
-ScotlandAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

BelizePresent
CanadaPresent, Localized
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
Costa RicaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
GuamPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Localized
BrazilPresent, Localized
-GoiasPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChileAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
GuyanaPresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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C. acutatum has not been considered to be a quarantine pest by EPPO or any other regional plant protection organization. A certain ambiguity remains on its geographical distribution and impact on the strawberry crop, due to confusion with other Colletotrichum spp. In several countries of mainland Europe, the names C. fragariae or C. gloeosporioides have been used for all fungi causing anthracnose on strawberry. C. acutatum was only described on strawberry in the 1960s (Simmonds, 1966) and it is not clear whether its subsequent appearance as a strawberry pathogen in the literature is due to geographical spread of a pathogen which previously had a restricted distribution, to the rise in importance of a pathogen which was previously insignificant, or simply to the clarification of a taxonomic situation which was previously confused. As C. acutatum attacks several other crops without being a serious cause of concern, and indeed many other plant species, it does not appear logical to attempt to control it by international phytosanitary measures. In addition, identification in imported consignments presents difficulties because of the confusion with related species. Pathogen-free certification of strawberry planting material seems the best approach.

Phytosanitary Measures

The inclusion of C. acutatum (and other Colletotrichum spp.) among the species covered by a strawberry certification scheme would ensure that healthy planting material is traded nationally and internationally. A suitable scheme has been recommended by EPPO (OEPP/EPPO, 1994).

Hosts/Species Affected

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The species has a very wide host range, but is economically most important on strawberries.

C. acutatum can apparently affect almost any flowering plant, especially in warm temperate or tropical regions, although its host range needs further clarification. It has rarely been noted on other than agricultural or forestry land.
 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acca sellowianaMyrtaceaeUnknown
Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)AceraceaeUnknown
    Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeUnknown
    Anemone (windflower)RanunculaceaeUnknown
      Anemone coronaria (Poppy anemone)RanunculaceaeUnknown
      Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeUnknown
      Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeOther
        Arachniodes adiantiformis (Leatherleaf fern)DryopteridaceaeOther
          Arbutus unedo (arbutus)EricaceaeOther
          Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeOther
            Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
              Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeUnknown
                Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
                  CitrusRutaceaeUnknown
                  Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeOther
                    Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeUnknown
                      Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeUnknown
                        Cornus florida (Flowering dogwood)CornaceaeUnknown
                          Cosmos bipinnatus (garden cosmos)AsteraceaeUnknown
                            Cucurbita (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                            Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeUnknown
                            Cyphomandra betacea (tree tomato)SolanaceaeUnknown
                            Diospyros (malabar ebony)EbenaceaeUnknown
                            Dryas drummondiiRosaceaeOther
                              Duchesnea indica (India mockstrawberry)RosaceaeOther
                                Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeUnknown
                                  Eustoma grandiflorum (Lisianthus (cut flower crop))GentianaceaeUnknown
                                    Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeUnknown
                                    Fragaria (strawberry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                    Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
                                    Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                      Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                        Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
                                        Lupinus (lupins)FabaceaeUnknown
                                          Lupinus albus (white lupine)FabaceaeOther
                                            Lupinus arboreus (tree lupin (UK))FabaceaeUnknown
                                            Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)FabaceaeUnknown
                                            MagnoliaMagnoliaceaeUnknown
                                            Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeUnknown
                                            Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                              Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeUnknown
                                              Myrica cerifera (Southern waxmyrtle)MyricaceaeUnknown
                                              Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)CornaceaeUnknown
                                                Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
                                                  Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeOther
                                                    Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                                                    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                      Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                        Pinus (pines)PinaceaeUnknown
                                                          Pinus radiata (radiata pine)PinaceaeUnknown
                                                            Pouteria sapota (mammey sapote)SapotaceaeUnknown
                                                            Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                              Prunus dulcis (almond)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                  Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeMain
                                                                    Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                    Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
                                                                      Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
                                                                      Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                      Rhododendron japonicum (Japanese azalea)EricaceaeUnknown
                                                                      Ribes uva-crispa (gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
                                                                        Rubus brasiliensisRosaceaeOther
                                                                          Salix babylonica (weeping willow)SalicaceaeOther
                                                                            Sambucus nigra (elder)CaprifoliaceaeOther
                                                                              Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                              Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
                                                                              Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock)PinaceaeUnknown
                                                                                Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry)EricaceaeOther
                                                                                Vinca minor (common periwinkle)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                                                                VitexLamiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                Vitis (grape)VitaceaeUnknown
                                                                                Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther

                                                                                  Growth Stages

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                                                                                  Post-harvest

                                                                                  Symptoms

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                                                                                  The spread of the disease is often so rapid that by the time symptoms are noticed, the crop is in serious danger. For strawberry, fruit and occasionally petiole rots may be noticed, with sunken, water-soaked spots enlarging to cover the whole fruit within 2-3 days, with dark-brown fruit bodies producing pink spore masses. For other crops such as anemone and celery, crown rots and leaf curl may be the principal symptoms. In pine seedlings, the developing leaves around the apical bud are affected, with small, brown lesions appearing and rapidly extending. Severe stunting is eventually caused as the uninfected tissue beneath the apex continues to develop.

                                                                                  List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                  SignLife StagesType
                                                                                  Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
                                                                                  Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
                                                                                  Stems / rot
                                                                                  Stems / stunting or rosetting

                                                                                  Biology and Ecology

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                                                                                  The conidia germinate to form appressoria on plant surfaces, from which penetration hyphae develop into plant cells. Infection may occur through almost any plant surface, but for the particularly susceptible herbaceous species such as strawberry and anemone, the crown with its relatively humid microclimate is often favoured. In suitable conditions, the fungus can grow rapidly inside the plant and cause severe symptoms very quickly, but in other circumstances the fungus may be quiescent inside host tissues for a period, in some cases only becoming apparent after harvest. Once the fungus has developed sufficiently inside the plant, dark fruit-bodies are produced, causing typical anthracnose symptoms. Conidia are formed liberally, and are normally dispersed by watersplash (Yang et al., 1992). They may lie dormant in the soil for some time, often overwintering in this fashion. Survival is longest under relatively cool, dry conditions (Eastburn and Gubler, 1992). The fungus can also remain dangerous for long periods in dead plant material on the surface or buried in the soil.

                                                                                  Although the disease in strawberry crops tends to be more virulent in warm climates, where damage can be devastating, it frequently has its origins in cooler conditions where propagating material is grown (Opgenorth et al., 1989; Wilson et al., 1990; Sutton, 1992). The disease may possibly occur in all countries where strawberries are cultivated. However, it is reported to be absent from the premises of most major strawberry propagators in the UK, and it may be possible to exclude the fungus from these sites despite its presence elsewhere in the areas concerned. There is little information on the biology of C. acutatum other than for strawberry crops.

                                                                                  In some crops, notably mango (Liu et al., 1986) and tamarillo (Yearsley et al., 1988), C. acutatum causes postharvest diseases of fruits.

                                                                                  Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                                                                  Most natural transmission is probably by conidia, although appressoria, hyphal fragments and appressorium-like thick-walled cells may also play a part (Nair et al., 1983). Local dispersal seems to be at least mostly by water-splash (Yang et al., 1990), with propagules sometimes overwintering in soil to affect strawberry crops planted in subsequent years (Eastburn and Gubler, 1990).

                                                                                  Long-distance transmission due to human influence is probably widespread, and has contributed to the rapid spread of the fungus in recent years. The disease is frequently intercepted on strawberry material imported into the UK.

                                                                                  Plant Trade

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                                                                                  Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                  Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                  Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                  Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                  Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                  Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                  Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                  Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                  Growing medium accompanying plants
                                                                                  Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                                                                                  Wood

                                                                                  Impact

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                                                                                  The disease is significant worldwide on strawberry (on which it is considered the second most important pathogen after Botrytis cinerea), and also on a few other crops such as anemones. The disease on pine may not now be so severe as in recent years, judging from the decline in research papers. Little detailed information on economic losses is available. In France, the disease has caused up to 80% losses of unsprayed strawberry crops, especially of ever-bearing cultivars (Denoyes and Baudry, 1991). Crops sprayed for B. cinerea control have suffered much less. In the UK, where the disease is statutorily notifiable, presence forces the burning of crops and fumigation of the soil.

                                                                                  Recent studies in Australia showed that C. acutatum caused losses of 25-50% in celery crops in Queensland (Wright and Heaton, 1991).

                                                                                  Detection and Inspection

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                                                                                  No rapid methods exist, although early results from a detection system using monoclonal antibodies are promising. Current tests involve either inoculation of apples with strawberry petioles or paraquat treatment of petioles to stimulate sporulation of the pathogen (Cook, 1993). These tests are time-consuming and labour-intensive.

                                                                                  Prevention and Control

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                                                                                  Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                  The only serious research on control has been in connection with strawberry crops. Some success was reported in New Zealand by spraying with dichlofluanid and a captan-benomyl mixture (Cheah and Soteros, 1984), with various chemicals in Australia (Washington et al., 1992), and in South Africa with captan (van Zyl, 1985). Recently in the USA, studies showed that no acceptable fungicide is effective (Milholland, 1989). Fungicide-resistant strains of related species have been reported in the USA and Japan (Chikuo and Kobayashi, 1991; McInnes et al., 1992). There have been considerable efforts in the USA to develop resistant strawberry cultivars, but limited success has been achieved due to the presence of varied races within the species (Delp and Milholland, 1981; Smith, 1985; Smith and Black, 1990; McInnes et al., 1992). Gupton and Smith (1991) have suggested some potentially useful directions for further research.

                                                                                  In the UK, the disease is rare owing to strict quarantine controls and a policy of destroying affected crops and fumigating soil. McInnes et al. (1992) found that nursery material derived from tissue culture which was free from the related species C. fragariae and planted in isolated fields remained healthy, suggesting that careful selection of disease-free stock and soil sterilization in affected beds might be at least as effective as attempting chemical control.

                                                                                  In celery crops, Wright and Heaton (1991) found both a variation in cultivar susceptibility and amenability to chemical control of the disease. For anemone, disease incidence decreased with storage of corms (Doornik and Booden, 1990), and treatment by soaking with hot water proved effective (Doornik, 1990). Yearsley et al. (1988) found that dipping of tamarillos in imazalil and prochloraz reduced the incidence of postharvest disease caused by C. acutatum. However, dipping strawberry plants in hot water or fungicides did not eliminate the disease.

                                                                                  For pine, regular applications of prochloraz have been found to be effective, as has dichlofluanid (Vanner, 1990).

                                                                                  References

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                                                                                  Alaniz S, Hernández L, Damasco D, Mondino P, 2012. First report of Colletotrichum acutatum and C. fragariae causing bitter rot of apple in Uruguay. Plant Disease, 96(3):458. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                  Ammar MI, El-Naggar MA, 2011. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fungal diseases in Najran, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Plant Pathology, 2(3):126-135. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ijpp.2011.126.135&org=12

                                                                                  Baroncelli R, Sreenivasaprasad S, Lane CR, Thon MR, Sukno SA, 2014. First report of Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (Colletotrichum godetiae) causing anthracnose on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in the United Kingdom. New Disease Reports, 29:26. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029026

                                                                                  Barquero Quirós M, Peres NA, Arauz LF, 2013. Presence of Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on leatherleaf fern, key lime, papaya, star fruit and mango in Costa Rica and Florida (United States). (Presencia de Colletotrichum acutatum y Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en helecho hoja de cuero, limón criollo, papaya, carambola y mango en Costa Rica y Florida (Estados Unidos).) Agronomía Costarricense, 37(1):23-38. http://www.mag.go.cr/rev_agr/index.html

                                                                                  Barrau, C., Santos, B. de los, Romero, F., 2001. First report of Colletotrichum acutatum in blueberry plants in Spain. Plant Disease, 85(12), 1285. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.12.1285A

                                                                                  Baxter AP, Westhuizen GCAVan der, Eicker A, 1983. Morphology and taxonomy of South African isolates of Colletotrichum. South African Journal of Botany, 2(4):259-289

                                                                                  Bonde MR, Peterson GC, Maas GL, 1991. Isozyme comparisons for identification of Colletotrichum spp. pathogenic to strawberry. Phytopathology, 81:1523-1528

                                                                                  Butin H, Peredo HL, 1986. Bibliotheca Mycologica, 101. Berlin, Stuttgart, Germany: J. Cramer, 100 pp

                                                                                  CABI/EPPO, 2010. Colletotrichum acutatum. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 705 (Edition 2)

                                                                                  Cedeño L, Briceño A, Fermín G, Domínguez I, Pino H, Quintero K, 2007. First record of Colletotrichum acutatum on lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum). Fitopatología Venezolana, 20(2):41-43. http://www.sovefit.com.ve/boletines/20-2/Documento2.pdf

                                                                                  Cheah LH, Soteros JJ, 1984. Control of black fruit rot of strawberry. In: Proceedings of the thirty-seventh New Zealand weed and pest control conference. Hastings, New Zealand: NZ Weed Pest Control Soc., Inc., 160-162

                                                                                  Chen YJ, Tong HR, Wei X, Yuan LY, 2016. First report of brown blight disease on Camellia sinensis caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in China. Plant Disease, 100(1):227-228. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                  Chikuo Y, Kobayashi N, 1991. [A study of strawberry anthracnose. Perfect state of the pathogen which originated from the northern area of Kyushu Island and its benomyl resistance]. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 37:23-26

                                                                                  Cook RTA, 1993. Strawberry black spot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. In: Plant health and the European single market. BCPC Monograph, No. 54 [ed. by Ebbels, D.]. Farnham, UK: BCPC, 301-304

                                                                                  Dai, F. M., Ren, X. J., Lu, J. P., 2006. First report of anthracnose fruit rot of strawberry caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in China. Plant Disease, 90(11), 1460. doi: 10.1094/PD-90-1460A

                                                                                  Damm U, Cannon PF, Woudenberg JHC, Crous PW, 2012. The Colletotrichum acutatum species complex. Studies in Mycology, No.73:37-113. http://www.studiesinmycology.org/content/73/1/37.full

                                                                                  Delp BR, Milholland RD, 1981. Susceptibility of strawberry cultivars and related species to Colletotrichum fragariae. Plant Disease, 65(5):421-423

                                                                                  Denoyes B, Baudry A, 1991. Characterization of species of Colletotrichum isolated from strawberry in France, taxonomy and pathogenicity abstract. Strawberry Diseases and Breeding for Varietal Resistance International Workshop, Bordeaux 1991

                                                                                  Denoyes, B., Baudry, A., 1985. Species Identification and Pathogenicity Study of French Colletotrichum Strains Isolated from Strawberry Using Morphological and Cultural Characteristics. Phytopathology, 85(1), 53-57. https://www.apsnet.org/publications/phytopathology/backissues/Documents/1995Articles/Phyto85n01_53.PDF

                                                                                  Doornik AW, 1990. Hot-water treatment to control Colletotrichum acutatum on corms of Anemone coronaria. In: Acta Horticulturae, No. 266. 491-494

                                                                                  Doornik AW, Booden EMC, 1990. Decrease in viability of Colletotrichum acutatum in corms of Anemone coronaria during storage. In: Acta Horticulturae, No. 266. 505-507

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                                                                                  Reed P J, Dickens J S W, O'Neill T M, 1996. Occurrence of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) on ornamental lupin in the United Kingdom. Plant Pathology. 45 (2), 245-248. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.1996.d01-131.x

                                                                                  Rodriguez-Salamanca L M, Enzenbacher T B, Byrne J M, Feng C, Correll J C, Hausbeck M K, 2012. First report of Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato causing leaf curling and petiole anthracnose on celery (Apium graveolens) in Michigan. Plant Disease. 96 (9), 1383. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-12-0456-PDN

                                                                                  Sabaratnam S, DiCarlo A, Fitzpatrick S, Forge T, 2009. Cranberry dieback disorder: a new and emerging threat to cranberry production in British Columbia. Acta Horticulturae. 417-424. http://www.actahort.org

                                                                                  Sayeh M, Mnari-Hattab M, Zarrouk I, Dridi M, Hajlaoui M R, 2016. First report of Colletotrichum acutatum on citrus in Tunisia. (Emergence de la chute post-floraison des fruits d'agrumes (PFD) causée par Colletotichum acutatum.). Annales de l'INRAT. 122-124. http://www.annalesinrat.tn/issues/Volume89-2016.pdf DOI:10.12816/0028715

                                                                                  Sir E B, Arias M E, Racedo J, Castagnaro A, Díaz Ricci J C, 2012. First report of anthracnose on fruits of Duchesnea indica caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in northwestern Argentina. Plant Disease. 96 (5), 765. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-11-0368-PDN

                                                                                  Sultana R, Lee K J, Chae J C, Lee S J, 2018. First report of Colletotrichum acutatum causing anthracnose on Rhododendron yedoense var. poukhanense in South Korea. Plant Disease. 102 (11), 2371. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-18-0178-PDN

                                                                                  Sundelin T, Schiller M, Lübeck M, Jensen D F, Paaske K, Petersen B D, 2005. First report of anthracnose fruit rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on strawberry in Denmark. Plant Disease. 89 (4), 432. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0432B

                                                                                  Swain S V, Koike S T, Michailides T J, Feng C, Correll J C, 2012. First report of twig canker on willow caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in California. Plant Disease. 96 (12), 1822-1823. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-12-0496-PDN

                                                                                  Theodoro G F, Peres N A R, Verona L A F, 2004. Outbreak of postbloom fruit drop of citrus, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Plant Pathology. 53 (2), 253. DOI:10.1111/j.0032-0862.2004.00961.x

                                                                                  Turechek W W, Heidenreich C, Pritts M P, 2002. First report of strawberry anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) in strawberry fields in New York. Plant Disease. 86 (8), 922. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.8.922D

                                                                                  Velázquez-Silva A, García-Díaz S E, Robles-Yerena L, Nava-Díaz C, Nieto-Ángel D, 2018. First report of Colletotrichum spp. in fruits of allspice (Pimenta dioica) in Veracruz, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología. 36 (2), 342-355. http://www.rmf.smf.org.mx/Vol3622018/RMF1711-1.pdf

                                                                                  Víchová J, Jílková B, Pokorný R, 2013. First report of Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato causing anthracnose on gooseberry fruits in the Czech Republic. Plant Disease. 97 (9), 1249. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-13-0080-PDN

                                                                                  Vitale S, Giambattista G di, Riccioni L, 2015. First report of laurel anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in central Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology. 97 (3), 544. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

                                                                                  Vitale S, Infantino A, 2014. Presence of Colletotrichum acutatum causing anthracnose on hot pepper in central Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology. 96 (3), 607. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3193/1865

                                                                                  Volkova J, Vilka L, Stanke L, Rancane R, Bazenova A, 2013. Molecular characterization of Monilinia laxa and M. fructigena causing brown rot of sweet cherry in Zemgale Region of Latvia. Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis. 13 (1), 165-172.

                                                                                  Xia H, Wang X L, Zhu H J, Gao B D, 2011. First report of anthracnose caused by Glomerella acutata on chili pepper in China. Plant Disease. 95 (2), 219. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-10-0727

                                                                                  Xu C N, Zhou Z S, Wu Y X, Chi F M, Ji Z R, Zhang H J, 2013. First report of Colletotrichum acutatum associated with stem blight of blueberry plants in China. Plant Disease. 97 (3), 422. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0738-PDN

                                                                                  Zafari D, Hamadani S T, 2009. Charactrization of Colletotrichum species from legumes crop plants in Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 77 (1), Pe37-Pe57.

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