Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cochliobolus miyabeanus
(brown leaf spot of rice)

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Datasheet

Cochliobolus miyabeanus (brown leaf spot of rice)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cochliobolus miyabeanus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown leaf spot of rice
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brown, oval spots on leaves.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionBrown, oval spots on leaves.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Brown, oval spots on leaves.
Symptoms on leavesBrown, oval spots on leaves.Chin Khoon Min
Older lesions with grey centres. The spots are brown, with greyish centres when fully developed.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionOlder lesions with grey centres. The spots are brown, with greyish centres when fully developed.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Older lesions with grey centres. The spots are brown, with greyish centres when fully developed.
Symptoms on leavesOlder lesions with grey centres. The spots are brown, with greyish centres when fully developed.Chin Khoon Min
TitleLesions on raches
Caption
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Lesions on rachesChin Khoon Min
Infection and sporulation on grain. C. miyabeanus infection can cause black discoloration, dark-brown spots and light- to dark-brown spots in the seed coat and endosperm.
TitleSymptoms on grain
CaptionInfection and sporulation on grain. C. miyabeanus infection can cause black discoloration, dark-brown spots and light- to dark-brown spots in the seed coat and endosperm.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Infection and sporulation on grain. C. miyabeanus infection can cause black discoloration, dark-brown spots and light- to dark-brown spots in the seed coat and endosperm.
Symptoms on grainInfection and sporulation on grain. C. miyabeanus infection can cause black discoloration, dark-brown spots and light- to dark-brown spots in the seed coat and endosperm.Chin Khoon Min
TitleMature conidia
Caption
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Mature conidiaChin Khoon Min
TitleImmature conidium and conidiophore
Caption
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Immature conidium and conidiophoreChin Khoon Min

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Ito & Kurib.) Drechsler ex Dastur

Preferred Common Name

  • brown leaf spot of rice

Other Scientific Names

  • Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoem.
  • Drechslera oryzae (Breda de Haan) Subram. & Jain
  • Helminthosporium oryzae Breda de Haan
  • Ophiobolus miyabeanus Ito & Kuribayashi

International Common Names

  • English: rice brown spot
  • Spanish: helmintosporiosis del arroz
  • French: helminthosporiose du riz

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Braunfleckigkeit: Reis

EPPO code

  • COCHMI (Cochliobolus miyabeanus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Cochliobolus
  •                                     Species: Cochliobolus miyabeanus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK CAB International, 1991
BangladeshPresentUK CAB International, 1991
BhutanPresentUK CAB International, 1991
CambodiaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
ChinaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-FujianPresentShangguan et al., 2006
-GuangxiPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-HenanPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-Hong KongPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-JiangsuPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-SichuanPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-TibetPresentWangmu et al., 2001
-YunnanPresentGeng et al., 2008
-ZhejiangPresentUK CAB International, 1991
IndiaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-AssamPresentBora et al., 1993
-BiharPresentJha et al., 2004
-HaryanaPresentSaini, 1985
-Himachal PradeshPresentGupta et al., 1992
-Indian PunjabPresentPannu et al., 2006
-KarnatakaPresentKrishnamurthy et al., 2005
-Madhya PradeshPresentTripathi and Jain, 2005
-OdishaPresentGupta and Choudhury, 1988
-Tamil NaduPresentWani et al., 2004
-Uttar PradeshPresentSingh et al., 2003
-West BengalPresentNaim-Uddin et al., 1994
IndonesiaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-Irian JayaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-JavaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-SumatraPresentUK CAB International, 1991
IranPresentUK CAB International, 1991; Ahmadpour et al., 2014
IraqPresentUK CAB International, 1991
JapanPresentUK CAB International, 1991
LaosPresentUK CAB International, 1991
MalaysiaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-SabahPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-SarawakPresentUK CAB International, 1991
MyanmarPresentUK CAB International, 1991
NepalPresentUK CAB International, 1991
PakistanPresentUK CAB International, 1991
PhilippinesPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Sri LankaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
TaiwanPresentUK CAB International, 1991
ThailandPresentUK CAB International, 1991
TurkeyPresentUK CAB International, 1991
UzbekistanPresentUK CAB International, 1991
VietnamPresentUK CAB International, 1991

Africa

AngolaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
CameroonPresentJones et al., 1993
ChadPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1991
EgyptPresentUK CAB International, 1991
GambiaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
GhanaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
MadagascarPresentUK CAB International, 1991
MalawiPresentUK CAB International, 1991
MauritiusPresentUK CAB International, 1991
MoroccoPresentUK CAB International, 1991
MozambiquePresentUK CAB International, 1991
NigerPresentUK CAB International, 1991
NigeriaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
SenegalPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Sierra LeonePresentUK CAB International, 1991
South AfricaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
SudanPresentUK CAB International, 1991
TanzaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
TogoPresentUK CAB International, 1991
UgandaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
ZambiaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
ZimbabwePresentUK CAB International, 1991

North America

MexicoPresentUK CAB International, 1991
USAPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-ArkansasPresentLee et al., 1993
-CaliforniaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-FloridaPresentUK CAB International, 1991; Sanahuja et al., 2017
-LouisianaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-MinnesotaPresentNyvall et al., 1995
-MississippiPresentTomaso-Peterson and Balbalian, 2010
-New YorkPresentWaxman and Bergstrom, 2011
-North DakotaPresentKrupinsky et al., 2004
-TennesseePresentVu et al., 2013
-TexasPresentUK CAB International, 1991

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
CubaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Dominican RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1991
El SalvadorPresentUK CAB International, 1991
GuatemalaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
HondurasPresentUK CAB International, 1991
JamaicaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
NicaraguaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
PanamaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Puerto RicoPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK CAB International, 1991

South America

ArgentinaPresentGutierrez et al., 2002
BoliviaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
BrazilPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-Espirito SantoPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNavia et al., 2006
-Minas GeraisPresentCornélio et al., 2004
-Rio Grande do SulPresentFranco et al., 2001
ColombiaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
French GuianaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
GuyanaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
PeruPresentUK CAB International, 1991
SurinamePresentUK CAB International, 1991
UruguayPresentUK CAB International, 1991
VenezuelaPresentUK CAB International, 1991

Europe

FrancePresentUK CAB International, 1991
GreecePresentUK CAB International, 1991
ItalyPresentUK CAB International, 1991
PortugalPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Russian FederationPresentSavchenko and Dorofeeva, 1989; UK CAB International, 1991
SpainPresentUK CAB International, 1991
SwitzerlandPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Yugoslavia (former)PresentUK CAB International, 1991

Oceania

AustraliaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentUK CAB International, 1991
-Western AustraliaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
FijiPresentUK CAB International, 1991
French PolynesiaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
New CaledoniaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Papua New GuineaPresentUK CAB International, 1991
Solomon IslandsPresentUK CAB International, 1991

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Stems / discoloration of bark

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Arachnula impatiens Pathogen
Bacillus megaterium Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Vampyrella vorax Pathogen
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Adair CR, 1941. Inheritance in rice of reaction to Helminthosporium oryzae and Cercospora oryzae. Technical Bulletin, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 772, 18 pp.

Ahmadpour A; Javan-Nikkhah M; Naghavi MR; Dehkaei FP, 2014. Morphological and phylogenetic investigation of Bipolaris oryzae and some species of Bipolaris obtained from rice and grass weeds. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 50(2):Pe123-Pe135, En51-En53. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_10992_1823.html

Aluko MO, 1975. Crop losses caused by the brown leaf spot disease of rice in Nigeria. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(7):609-613

Artigiani Filho VH; Bedendo IP, 1996. Variability of Helminthosporium oryzae detected through the occurrence of colony sectors, fungicide sensitivity and growth on different media at different temperatures. Summa Phytopathologica, 22(3/4):217-221; 6 ref.

Baba I, 1958. Nutritional studies on the occurrence of Helminthosporium leaf spot and 'akiochi' of the rice plant. Bulletin of the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, D7:1-157.

Bernaux P, 1981. Evolution of the susceptibility of rice glumes to Pyricularia oryzae Cav. and Drechslera oryzae (Br. de Haan) Sub. & Jain: consequences for disease transmission. Agronomie, 1(4):261-264

Bisht GS; Harish S; Singh H; Sati SC; Saxena J; Dubey RC, 1997. Fungal diseases of useful plants in the Garhwal Himalaya and their management. Himalayan Microbial Diversity, Part 1, 255-271.

Bora LC; Robin Gogoi, 1993. Estimation of seed quality deterioration of deep water rice by seedborne microflora in Assam. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 23(2):214-216; 4 ref.

Buffa G; Grassi G; Pelazza N; Tamborini L; Torazzo G, 1993. Seed dressing of rice: different doses. Sementi Elette, 39(2):15-20

Buffa G; Grassi G; Pelazza N; Tamborini L; Torazzo G, 1995. Seed treatment of rice for the control of helminthosporiosis. Informatore Agrario, 51(25):71-75.

Cardarelli AJ; Tao Y; Bernhardt JL; Lee FN, 1998. High resolution machine vision for non-destructive internal inspection of damaged rice grain. ASAE Annual International Meeting, Orlando, Florida, USA, 12-16 July, 1998., 8 pp.; [ASAE Paper no. 986024]; 22 ref.

Castano Z J, 1985. Micro-organisms associated with rice grain spot in Colombia. CEIBA, 26(2):245-253

Chattopadhyay SB; Chakrabarti NK, 1953. Occurrence in nature of an alternative host (Leersia hexandra Sw.) of Helminthosporium oryzae Breda de Haan. Nature, 172:550.

Chowdhury AZMS; Matin MM; Anwar MN, 1997. Synthesis and anti-microbial activities of fused pyrimidines: benzothineo[2,3-d]imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine. Chittagong University Studies, Science, 21(2):79-83; 9 ref.

Cornélio VMde O; Vieira AR; Soares PC; Soares AA; Reis Mde S, 2004. Production and quality of rice seeds in the state of Minas Gerais. (Produção e qualidade de sementes de arroz no estado de Minas Gerais.) Informe Agropecuario, 25(222):36-42. [Arroz: avanços tecnológicos.]

Dakshinamoorthy T; Sivaprakasam K, 1992. Assessment of seed microflora of pearl millet and their control. Madras Agricultural Journal, 79(6):347-351; 12 ref.

Datnoff LE; Raid RN; Snyder GH; Jones DB, 1991. Effect of calcium silicate on blast and brown spot intensities and yields of rice. Plant Disease, 75(7):729-732

Datnoff LE; Snyder GH; Deren CW, 1992. Influence of silicon fertilizer grades on blast and brown spot development and on rice yields. Plant Disease, 76(10):1011-1013

Deka B; Ali MS; Chandra KC, 1996. Management of grain discoloration of rice. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26(1):105-106; 9 ref.

Deren CW; Datnoff LE; Snyder GH; Martin FG, 1994. Silicon concentration, disease response, and yield components of rice genotypes grown on flooded organic histosols. Crop Science, 34(3):733-737

Diaz CG; Bedendo IP, 1999. Behaviour of sporulating and non-sporulating isolates of Helminthosporium oryzae in carbon and nitrogen sources and some amino acids. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 24(1):66-69; 10 ref.

Franco DF; Ribeiro AS; Nunes CD; Ferreira E, 2001. Fungi associated with seeds of irrigated rice in Rio Grande do Sul. Revista Brasileira de Agrocie^circumflex~ncia, 7(3):235-236; 4 ref.

Geng RuiMei; Zhang JianPing; Yu LiuQing, 2008. Isolation, identification and herbicidal activity of Bipolaris sp. and its safety on crops. Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis, 20(6):446-450.

Gupta SK; Shyam KR; Dohroo NP, 1992. Addition to seed mycoflora of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plant Disease Research, 7(2):271; 4 ref.

Gupta SP; Choudhury A, 1988. Some observations on integrated rice pest management in Orissa. Plant Protection Bulletin Faridabad, 40:3-4, 10-11.

Gutierrez SA; Mazzanti de CastAnon MA; Cundom MA, 2002. Fungi isolated from rice seed in Argentina. Fitopatologia, 37(2):156-163.

Hegde YR; Ganajaxi HD; Angadi VV, 2000. Effect of method of planting on the incidence of brown spot of rice. Advances in Agricultural Research in India, 14:167-168; 3 ref.

Hemmi T; Nojima T, 1931. On the relation of temperature and period of continuous wetting to the infection of the rice plant by Ophiobolus miyabeanus. Forschungen aus dem Gebeit der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 1:84-89.

Hiremath PC; Hegde RK, 1985. Saprophytic activity of Drechslera oryzae in soil. Journal of Soil Biology and Ecology, 5(1):1-6

Hiremath PC; Hegde RK; Patil-Kulkarni BG, 1983. Effect of seed infection by brown leaf spot on rice seed germination. Current Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 12(7/9):74-76

Holliday P, 1980. Fungus diseases of tropical crops. Fungus diseases of tropical crops. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Huelma CC; Moody K; Mew TW, 1996. Weed seeds in rice seed shipments: a case study. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(3):147-150; 13 ref.

Ilyas MB; Javaid MS, 1995. Mycoflora of Basmati 385 rice seeds collected from Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Sheikhupura and Sialkot districts. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 7(1):50-52; 10 ref.

Jha AC; Rai B; Jha MM, 2004. Response of direct seeded and transplanted rice varieties on the development of brown spot disease. Annals of Biology, 20(2):195-197.

Jones MP; Jeutong F; Tchatchoua J, 1993. A survey of rice diseases in Cameroon. Plant Disease, 77(2):133-136

Kamala N; Vidhyasekaran P; Nayar K; Dhaliwal GS; Arora R; Randhawa NS; Dhawan AK, 1998. Evaluation of a new biopesticide formulation for the management of some foliar diseases of rice. Ecological agriculture and sustainable development: Volume 2. Proceedings of International Conference on Ecological Agriculture: Towards Sustainable Development, Chandigarh, India, 15-17 November, 1997, 382-388.

Kaur P; Kaur S; Padmanabhan SY, 1986. Effect of calcium on the development of brown spot disease of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 39(1):57-61

Klomp AO, 1977. Early senescence of rice and Drechslera oryzae in the Wageningen Polder, Surinam. Agricultural Research Reports, No. 859:97 pp.

Krishnamurthy CD; Lokesh S; Shetty HS, 2005. Occurrence, transmission and remedial aspects of Drechslera oryzae in paddy (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Research, 33(2):195-200.

Krupinsky JM; Berdahl JD; Schoch CL; Rossman AY, 2004. Leaf spot on switch grass (Panicum virgatum), symptoms of a new disease caused by Bipolaris oryzae. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 26(3):371-378. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

Kumar RN; Mishra RR, 1993. Effect of various factors on spore germination and growth of brown spot pathogen Drechslera oryzae. Indian Phytopathology, 46(4):405-406

Lee FN; Tugwell NP; Fannah SJ; Weidemann GJ, 1993. Role of fungi vectored by rice stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in discoloration of rice kernels. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(2):549-556; 18 ref.

Lee SC; Alvenda ME; Bonman JM; Heinrichs EA, 1986. Insects and pathogens associated with rice grain discoloration and their relationship in the Philippines. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 25(2):107-112; 23 ref.

Malavolta VMA; Souza TMW; Amaral REM, 1992. Foliar reaction of rice cultivars/lines to brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae). Summa Phytopathologica, 18(2):118-124

Mandal RK, 2001. Seed borne fungi of jute. Journal of Interacademicia, 5(3):402-405.

Marchetti MA; Petersen HD, 1984. The role of Bipolaris oryzae in floral abortion and kernel discoloration in rice. Plant Disease, 68(4):288-291

Maria R, 1987. Hinosan tolerance developed by Cochliobolus miyabeanus and Pyricularia oryzae. Tropical Agriculture, UK, 64(1):36-40

Mathew T, 1996. Comparative study of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on the incidence of disease in rice. Agricultural Science Digest Karnal, 16(1):8-12.

Misra AK, 1985. Variability in Drechslera oryzae the causal organism of brown spot disease of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 38(1):168-169

Moletti M; Giudici ML; Villa B, 1996. Rice Akiochi-brown spot disease in Italy: agronomic and chemical control. Informatore Fitopatologico, 46(6):41-46; 12 ref.

Muhammad S; Shetty HS; Krishnappa M; Saifulla M, 1996. Effect of seed treatment on discoloured rice grains. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26(1):89-90.

Mustaq-Ahmad; Mir NM; Ahmad M, 1991. Chemical control of brown spot of rice. Plant Disease Research, 6(2):58-63.

Nagai I; Hara S, 1930. On the inheritance of variegation disease in a strain of rice plant. Japanese Journal of Genetics, 5:140-144.

Naim Uddin; Rama Chakraverty, 1994. Airborne fungal load in agricultural environment during threshing operations. Mycopathologia, 127(3):145-149; 10 ref.

Navia D; Mendes MAS; Ochoa R, 2006. Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) infesting rice crops in Brazil. International Journal of Acarology, 32(2):219-222.

Nyvall RF; Percich JA; Porter RA; Brantner JR, 1995. Comparison of fungal brown spot severity to incidence of seedborne Bipolaris oryzae and B. sorokiniana and infected floral sites on cultivated wild rice. Plant Disease, 79(3):249-250

Ocfemia GO, 1924. The relation of soil temperature to germination of certain Philippines upland and lowland varieties of rice and infection the Helminthosporium disease. American Journal of Botany, 11:437-460.

Okamoto H; Isaka M, 1987. Studies on biocontrol of plant diseases. Effects of antagonistic bacteria on Cochliobolus miyabeanus. Bulletin of Fukui Prefectural College, No.12:1-12

Ou SH, 1985. Rice diseases. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 380 pp.

Padmanabhan SY, 1973. The great Bengal famine. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 11:11-26.

Panhwar GR, 1999. Effect of photoperiodism on conidial germination of Helminthosporium oryzae. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 11(1):100-101; 7 ref.

Pannu PPS; Chahal SS; Sharma VK; Mandeep Kaur; Bagga PS, 2006. Occurrence of brown leaf spot of rice in Punjab, its effect on grain yield and its control. Indian Phytopathology, 59(2):190-193.

Percich JA; Nyvall RF; Malvick DK; Kohls CL, 1997. Interaction of temperature and moisture on infection of wild rice by Bipolaris oryzae in the growth chamber. Plant Disease, 81(10):1193-1195; 18 ref.

Ranganathiah KG; Gowda NN, 1985. Seed borne infection of rice by Drechslera oryzae and its control in Karnataka. Pesticides, 19(11):44

Rao SS; Ranganathaiah KG, 1988. Control of seed-borne infection of Drechslera oryzae in paddy by seed treatment. Seed Research, 16(2):193-199

Rath GC, 1974. Effect of seed-borne infection of Drechslera oryzae on the grain germination and emergence of some high yielding varieties of rice. Science and Culture, 40(4):156-159

Rathaiah Y, 1997. Grain discoloration of glutinous rice by Drechslera oryzae. Indian Phytopathology, 50(4):580-581; 3 ref.

Sachan IP; Agarwal VK, 1995. Seed discolouration of rice: location of inoculum and influence on nutritional value. Indian Phytopathology, 48(1):14-20; 17 ref.

Saini SS, 1985. A note on wide-spread discolouration of rice grain in Haryana during Kharif, 1979. Current Science, India, 37(2):39.

Sanahuja G; Lopez P; Chase AR; Palmateer AJ, 2017. First report of Bipolaris oryzae causing leaf spot on Strelitzia nicolai in Florida. Plant Disease, 101(2):384. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sato K, 1964. Studies on the blight diseases of rice plant. Bulletin of the Institute of Agricultural Research, Tohoku University, 15:199-237, 239-342.16, 1-54.

Sato K, 1965. Studies on the blight diseases of rice plant. Bulletin of the Institute of Agricultural Research, Tohoku University, 16:1-54.

Savchenko LF; Dorofeeva LL, 1989. Fungal diseases of rice. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 10:18-21.

Shakya DD; Poisson C; Rakotoarisoa J, 1997. Rice diseases at high altitude. Rice cultivation in highland areas. Proceedings of the CIRAD conference held at Antananarivo, Madagascar 29 March-5 April 1996.105-106.

Shangguan KePan; Lin XiangYong; Zeng WenLong; Wang Xi, 2006. Main flue-cured tobacco diseases and their control in west region of Fujian. Chinese Tobacco Science, No.1:20-23.

Sherf AF; Page RM; Tullis EC; Morgan TL, 1947. Studies on factors affecting the infectivity of Helminthosporium oryzae. Phytopathology, 37:281-290.

Shukla VD; Variar M; Chauhan JS; Maiti D; Singh RK, 1996. Comparative evaluation of seedling growth characters of brown spot-infected-seed in selected genotypes of upland rice. Seed Research, 24(1): 71-72.

Singh HM; Srivastava RK; Rizvi SMA; Elazegui FA; Castilla NP; Savary S, 2003. Yield reduction due to brown spot and leaf folder injuries at varying levels of fertilizers and water supply to rice crop. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 11(1):16-19.

Sinha AK; Chowdhury AK; Das AR, 1993. Chitosan induces resistance in crop plants against their fungal pathogens. Indian Phytopathology, 46(4):411-414; 8 ref.

Soave J; Prabhu AS; Ricci MTde T; Barros LGde; Souza NRG; Curvo RCV; Ferreira RP; Sobral CAM, 1997. Etiology of seed spots in upland rice cultivars in the Brazilian centre-western region. Summa Phytopathologica, 23(2):122-127; 33 ref.

Takahachi Y, 1967. Nutritional studies on the development of Helminthosporium leaf spot. In: Proceedings of the symposium on rice diseases and their control by growing resistant varieties and other measures. Tokyo: Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council, 157-170.

Tateishi H; Saishoji T; Suzuki T; Chida T, 1998. Antifungal properties of the seed disinfectant ipconazole and its protection against "Bakanae" and other diseases of rice. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 64(5):443-450; 19 ref.

Thakur R; Singh AK; Singh RS; Mishra SB; Singh NK; Rai JN, 1998. Satyam and Kishori, two high-yielding varieties developed for the rainfed lowlands of Bihar, India. International Rice Research Notes, 23(3):20-21.

Thomas KM, 1940. Detailed Administration Report of the Government Mycologist, Madras, for the year 1939-40. Madras, India, 18 pp.

Tomaso-Peterson M; Balbalian CJ, 2010. First report of Bipolaris oryzae causing leaf spot of switchgrass in Mississippi. Plant Disease, 94(5):643. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Tripathi SK; Jain AK, 2005. Seed mycoflora of rice and their influence on germination and seedling vigour. JNKVV Research Journal, 39(2):116-118.

UK CAB International, 1991. Cochliobolus miyabeanus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 5). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 92.

Vidhyasekaran P; Ramadoss N, 1973. Quantitative and qualitative losses in paddy due to helminthosporiose epidemic. Indian Phytopathology, 26:479-484.

Vinay Kumari; Jariwala S; Bharat Rai, 1997. Effect of physico-chemical factors on growth of Drechslera oryzae. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 35(2):131-136; 25 ref.

Viswanathan R; Narayanasamy P, 1990. Chemical control of brown leaf spot of rice. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 20(2):139-143

Vu AL; Dee MM; Zale J; Gwinn KD; Ownley BH, 2013. First report of leaf spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae on switchgrass in Tennessee. Plant Disease, 97(12):1654-1655. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wangmu; Ciyang; Gongbutrishi, 2001. A preliminary regionalization of crop pathogenic fungi in Tibet. Mycosystema, 20(4):556-560; 9 ref.

Wani MA; Kurucheve V; Gincy Devasia, 2004. Distribution of external and internal mycoflora of paddy seeds. Environment and Ecology, 22(2):310-311.

Waxman KD; Bergstrom GC, 2011. First report of a leaf spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae on switchgrass in New York. Plant Disease, 95(9):1192. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Webster RK; Gunnell PS, 1992. Compendium of rice diseases. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, viii + 62 pp.

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