Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bipolaris victoriae
(Victoria blight of oats)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bipolaris victoriae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Victoria blight of oats
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A disease almost unknown prior to 1944 (Romanko, 1957), Bipolaris victoriae is a potentially destructive disease o...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review.

  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bipolaris victoriae (F. Meehan & H.C. Murphy) Shoemaker

Preferred Common Name

  • Victoria blight of oats

Other Scientific Names

  • Cochliobolus victoriae R.R. Nelson
  • Drechslera victoriae (F. Meehan & H.C. Murphy) Subram. & B.L. Jain
  • Helminthosporium sativum var. victoriae F. Meehan & H.C. Murphy) H.R. Rosen, Wiser & J.O. York
  • Helminthosporium victoriae F. Meehan & H.C. Murphy

International Common Names

  • English: seedling blight of oats; Victoria blight
  • Spanish: fusariosis de la avena
  • French: helminthosporiose de l'avoine

EPPO code

  • COCHVI

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A disease almost unknown prior to 1944 (Romanko, 1957), Bipolaris victoriae is a potentially destructive disease of oats (it reduced the Iowa oat crop by 32% in 1947) (Anon, 1965) that currently has a limited host range and geographical spread. It has been reported from several continents and associated with several crops, however its status as a pathogen on crops could be questioned in all cases with the exception of oats, timothy grass and switch grass. It is seedborne and thus any trade in seed both for cultivation or for livestock feed is a potential means of spread. The virulence of the fungus is due to the production of a peptide often called a host-specific toxin ‘victorin’. The disease has generally been controlled through the use of genetically resistant lines but the resistance gene which confers resistance to victorin actually causes plants to become susceptible to crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata (Lorang et al., 2007).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Bipolaris
  •                                     Species: Bipolaris victoriae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The anamorphic name Bipolaris has prevailed over the teleomorphic name Cochliobolus as suggested by Rossman et al. (2013). This recommendation was simply due to its familiarity, frequency of use and the extensive renaming that would ensue if Cochliobolus was used.

Description

Top of page

Cultural characteristics

Colonies white or pale grey when young, becoming brown or dark grey with maturity, fluffy, cottony, raised or convex with papillate surface, margin lobate, undulate, entire or sometimes rhizoid. For further information, see http://plantpathogen.org/homepage/3-bipolaris-shoemaker
 

Asexual morph on PDA:

Conidiophores 100-250 × 6-10 μm (av. = 175) arising singly or in groups of few conidia, simple, septate, straight or flexuous, sometimes geniculate at upper part, smooth, pale to mid brown.

Conidiogenous nodes dark brown, slightly verruculose, distinct.

Conidia (25-) 55-90(-110) × (10-)12-16(-19) μm (av. = 72), smooth, straight or curved, broadly fusiform or obclavate fusiform, widest near centre, tapering towards rounded ends, pale to mid brown, (4-)7(-11)- distoseptate.

Hilum slightly protuberant, single germ tubes arising from each end.


Sexual morph on Sach's agar:

Ascocarps are  225-430 × 210-370 μm, black, ellipsoidal to globose. Brown setae are produced over the upper third.

Conidiophores and conidia frequently seen developing on the perithecia. The ostiolar beak, 30-170 μm long, sub-conical to paraboloid, with a mass of hyaline cells frequently covering apex of the beak. The pseudoparaphyses are filamentous and hyaline.

Asci 98-207 × 20-39 μm, arising from the base, developing among pseudoparaphyses, cylindrical to clavate, straight or slightly curved, with a short stipe, vestigial bitunicate, with 1-8 ascospores tightly coiled in a helix.

Ascospores 147-302 × 6-13 μm filiform or flagelliform, somewhat tapered at extremities, hyaline, 5-9-septate after discharge, covered with a mucilaginous sheath, germinating from sides or ends.

From Nelson (1960) quoted by Manamgoda et al. (2014).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 22 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ZambiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); Herb IMI (1977); Herb IMI (1987); UK, CAB International (1990)
ZimbabwePresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); Herb IMI (1972); Herb IMI (1986); UK, CAB International (1990)

Asia

IndiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1990)
-BiharPresentHerb IMI (1970)IMI 146990. B. victoriae associated with Paspalum scrobiculatum.
-UttarakhandPresentHerb IMI (1978)IMI 234373. B. victoriae on/isolated from seed, grain of Oryza sativa.
-West BengalPresentHerb IMI (1975)IMI 191384. B. victoriae associated with Hordeum vulgare.
IranPresentMotlagh and Kaviani (2008)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1990)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentHerb IMI (1974)IMI 183182. B. victoriae associated with Eleusine.
NepalPresentHerb IMI (1990)IMI 354300. B. victoriae on leaf spot of Eleusine coracana.
Saudi ArabiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); Herb IMI (1988); UK, CAB International (1990)

Europe

DenmarkAbsentEPPO (2020)
GermanyPresentHerb IMI (1976)IMI 202868
IrelandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1990)
NetherlandsPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1990)
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1990)
United KingdomPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresentEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1990)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1990)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1990)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1990)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); Meehan (1950)
-GeorgiaPresentTian and Smith (2018); Craigmiles (1949); Scheffer and Nelson (1967)
-IdahoPresentMeehan (1950)
-IowaPresentBuchenau (1960); Meehan (1950)
-LouisianaPresentStamper (1948); Atkins (1950); Herb IMI (1956)
-MarylandPresentScheffer and Nelson (1967)
-MassachusettsPresentScheffer and Nelson (1967)
-MinnesotaPresentChristensen (1953)
-MontanaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); Scheffer and Nelson (1967)
-NebraskaPresentStanton (1948)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1990); Meehan (1950)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1990); Meehan (1950); Scheffer and Nelson (1967)
-WisconsinPresentScheffer and Nelson (1967)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Herb IMI (1972); Herb IMI (1973)
-QueenslandPresentHerb IMI (1972); Herb IMI (1973)IMI 181076. B. victoriae associated with Zea mays.

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1990)
BoliviaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); Herb IMI (1982); UK, CAB International (1990)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Tveit (1956); UK, CAB International (1990)

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

The oat variety Victoria was introduced from South America in 1927 for breeding purposes because of its resistance to disease, especially crown rust (Puccinia coronata). The Victoria-Richland crosses played an important role in increasing oat yields from 1942 to 1945 by virtue of their resistance to both rust and smut (Meehan, 1950). It is considered unlikely (but certainly possible) that the fungal pathogen arrived in the seed of the variety as it took nearly 20 years for the pathogen to be a problem.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

As the pathogen is commonly seedborne, the likelihood of introduction to a new area is high if oat seed of susceptible varieties (or less likely timothy grass (Phleum pratense) or sorghum) is traded and plant quarantine measures are not present. Similarly, animal fodder of human food material could provide a similar route of access for the pathogen if viable seeds are transported.

Habitat

Top of page

This is a disease of grasses that are grown as fodder for human consumption or as biofuel. There are almost no records of the pathogen being associated with non grasses or wild plants.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

All of the references to this pathogen on crops other that oats (with the exception of Thinopyrum ponticum [T. elongatum], Panicum virgatum, Phleum pretense, Paspalum notatum and one reference for Oryza sativa) are recorded as ‘in association with’ or words to similar effect. Scheffer and Nelson (1967) describe it as ‘a saprophyte or weak pathogen on an number of grasses’. The fungus did not appear to be causing disease on any of these crops. Meehan (1950) specifically attempted to inoculate barley and wheat but without success. Records on Glycine max and Linum usitatissimum were during an epiphytotic when there was a huge amount of inoculum present (Meehan, 1950).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Agrostis (bentgrasses)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeMain
Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Eleusine (goosegrass)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Eleusine coracana (finger millet)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Festuca rubra (red fescue)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeHabitat/association
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Linum usitatissimum (flax)Habitat/association
Nephrolepis biserrataNephrolepidaceaeHabitat/association
Oryza (rice (generic level))PoaceaeHabitat/association
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Panicum virgatumPoaceaeMain
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Paspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass paspalum)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Phleum pratense (timothy grass)PoaceaeMain
Poa alpinaPoaceaeHabitat/association
Setaria viridis (green foxtail)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Thinopyrum elongatumPoaceaeOther
Triticum (wheat)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeHabitat/association

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page

Victoria blight is a seedling blight and sometimes seedlings are killed soon after they emerge. In other cases, plants are stunted, leaves turn red and lower leaves eventually die (Texas A&M Agrilife Extension).

The symptoms can be described as a 'premature senescence' and the biochemistry has shown this to be an accurate description based on the toxin mode of action. If the plant is infected later due to secondary spread, it may survive until seed formation but will be prone to lodging and will not produce much yield.

Seeds infected with B. victoriae are often misshapen, small and discoloured.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / discoloration
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Stems / necrosis
Stems / rot
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / seedling blight

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

B. victoriae is primarily seed transmitted between regions. Conidial spread between plants takes place in wet and windy conditions within a crop stand. Strong circumstantial evidence indicates that the pathogen does not compete well in the soil without a susceptible crop but can survive under field conditions in the absence of a host for at least 10 years in soil (Buchenau, 1960) and populations appear to be higher in wetter soils relative to drier ones. Jones (1974) showed that the fungus survives unchanged for 12 years in a soil held at 5°C present as mycelium and conidia.

B. victoriae produces a toxin (victorin), which causes photorespiratory stress resulting in premature senescence in infected plants (Navarre and Wolpert, 1999).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Chaetomium cochlioides Antagonist not specific
Chaetomium globosum Antagonist not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Resistance of a Brazilian variety of oats to B. victoriae has been attributed to antagonistic mycoflora associated with the seeds. Antagonistic fungi (Chaetomium cochlioides and C. globosum) adhere to the seed surface and during the germination process they produce the fungicidal material chochliodinol (Tveit and Moore, 1954).

B. victoriae is attacked by two viruses, one of which causes considerable harm to the fungus (Xie et al., 2016). Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S and the chrysovirus HvV145S are both known to infect the fungus and the former induces hypovirulence in the fungus meaning its virulence is reduced. This virus has been considered as a biological control agent against plant pathogens.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

B. victoriae is seedborne and infected seed is the most important way in which the pathogen is moved to new areas (Buchenau, 1960). The seed from an infected crop appears to have a high percentage of infected seeds (Buchenau, 1960).

Conidial spread between plants takes place in wet and windy conditions within a crop stand but longer distance spread has been difficult to determine. The pathogen does not compete well in the soil the absence of a susceptible crop but inoculum is still present in the soil 10 years after a susceptible crop was grown (Buchenau, 1960). 

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page

Incidence

B. victoriae is seedborne and infected seed is the most important way in which the pathogen is moved to new areas (Buchenau, 1960). The seed from an infected crop appears to have a high percentage of infected seeds (Buchenau, 1960).

Effect on seed quality

Seeds infected with B. victoriae are often misshapen, small and discoloured. On germination, they are rapidly attacked by the pathogen and will often die. The most severely infected seeds germinate but do not emerge (Meehan, 1950). 

Seed treatments

Pre-soaking seed for 56 hours in water has been shown to be an effective means of reducing the percentage of infected plants emerging from a batch of seed. From a single batch of seed, Arny and Leben (1956) reduced the percentage of infected seedlings from 41 to 6%.

Buchenau (1960) confirmed this result and found that seed dressings also significantly reduced the incidence of infected seedlings from infected seeds. No treatments (including water soaking and chemical agents) reduced the infection of seeds from infested soil (Buchenau, 1960).

Attempts to use antagonistic bacterial cultures derived from the grains were unsuccessful in reducing the incidence of seedling blight (Buchenau, 1960).  

Seed dressings such as mancozeb, thiram, carboxin and imazalil may be effective (Texas A&M Agrilife Extension)

Seed Health Tests

Whitehead and Dickson (1948) devised a method for assessing the level of seed infection by B. victoriae. Seed lots were germinated in moistened, rolled paper towels in a refrigerator for 4 days, followed by transferring to 28°C for another 4 days, after which they are examined for the development of B. victoriae (Whitehead and Dickson, 1948) which can often be seen sporulation freely on the seed surface (Meehan, 1950).

Pathway Causes

Top of page

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - non-wood Yes Yes
Germplasm Yes Yes
Mulch, straw, baskets and sod Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

Top of page
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Economic Impact

Top of page

The threat to the oat crop posed by B. victoriae is currently not great. The considerable loss of crop in the USA in the 1940s has not been repeated due to the use of genetically resistant cultivars. The fact that resistance to B. victoriae causes plants to become susceptible to crown rust (Puccinia coronata) does have economic implications because with the germplasm currently available there is no opportunity to develop a variety resistant to both pathogens. The toxin that B. victoriae produces (victorin) has received a great deal of attention from plant pathologists and has become a model system in the understanding of the defence mechanisms of plants and how plants detect pathogens.

The range of crops associated with B. victoriae is considerable and whilst only a ‘weak pathogen’, if the environment were to change so as to favour the development of the pathogen, then it could be a considerable threat on a variety of important food plants.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

An infected crop has characteristically bronze leaves at the seedling stage, these are not a definitive symptom but those with a good eye can generally pick out the diseased plants based on symptoms with a little experience, however it is currently such a rare disease that should an outbreak occur it would be some time before it was considered as a potential cause.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

The species most closely related to Bipolaris victoriae is Bipolaris carbonum. These species have inter-specific fertility, however only 1% of attempted crosses between species were fertile (Nelson, 1960b), but gene flow between related species does appear to take place (Turgeon and Berbee, 1998).

The generalized senescence typified by seedlings infected with B. victoriae could be mistaken for many abiotic factors adversely affecting the establishment of the crop. The pathogen that provides the most similar symptoms is Barley yellow dwarf virus (Buchenau, 1960) as both pathogens cause premature senescence in infected plants, and become stunted and reddened.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Susceptibility to B. victoriae is controlled by a single Mendelian gene called Vb. Vb genotypes are both toxin sensitive and susceptible to toxin-producing isolates of B. victoriae. Molecular biology investigations have shown that Vb is also known as Pc2, a gene which confers resistance to crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata (Lorang et al., 2012).

Prevention of the spread of the disease nationally and internationally is generally achieved through cultivation and trade in resistant varieties. 

Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

The use of resistant oat varieties is an extremely important technique in the control of this disease on oats. It appears to be only a minor pathogen on other grasses for which there may not be genetic resistance as there is for oats. The reports of B. victoriae attacking rice in Iran is concerning and should this spread it will cause a significant problem for the rice-growing regions of the world.

Biological Control

The use of biological control agents against B. victoriae is in the research phase but preliminary studies from Iran have shown that several fungi will suppress the pathogen in germinating rice seeds and may have the potential to work in the field (Motlagh et al., 2016).

Chemical Control

Chemical control has not generally been required due to the success of genetic resistance, however it would appear reasonable that many of the fungicides used against related diseases would control the disease if it became necessary.

Host Resistance (incl. vaccination)

Host resistance through the use of the Vb gene remains the most important means of protecting the oat crop against this disease.

IPM

Host resistance through the use of the Vb gene remains the most important means of protecting the oat crop against this disease. No other control is deemed necessary on major crops.

References

Top of page

Anon, 1965. Losses in agriculture. In: USDA Agriculutre handbook , (291) , USA: USDA.p. 8.

Arny, D. C. , Leben, C. , 1956. Control oí several small grain diseases by the water-soak seed treatment. Phytopathology, 46(6), 344-345 pp.

Atkins, J. G. , 1950. Helminthosporium victoriae as a leaf-spotting pathogen. Phytopathology, 40(8), 785.

Buchenau GW, 1960. Etiology and epiphytology of Victoria blight of oats. In: Retrospective Theses and Dissertations , (2605) . https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/rtd/2605

Christensen, J. J., 1953. Root rots of wheat, oats, rye, barley. In: Plant Diseases. Yearbook for Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture . 321-28.

Craigmiles, J., 1949. A biologic study of H. Victoriae attacking oats in Georgia. Proceedings of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers, 1949, 55 pp.

Hamilton, D. G. , Broadfoot, W. C. , 1947. The new Helminthosporium blight of Oats found in Ontario. Scientific Agriculture, 27(9), 446-447 pp.

Jones, J. P., 1974. Prolonged storage of Helminthosporium victoriae in soil. Phytopathology, 64(8), 1158. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-64-1158

Lorang, J. M., Sweat, T. A., Wolpert, T. J., 2007. Plant disease susceptibility conferred by a "resistance" gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(37), 14861-14866. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0702572104

Lorang, J., Kidarsa, T., Bradford, C. S., Gilbert, B., Curtis, M., Tzeng, S. C., Maier, C. S., Wolpert, T. J., 2012. Tricking the guard: exploiting plant defense for disease susceptibility. Science (Washington), 338(6107), 659-662. doi: 10.1126/science.1226743

Manamgoda, D. S., Rossman, A. Y., Castlebury, L. A., Crous, P. W., Madrid, H., Chukeatirote, E., Hyde, K. D., 2014. The genus Bipolaris. Studies in Mycology, (No.79), 221-288. doi: 10.1016/j.simyco.2014.10.002

Meehan FL, 1950. Helminthosporium victoriae M. and M. and some other graminicolous species. In: Retrospective Theses and Dissertations , (13655) . https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/rtd/13655

Motlagh MRS, Mohammadian S, 2016. Biological control of rice brown spot disease caused by Bipolaris victoriae by some fungal isolates in the greenhouse and in vitro conditions. Biocontrol in Plant Protection, 4(1(7)), 11- 25.

Motlagh, M. R. S., Kaviani, B., 2008. Characterization of new Bipolaris spp.: the causal agent of rice brown spot disease in the north of Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 10(6), 638-642. http://www.fspublishers.org/

Motlagh, M. R. S., Kaviani, B., 2008. Study of genetic variation in population of Bipolaris victoriae, the causal agent of rice brown spot disease, in Guilan Province of Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(22), 4027-4030. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2008/19Nov/Safari%20Motlagh%20and%20Kaviani.pdf

Navarre, D. A., Wolpert, T. J., 1999. Victorin induction of an apoptotic/senescence-like response in oats. Plant Cell, 11(2), 237-249.

Nelson, R. E. , 1960. The genetics of compatibility in Cochliobolus carbonum. Phytopathology, 50(2), 158-160 pp.

Nelson, R. R., 1960. Cochliobolus victoriae, the perfect stage of Helminthosporium victoriae. Phytopathology, 50, 774-75.

Romanko RR, 1957. The Nature of Resistance of Oats to Victoria. LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses Blight. 225. https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_disstheses/225

Rossman, A. Y., Manamgoda, D. S., Hyde, K. D., 2013. Proposal to conserve the name Bipolaris against Cochliobolus (Ascomycota: Pleosporales: Pleosporaceae). Taxon, 62(6), 1331-1332. doi: 10.12705/626.21

Scheffer, R. P., Nelson, R. R., 1967. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Helminthosporium victoriae. Plant Disease Reporter, 51(2), 110-111.

Tian, P., Smith, S. M., 2018. First report of leaf spot caused by Bipolaris victoriae on switchgrass in Georgia. Plant Disease, 102(3), 675. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1010-PDN

Turgeon, B. G., Berbee, M. L., 1998. Evolution of pathogenic and reproductive strategies in Cochliobolus and related genera. In: Molecular genetics of host-specific toxins in plant disease. Proceedings of the 3rd Tottori International Symposium Daisen, Tottori, Japan, 24-29 August, 1997 [Molecular genetics of host-specific toxins in plant disease. Proceedings of the 3rd Tottori International Symposium Daisen, Tottori, Japan, 24-29 August, 1997], [ed. by Kohmoto, K., Yoder, O. C.]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 153-163.

Tveit, M. , 1956. Pathogenicity of species of Helminthosporium from Brazilian Oats. Phytopathology, 46(1), 45-48 pp.

Tveit, M. , Moore, M. B. , 1954. Isolates of Chaetomium that protect Oats from Hehninthosporium victoriae. Phytopathology, 44(12), 686-689 pp.

Whitehead, M. D. , Dickson, J. G. , 1948. The influence of germination temperatures on seedling development of Helminthosporium blight of Oats. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy, 40(12), 1092-1099 pp.

Xie JiaTao, Havens, W. M., Lin YuHsin, Suzuki, N., Ghabrial, S. A., 2016. The victorivirus Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S is the primary cause of disease/hypovirulence in its natural host and a heterologous host. Virus Research, 213, 238-245. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702

Distribution References

Atkins J G, 1950. Helminthosporium victoriae as a leaf-spotting pathogen. Phytopathology. 40 (8), 785.

Buchenau G W, 1960. Etiology and epiphytology of Victoria blight of Oats. 4483-4484 pp.

Christensen J J, 1953. Root rots of wheat, oats, rye, barley. In: Plant Diseases. Yearbook for Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, 321-28.

Craigmiles J, 1949. A biologic study of H. Victoriae attacking oats in Georgia. Proceedings of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers, 1949. 55 pp.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Herb IMI, 1956. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1970. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1972. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1973. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1974. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1975. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1976. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1977. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1978. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1982. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1986. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1987. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1988. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Herb IMI, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Meehan FL, 1950. Helminthosporium victoriae M. and M. and some other graminicolous species. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/rtd/13655

Motlagh M R S, Kaviani B, 2008. Study of genetic variation in population of Bipolaris victoriae, the causal agent of rice brown spot disease, in Guilan Province of Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7 (22), 4027-4030.

Scheffer R P, Nelson R R, 1967. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Helminthosporium victoriae. Plant Disease Reporter. 51 (2), 110-111.

Stamper ER, 1948. Helminthosporium blight of oats in Louisiana. In: LSU Agricultural Experiment Station Reports, http://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/agexp/50

Stanton TR, 1948. New varieites of oats from bone crosses resistant to Victoria blight. In: USDA Circular, USA: USDA.

Tian P, Smith S M, 2018. First report of leaf spot caused by Bipolaris victoriae on switchgrass in Georgia. Plant Disease. 102 (3), 675. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1010-PDN

Tveit M, 1956. Pathogenicity of species of Helminthosporium from Brazilian Oats. Phytopathology. 46 (1), 45-48 pp.

UK, CAB International, 1990. Cochliobolus victoriae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 267.

Principal Source

Top of page

Draft datasheet under review.

Contributors

Top of page

14/05/20 Original text:

Philip Taylor, CABI E-UK, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey,  TW20 9TY, UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map