Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cochliobolus sativus
(root and foot rot)

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Datasheet

Cochliobolus sativus (root and foot rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cochliobolus sativus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • root and foot rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cochliobolus sativus (S. Ito & Kurib.) Drechsler ex Dastur

Preferred Common Name

  • root and foot rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker
  • Drechslera sorokiniana (Sacc.) Subram. & B.L. Jain
  • Helminthosporium acrothecioides Lindf.
  • Helminthosporium anomalum Gilman & Abbott
  • Helminthosporium californicum Mackie & G.E. Paxton
  • Helminthosporium sativum Pammel, C.M. King & Bakke
  • Helminthosporium sorokinianum Sacc.
  • Ophiobolus sativus S. Ito & Kurib.

International Common Names

  • English: brown foot rot; foot rot
  • Spanish: helmintosporiosis de cereales
  • French: brûlure des épis des céréales; helminthosporiose des céréales

Local Common Names

  • Australia: common root rot; summer brown patch
  • Brazil: brown spot
  • Germany: Blattfleckigkeit: Weizen; Braunfleckigkeit: Gerste; Braunspitzigkeit: Weizen; Wurzelfäule: Getreide
  • UK: spot blotch
  • USA: black point (kernel blight); common (dryland) root and foot rot; foot and root rot; head blight; root rot; root, crown and foot rot; scab (head blight); seedling blight

EPPO code

  • COCHSA (Cochliobolus sativus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Cochliobolus
  •                                     Species: Cochliobolus sativus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1986)
AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Allam (1994)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
KenyaPresentBekele et al. (1985); UK, CAB International (1986)
LibyaPresentMohamed (1975); UK, CAB International (1986)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Mergoum et al. (1994)
NigeriaPresentGiha (1978); UK, CAB International (1986)
South AfricaPresentSmith et al. (1984); UK, CAB International (1986)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Little and Wagoire (1994)
ZambiaPresentCIMMYT (1980); UK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1986)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
AzerbaijanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Rashid et al. (1992)
BhutanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
ChinaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); Rajaram (1988)
-AnhuiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-BeijingPresentWu et al. (2011)
-FujianPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-GansuPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Li and Wang (1991)
-GuangdongPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-GuangxiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-GuizhouPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-HebeiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-HeilongjiangPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Jin and Wang (1990)
-HenanPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Liu HongYan et al. (1998)
-Inner MongoliaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-JiangsuPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-JiangxiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-JilinPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-LiaoningPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-NingxiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-ShaanxiPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Zhang et al. (1990)
-ShandongPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-XinjiangPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-YunnanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); Dhruj and Siddiqui (1994)
-Andhra PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-AssamPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-BiharPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-DelhiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-GoaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-GujaratPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
-HaryanaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Aneja and Srinivas (1992)
-Himachal PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-KarnatakaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-KeralaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Madhya PradeshPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); Hiremath et al. (1991)
-MaharashtraPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-OdishaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Senapati and Narain (1990)
-PunjabPresentRandhawa and Sharma (1985); UK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
-RajasthanPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
-Tamil NaduPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Chaurasia et al. (2000); CABI (Undated)
-UttarakhandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: MohdAkram, and Amerika (2003)
-West BengalPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-SulawesiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Naeimi et al. (2012); Ahmadpour et al. (2014)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
JapanPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); Kan and Katsuki (1987)
-HokkaidoPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
KyrgyzstanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
LaosPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MalaysiaPresentKanapathipillai (1982); UK, CAB International (1986)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
OmanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Rajaram (1988)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
SyriaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Krause and Weltzien (1989); CABI (Undated)
TaiwanPresentWu (1976); UK, CAB International (1986)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Rajaram (1988)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Jana and Bailey (1995); Mamluk et al. (1997); Eken and Demirci (1998)
UzbekistanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)

Europe

AustriaPresentZwatz (1974); UK, CAB International (1986); Zwatz (1986)
BelarusPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Cappelli (1991)
BulgariaPresentMladenov and Tsvetkov (1979); UK, CAB International (1986)
CroatiaPresentJurković et al. (2008)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Kari (1994)
CzechiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
CzechoslovakiaPresentBenada (1985); CABI (Undated)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Milevoj (1989)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentCABI (Undated a)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Cappelli (1991)
EstoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Tuomi and Rosenqvist (1995)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1986); Cappelli (1991)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Appel and Zinkernagel (1994)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1986)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Simay (1990)
IrelandPresentMangan (1979); UK, CAB International (1986)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Cappelli et al. (1993); Picco et al. (1999)
LatviaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Khatskevich and Benken (1990)
LithuaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Benken et al. (1990)
MoldovaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Łacicowa and Pięta (1994)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
RussiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986)
-Central RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Russia (Europe)PresentKhatskevich and Nesterov (1994)
-Russian Far EastPresentKamelina (1975); UK, CAB International (1986); Smirnova (1988)
-SiberiaPresentZerfus and Satubaldin (1989)
-Southern RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Western SiberiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
SlovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
SpainPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); Segarra et al. (1993)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
UkrainePresentUK, CAB International (1986); Lesovoĭ et al. (1990)
United KingdomPresentLam (1982); UK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)

North America

CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Bailey et al. (1995)
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Kibite (1995)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Mortensen and Molloy (1993)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Grant and Bailey (1994)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Mortensen and Molloy (1993)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Mortensen and Molloy (1993)
-QuebecPresentPua et al. (1985); UK, CAB International (1986)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Berdahl et al. (1993); Kibite (1995)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MexicoPresentCIMMYT (1980); UK, CAB International (1986); Villareal et al. (1995)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); Bailey et al. (1995)
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Chen et al. (1996)
-CaliforniaPresentScardaci and Webster (1982); UK, CAB International (1986)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Hill and Blunt (1994)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Shokes et al. (1991)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Bruckner et al. (1992)
-IdahoPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Rasmusson et al. (1991)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Byrnes et al. (1989)
-IowaPresentHodges (1981); UK, CAB International (1986)
-MinnesotaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Nyvall et al. (1995)
-MississippiPresentCuarezma-Terán (1985); UK, CAB International (1986)
-MontanaPresentShefelbine et al. (1986); UK, CAB International (1986)
-NebraskaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Berdahl et al. (1993)
-New MexicoPresentHsi et al. (1975); UK, CAB International (1986)
-New YorkPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1986)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Leonard et al. (1988)
-North DakotaPresentStatler and Kiesling (1974); UK, CAB International (1986); Goos et al. (1994)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Byrnes et al. (1989)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Umechuruba and Singleton (1986)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Smiley and Patterson (1996)
-PennsylvaniaPresentBroscious and Frank (1986); UK, CAB International (1986)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-South DakotaPresentQuick et al. (1974); UK, CAB International (1986)
-TennesseePresentVu et al. (2011)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Mathieson et al. (1990)
-UtahPresentKidambi et al. (1985); UK, CAB International (1986)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Starling et al. (1994)
-WashingtonPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Smiley and Patterson (1996)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Heimann et al. (1989)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Doyle et al. (1987); Brennan et al. (1994)
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); Brennan et al. (1994)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Taheri et al. (1994)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Boer et al. (1991)
-Western AustraliaPresentRoberts and Sivasithamparam (1986); UK, CAB International (1986)
KiribatiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
New ZealandPresentHampton (1979); UK, CAB International (1986); Cane and Hampton (1990)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Solomon IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
TongaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1986); Chaluat and Perris (1994)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
BrazilPresentReis (1981); UK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
-BahiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Mato GrossoPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentGoulart (1988)
-ParaibaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-ParanaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Santos et al. (1991)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Sentelhas et al. (1993)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
ParaguayPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Viedma et al. (1987)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus cereus Pathogen
Bacillus licheniformis Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Chaetomium globosum Pathogen
Penicillium purpurogenum Antagonist
Sporobolomyces roseus Pathogen Brazil
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Adlakha KL, Raychaudhuri SP, 1975. Further studies on the interaction between wheat mosaic streak virus and Helminthosporium sativum. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 10(3/4):295-300

Agarwal PC, Anitha K, Usha Dev, Baleshwar Singh, Ram Nath, 1993. Alternaria alternata, real cause of black point and differentiating symptoms of two other pathogens associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 63(7):451-453; 4 ref

Ahmadpour A, Javan-Nikkhah M, Naghavi MR, Dehkaei FP, 2014. Morphological and phylogenetic investigation of Bipolaris oryzae and some species of Bipolaris obtained from rice and grass weeds. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 50(2):Pe123-Pe135, En51-En53. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_10992_1823.html

Al-Abed AS, Qasem JR, Abu-Blan HA, 1993. Antifungal effects of some common wild plant species on certain plant pathogenic fungi. Dirasat. Series B, Pure and Applied Sciences, 20(3):149-158; 27 ref

Alippi AM, Perell= AE, Sisterna MN, Greco NM, Cordo CA, 2000. Potential of spore-forming bacteria as biocontrol agents of wheat foliar diseases under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 107(2):155-169; 49 ref

Allam AD, 1994. Reaction of some wheat cultivars to root rot disease caused by Cochliobolus sativus. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 25(1):249-264

Aneja KR, Srinivas B, 1992. Fungal pathogens of aquatic weeds of Haryana. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 30(2):139-152; 30 ref

Apoga D, Jansson HB, 2000. Visualization and characterization of the extracellular matrix of Bipolaris sorokiniana. Mycological Research, 104(5):564-575; 40 ref

Appel J, Zinkernagel V, 1994. A decision model to control diseases on spring and winter barley in particular consideration of Rhynchosporium secalis. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 59(3a):987-992

Ashok Mishra, Patel NM, Patel DB, Patel JR, Jadon BS, 1989. Economical spray schedule for the management of leaf blight/blotch of wheat. Pestology, 13(8):22-25

Bach EE, Kimati H, 1999. Purification and characterization of toxins from wheat isolates of Drechslera tritici-repentis, Bipolaris bicolor, and Bipolaris sorokiniana. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins, 5(2):184-199; 22 ref

Bailey KL, Duczek LJ, 1996. Managing cereal diseases under reduced tillage. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(2):159-167; 74 ref

Bailey KL, Duczek LJ, Potts DA, 1997. Inoculation of seeds with Bipolaris sorokiniana and soil fumigation methods to determine wheat and barley tolerance and yield losses caused by common root rot. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 77(4):691-698; 27 ref

Bailey KL, Gossen BD, Derksen DA, Watson PR, 2000. Impact of agronomic practices and environment on diseases of wheat and lentil in southeastern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 80(4):917-927; 43 ref

Bailey KL, Lafond GP, Domitruk D, 1998. Effects of row spacing, seeding rate and seed-placed phosphorus on root diseases of spring wheat and barley under zero tillage. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 78(1):145-150; 22 ref

Bailey KL, Wolfe RI, 1994. Genetic relationships between reaction to common root rot and yield in the progeny of a barley cross. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16(3):163-169

Bailey RH, Wick A, Bara RF, Dickson WK, Funk CR, 1995. Registration of 'Shamrock' Kentucky bluegrass. Crop Science, 35(3):939-940; 6 ref

Barba JT, Reis EM, Forcelini CA, 2002. Comparison of methods for the detection of Bipolaris sorokiniana in barley seeds. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 27(4):389-394; 26 ref

Barbieri RL, Carvalho FIFde, Dornelles ALC, Cristaldo RMde LOde, Handel CL, 1997. Genetics of resistance to the fungus Helminthosporium sativum in wheat: use of culture filtrates in tissue culture. Brazilian Journal of Genetics, 20(3):477-482; 15 ref

Bazlur Rashid AQM, Bahadur Meah, Jalaluddin, 1987. Effect of leaf blight caused by Drechslera sorokiniana (Sacc.) Subram. and Jain. on some yield components of wheat. Crop Protection, 6(4):256-260

Bekele GT, Skovmand B, Gilchrist LI, Warham EJ, 1985. Screening triticale for resistance to certain diseases occurring in Mexico. In: Bernard M, Bernard S, eds. Genetics and Breeding of Triticale. Paris, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 559-564

Benada J, 1985. Occurrence of Bipolaris sorokiniana on spring barley seeds and effectiveness of seed treatment. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 21(1):33-38

Benken AA, Grishechkina SD, Khatskevich LK, Magila AS, 1990. Soil infection induced by common barley root rots. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 24(4):336-343; 23 ref

Berdahl JD, Barker RE, Karn JF, Krupinsky JM, Ray IM, Vogel KP, Moore KJ, Klopfenstein TJ, Anderson BE, Haas RJ, Tober DA, 1993. Registration of 'Manska' pubescent intermediate wheatgrass. Crop Science, 33(4):881

Boer RF de, Kollmorgen JF, Macauley BJ, Franz PR, 1991. Effects of cultivation on Rhizoctonia root rot, cereal cyst nematode, common root rot and yield of wheat in the Victorian Mallee. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 31(3):367-372

Braverman JW, 1961. Three additional bromegrass species as hosts of Helminthosporium sorokianum. Plant Dis. Rep., 45:199

Brennan PS, Martin DJ, Eisemann RL, Mason LR, Sheppard JA, Norris RG, Smith GD, Uebergang RW, ThT D, Keys PJ, Agius PJ, 1994. Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare (bread wheat) cv. Batavia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34(6):853-854

Broscious SC, Frank JA, 1986. Effects of crop management practices on common root rot of winter wheat. Plant Disease, 70(9):857-859; 23 ref

Bruckner PL, Barnett RD, Morey DD, Johnson JW, Cunfer BM, Raymer PL, Buntin GD, Smith RL, Soffes AR, 1992. 'Sunland': a new high-yielding triticale for the southeast. Research Report - Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations, No. 603:10 pp.; 19 ref

Byrnes KJ, Pataky JK, White DG, 1989. Relationships between yield of three maize hybrids and severity of southern leaf blight caused by race O of Bipolaris maydis. Plant Disease, 73(10):834-840

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Cochliobolus sativus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 322. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cane SF, Hampton JG, 1990. The effects of Bipolaris sorokiniana on barley seed quality. Australasian Plant Pathology, 19(1):26-29

Cappelli C, 1991. Presence of Drechslera siccans (Drech.) Shoemaker and D. andersenii Lam in seeds of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Sementi Elette, 37(3-4):49-51

Cappelli C, Buonaurio R, Ciriciofolo E, 1993. Black point of durum wheat in Umbria. Two years of observations. Informatore Fitopatologico, 43(11):24-28

Cappelli C, Ciriciofolo E, 1991. Observations on the sanitary state of seeds of oil linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Sementi Elette, 37(2):33-36; 16 ref

Carlson H, Stenram U, Gustafsson M, Jansson HB, 1991. Electron microscopy of barley root infection by the fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. Canadian Journal of Botany, 69(12):2724-2731

Carmona M, Pioli R, Reis EM, 1999. Survey of weed plant hosts of pathogenic necrotrophic fungi that cause diseases on wheat and barley in the Argentine Pampas region. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía (Universidad de Buenos Aires), 19(1):105-110; 13 ref

Chaluat MMde, Perris S, 1994. Pathogenic fungi in seeds of tropical forage species. Pasturas Tropicales, 16(1):41-43; 9 ref

Chang N, Wu Y, 1998. Incidence and current management of spot blotch of wheat in China. In: Duveiller E, Dubin HJ, Reeves J, McNab A, eds. Helminthosporium blights of wheat: Spot blotch and Tan spot. Mexico, DF, Mexico: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT), 119-125

Chaurasia S, Chand R, Joshi AK, 2000. Relative dominance of Alternaria triticina Pras. et Prab. and Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker in different growth stages of wheat (T. aestivum L.). Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 107(2):176-181; 26 ref

Chen C, Collins DJ, Morgan-Jones G, 1996. Fungi associated with root rot of winter wheat in Alabama. Journal of Phytopathology, 144(4):193-196

Chinn SHF, 1978. Influence of seed treatment with imazalil on common root rot and the size of the subcrown internode of wheat. Phytopathology, 68(11):1662-1666

Chulkina VA, Kuznetsova TT, Sinegub LP, Teplyakov BI, Kritskaya VI, 1981. Control of wheat and barley rot in Siberia. Zashchita Rastenii, No.11:20-21

Chulkina VA, Teplyakov BI, Sinegub LP, Sobakar' TA, 1983. Threshold population of the pathogen of common root rot. Zashchita Rasteni, No. 9:39-40

CIMMYT, 1980. Triticale. Report on Wheat Improvement 1978. El Batan, Mexico: CIMMYT

Clay RP, Bergmann CW, Fuller MS, 1997. Isolation and characterization of an endopolygalacturonase from Cochliobolus sativus and a cytological study of fungal penetration of barley. Phytopathology, 87(11):1148-1159; 43 ref

Clear RM, Patrick SK, Gaba D, 2000. Prevalence of fungi and fusariotoxins on barley seed from western Canada, 1995-1997. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22(1):44-50

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