Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Cochliobolus sativus
(root and foot rot)



Cochliobolus sativus (root and foot rot)


  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cochliobolus sativus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • root and foot rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cochliobolus sativus (S. Ito & Kurib.) Drechsler ex Dastur

Preferred Common Name

  • root and foot rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker
  • Drechslera sorokiniana (Sacc.) Subram. & B.L. Jain
  • Helminthosporium acrothecioides Lindf.
  • Helminthosporium anomalum Gilman & Abbott
  • Helminthosporium californicum Mackie & G.E. Paxton
  • Helminthosporium sativum Pammel, C.M. King & Bakke
  • Helminthosporium sorokinianum Sacc.
  • Ophiobolus sativus S. Ito & Kurib.

International Common Names

  • English: brown foot rot; foot rot
  • Spanish: helmintosporiosis de cereales
  • French: brûlure des épis des céréales; helminthosporiose des céréales

Local Common Names

  • Australia: common root rot; summer brown patch
  • Brazil: brown spot
  • Germany: Blattfleckigkeit: Weizen; Braunfleckigkeit: Gerste; Braunspitzigkeit: Weizen; Wurzelfäule: Getreide
  • UK: spot blotch
  • USA: black point (kernel blight); common (dryland) root and foot rot; foot and root rot; head blight; root rot; root, crown and foot rot; scab (head blight); seedling blight

EPPO code

  • COCHSA (Cochliobolus sativus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Cochliobolus
  •                                     Species: Cochliobolus sativus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
AzerbaijanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
BangladeshPresentCMI, 1986; Rashid et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BhutanPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ChinaWidespreadRajaram, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-BeijingPresentWu et al., 2011
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-GansuPresentLi and Wang, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-GuangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-GuizhouPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-HeilongjiangPresentJin and Wang, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HenanPresentLiu et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-JiangsuPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-JiangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-JilinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-LiaoningPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Nei MengguPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-NingxiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ShaanxiPresentZhang et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ShandongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-SichuanPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-XinjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-YunnanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IndiaWidespreadDhruj and Siddiqui, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-AssamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-BiharPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-GoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-GujaratPresentMishra et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HaryanaPresentAneja and Srinivas, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Indian PunjabPresentKaur et al., 1990; Randhawa and Sharma, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-KarnatakaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-KeralaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Madhya PradeshWidespreadCMI, 1986; Hiremath et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MaharashtraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OdishaPresentCMI, 1986; Senapati and Narain, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-RajasthanPresentAgrawal et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Uttar PradeshPresentSharma & Singh, 1978; Chaurasia et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-UttarakhandPresentMohdAkram, and Amerika, 2003
-West BengalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-SulawesiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IranPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Naeimi et al., 2012; Ahmadpour et al., 2014
IraqPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IsraelPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
JapanWidespreadCMI, 1986; Kan and Katsuki, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
KazakhstanPresentCMI, 1986; Shugurov & Petrova, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Korea, DPRPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Korea, Republic ofPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
LaosPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
LebanonPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MalaysiaPresentCMI, 1986; Kanapathipillai, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MyanmarPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
NepalPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
OmanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
PakistanPresentAli et al., 1992; CMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PhilippinesPresentCMI, 1986; Rajaram, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Saudi ArabiaPresentEl and Meleigi Al Rokibah, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Sri LankaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SyriaPresentLeur et al., 1997; Krause and Weltzien, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TaiwanPresentCMI, 1986; Wu, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ThailandPresentCMI, 1986; Rajaram, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TurkeyPresentCMI, 1986; Jana and Bailey, 1995; Mamluk et al., 1997; Eken and Demirci, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003


AlgeriaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2003
AngolaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
CameroonPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EgyptPresentCMI, 1986; Allam, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EthiopiaPresentCMI, 1986; Loban, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GhanaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
KenyaPresentCMI, 1986; Bekele et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
LibyaPresentCMI, 1986; Mohamed, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MalawiPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MauritiusPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MoroccoPresentCMI, 1986; Mergoum et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
NigeriaPresentCMI, 1986; Giha, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
South AfricaPresentCMI, 1986; Smith et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SudanPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TanzaniaWidespreadCMI, 1986; Kuwite Danial, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TunisiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
UgandaPresentCMI, 1986; Little et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ZambiaPresentCMI, 1986; CIMMYT, 1980; Mukwavi Danial, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ZimbabwePresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003

North America

CanadaPresentCMI, 1986; Bailey et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-AlbertaPresentCMI, 1986; Kibite, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-British ColumbiaPresentMortensen and Molloy, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ManitobaPresentGrant and Bailey, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-OntarioPresentMortensen and Molloy, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Prince Edward IslandPresentMortensen and Molloy, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-QuebecPresentPua et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-SaskatchewanPresentBerdahl et al., 1993; Kibite, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MexicoPresentCMI, 1986; CIMMYT, 1980; Villareal et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
USAWidespreadCMI, 1986; Bailey et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-AlabamaPresentChen et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentScardaci and Webster, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ColoradoPresentHill and Blunt, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-FloridaPresentShokes et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentBruckner et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-IdahoPresentRasmusson et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-IllinoisPresentByrnes et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-IowaPresentHodges, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MinnesotaPresentNyvall et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MississippiPresentCuarezma, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MontanaPresentShefelbine et al., 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-NebraskaPresentBerdahl et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New MexicoPresentHsi et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New YorkPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2003
-North CarolinaPresentLeonard et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-North DakotaPresentStatler and Kiesling, 1974; Goos et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-OhioPresentByrnes et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-OklahomaPresentUmechuruba and Singleton, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-OregonPresentSmiley and Patterson, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-PennsylvaniaPresentBroscious and Frank, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-South DakotaPresentQuick et al., 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TennesseePresentVu et al., 2011
-TexasPresentMathieson et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-UtahPresentKidambi et al., 1985a; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-VirginiaPresentStarling et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-WashingtonPresentSmiley and Patterson, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-WisconsinPresentHeimann et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentCMI, 1986
Costa RicaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
CubaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
El SalvadorPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GuatemalaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
HondurasPresentCMI, 1986
JamaicaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
NicaraguaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PanamaPresentCMI, 1986
Windward IslandsPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent, few occurrencesCMI, 1986; Chaluat and Perris, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BoliviaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BrazilPresentTulmann-Neto et al., 1995; Reis, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-BahiaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Mato GrossoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentGoulart, 1988
-ParaibaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ParanaPresentSantos et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCMI, 1986; Santos et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Sao PauloPresentSentelhas et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ColombiaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ParaguayPresentCMI, 1986; Viedma et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PeruPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UruguayPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
VenezuelaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003


AustriaPresentZwatz, 1974; Zwatz, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BelarusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
BelgiumPresentCappelli, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BulgariaPresentCMI, 1986; Mladenov and Tsvetkov, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003
CroatiaPresentJurkovic et al., 2008
CyprusPresentCMI, 1986; Kari, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCMI, 1986; Benada, 1985; Prokinova, 1999
DenmarkPresentCMI, 1986; Cappelli, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EstoniaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
FinlandPresentTuomi and Rosenqvist, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Former USSRPresent
FrancePresentCMI, 1986; Cappelli, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GermanyPresentCMI, 1986; Appel and Zinkernagel, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GreecePresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
HungaryPresentCMI, 1986; Simay, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IrelandPresentMangan, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ItalyPresentCMI, 1986; Cappelli et al., 1993; Picco et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2003
LatviaPresentKhatskevich and Benken, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
LithuaniaPresentCMI, 1986; Benken et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
NetherlandsPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
NorwayPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PolandPresentCMI, 1986; Lacicowa and Pieta, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
RomaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Russian FederationWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Eastern SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Russia (Europe)PresentCMI, 1986; Khatskevich and Nesterov, 1994
-Russian Far EastPresentCMI, 1986; Kamelina, 1975; Smirnova, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-SiberiaPresentCMI, 1986; Zerfus and Satubaldin, 1989
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SlovakiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SpainWidespreadCMI, 1986; Segarra et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SwedenPresentCMI, 1986; Gustafsson & von Bothmer, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
UKPresentCMI, 1986; Dev et al., 1989; Lam, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UkrainePresentCMI, 1986; Lesovoi et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCMI, 1986; Milevoj, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2003


American SamoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-New South WalesPresentCMI, 1986; Doyle et al., 1987; Brennan et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-QueenslandWidespreadCMI, 1986; Brennan et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-South AustraliaPresentCMI, 1986; Taheri et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TasmaniaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-VictoriaPresentCMI, 1986; Boer et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Western AustraliaPresentCMI, 1986; Roberts and Sivasithamparam, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
KiribatiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
New CaledoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
New ZealandPresentCMI, 1986; Hampton, 1979; Cane and Hampton, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentCMI, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TongaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus cereus Pathogen
Bacillus licheniformis Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Chaetomium globosum Pathogen
Penicillium purpurogenum Antagonist
Sporobolomyces roseus Pathogen Brazil
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants


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Adlakha KL; Raychaudhuri SP, 1975. Further studies on the interaction between wheat mosaic streak virus and Helminthosporium sativum. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 10(3/4):295-300

Agarwal PC; Anitha K; Usha Dev; Baleshwar Singh; Ram Nath, 1993. Alternaria alternata, real cause of black point and differentiating symptoms of two other pathogens associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 63(7):451-453; 4 ref.

Ahmadpour A; Javan-Nikkhah M; Naghavi MR; Dehkaei FP, 2014. Morphological and phylogenetic investigation of Bipolaris oryzae and some species of Bipolaris obtained from rice and grass weeds. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 50(2):Pe123-Pe135, En51-En53.

Al-Abed AS; Qasem JR; Abu-Blan HA, 1993. Antifungal effects of some common wild plant species on certain plant pathogenic fungi. Dirasat. Series B, Pure and Applied Sciences, 20(3):149-158; 27 ref.

Alippi AM; Perell= AE; Sisterna MN; Greco NM; Cordo CA, 2000. Potential of spore-forming bacteria as biocontrol agents of wheat foliar diseases under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 107(2):155-169; 49 ref.

Allam AD, 1994. Reaction of some wheat cultivars to root rot disease caused by Cochliobolus sativus. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 25(1):249-264

Aneja KR; Srinivas B, 1992. Fungal pathogens of aquatic weeds of Haryana. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 30(2):139-152; 30 ref.

Apoga D; Jansson HB, 2000. Visualization and characterization of the extracellular matrix of Bipolaris sorokiniana. Mycological Research, 104(5):564-575; 40 ref.

Appel J; Zinkernagel V, 1994. A decision model to control diseases on spring and winter barley in particular consideration of Rhynchosporium secalis. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 59(3a):987-992

Ashok Mishra; Patel NM; Patel DB; Patel JR; Jadon BS, 1989. Economical spray schedule for the management of leaf blight/blotch of wheat. Pestology, 13(8):22-25

Bach EE; Kimati H, 1999. Purification and characterization of toxins from wheat isolates of Drechslera tritici-repentis, Bipolaris bicolor, and Bipolaris sorokiniana. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins, 5(2):184-199; 22 ref.

Bailey KL; Duczek LJ, 1996. Managing cereal diseases under reduced tillage. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(2):159-167; 74 ref.

Bailey KL; Duczek LJ; Potts DA, 1997. Inoculation of seeds with Bipolaris sorokiniana and soil fumigation methods to determine wheat and barley tolerance and yield losses caused by common root rot. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 77(4):691-698; 27 ref.

Bailey KL; Gossen BD; Derksen DA; Watson PR, 2000. Impact of agronomic practices and environment on diseases of wheat and lentil in southeastern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 80(4):917-927; 43 ref.

Bailey KL; Lafond GP; Domitruk D, 1998. Effects of row spacing, seeding rate and seed-placed phosphorus on root diseases of spring wheat and barley under zero tillage. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 78(1):145-150; 22 ref.

Bailey KL; Wolfe RI, 1994. Genetic relationships between reaction to common root rot and yield in the progeny of a barley cross. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16(3):163-169

Bailey RH; Wick A; Bara RF; Dickson WK; Funk CR, 1995. Registration of 'Shamrock' Kentucky bluegrass. Crop Science, 35(3):939-940; 6 ref.

Barba JT; Reis EM; Forcelini CA, 2002. Comparison of methods for the detection of Bipolaris sorokiniana in barley seeds. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 27(4):389-394; 26 ref.

Barbieri RL; Carvalho FIFde; Dornelles ALC; Cristaldo RMde LOde; Handel CL, 1997. Genetics of resistance to the fungus Helminthosporium sativum in wheat: use of culture filtrates in tissue culture. Brazilian Journal of Genetics, 20(3):477-482; 15 ref.

Bazlur Rashid AQM; Bahadur Meah; Jalaluddin, 1987. Effect of leaf blight caused by Drechslera sorokiniana (Sacc.) Subram. and Jain. on some yield components of wheat. Crop Protection, 6(4):256-260

Bekele GT; Skovmand B; Gilchrist LI; Warham EJ, 1985. Screening triticale for resistance to certain diseases occurring in Mexico. In: Bernard M, Bernard S, eds. Genetics and Breeding of Triticale. Paris, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 559-564.

Benada J, 1985. Occurrence of Bipolaris sorokiniana on spring barley seeds and effectiveness of seed treatment. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 21(1):33-38

Benken AA; Grishechkina SD; Khatskevich LK; Magila AS, 1990. Soil infection induced by common barley root rots. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 24(4):336-343; 23 ref.

Berdahl JD; Barker RE; Karn JF; Krupinsky JM; Ray IM; Vogel KP; Moore KJ; Klopfenstein TJ; Anderson BE; Haas RJ; Tober DA, 1993. Registration of 'Manska' pubescent intermediate wheatgrass. Crop Science, 33(4):881.

Boer RF de; Kollmorgen JF; Macauley BJ; Franz PR, 1991. Effects of cultivation on Rhizoctonia root rot, cereal cyst nematode, common root rot and yield of wheat in the Victorian Mallee. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 31(3):367-372

Braverman JW, 1961. Three additional bromegrass species as hosts of Helminthosporium sorokianum. Plant Dis. Rep., 45:199.

Brennan PS; Martin DJ; Eisemann RL; Mason LR; Sheppard JA; Norris RG; Smith GD; Uebergang RW; ThT D; Keys PJ; Agius PJ, 1994. Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare (bread wheat) cv. Batavia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34(6):853-854.

Broscious SC; Frank JA, 1986. Effects of crop management practices on common root rot of winter wheat. Plant Disease, 70(9):857-859; 23 ref.

Bruckner PL; Barnett RD; Morey DD; Johnson JW; Cunfer BM; Raymer PL; Buntin GD; Smith RL; Soffes AR, 1992. 'Sunland': a new high-yielding triticale for the southeast. Research Report - Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations, No. 603:10 pp.; 19 ref.

Byrnes KJ; Pataky JK; White DG, 1989. Relationships between yield of three maize hybrids and severity of southern leaf blight caused by race O of Bipolaris maydis. Plant Disease, 73(10):834-840

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Cochliobolus sativus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 322. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cane SF; Hampton JG, 1990. The effects of Bipolaris sorokiniana on barley seed quality. Australasian Plant Pathology, 19(1):26-29

Cappelli C, 1991. Presence of Drechslera siccans (Drech.) Shoemaker and D. andersenii Lam in seeds of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Sementi Elette, 37(3-4):49-51

Cappelli C; Buonaurio R; Ciriciofolo E, 1993. Black point of durum wheat in Umbria. Two years of observations. Informatore Fitopatologico, 43(11):24-28

Cappelli C; Ciriciofolo E, 1991. Observations on the sanitary state of seeds of oil linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Sementi Elette, 37(2):33-36; 16 ref.

Carlson H; Stenram U; Gustafsson M; Jansson HB, 1991. Electron microscopy of barley root infection by the fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. Canadian Journal of Botany, 69(12):2724-2731

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