Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cochliobolus heterostrophus
(southern leaf spot)

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Datasheet

Cochliobolus heterostrophus (southern leaf spot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cochliobolus heterostrophus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • southern leaf spot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf spots on maize leaf caused by C. heterostrophus.
TitleInfected maize leaf
CaptionLeaf spots on maize leaf caused by C. heterostrophus.
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Leaf spots on maize leaf caused by C. heterostrophus.
Infected maize leafLeaf spots on maize leaf caused by C. heterostrophus.Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
TitleSymptoms on maize leaf
Caption
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Symptoms on maize leaf©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Effect of Texas cytoplasm on susceptibility to Race T.
TitleSymptoms on maize leaf
CaptionEffect of Texas cytoplasm on susceptibility to Race T.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Effect of Texas cytoplasm on susceptibility to Race T.
Symptoms on maize leafEffect of Texas cytoplasm on susceptibility to Race T.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Race T symptoms on leaf, stem, and sheath.
TitleSymptoms on maize plant
CaptionRace T symptoms on leaf, stem, and sheath.
Copyright©CIMMYT
Race T symptoms on leaf, stem, and sheath.
Symptoms on maize plantRace T symptoms on leaf, stem, and sheath.©CIMMYT
Effect of Texas cytoplasm (right) on susceptibility to Race T.
TitleSymptoms on maize crop
CaptionEffect of Texas cytoplasm (right) on susceptibility to Race T.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Effect of Texas cytoplasm (right) on susceptibility to Race T.
Symptoms on maize cropEffect of Texas cytoplasm (right) on susceptibility to Race T.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Conidia of C. heterostrophus (magnification x400); conidia measure 70-160 x 15-20 µm.
TitleConidia
CaptionConidia of C. heterostrophus (magnification x400); conidia measure 70-160 x 15-20 µm.
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Conidia of C. heterostrophus (magnification x400); conidia measure 70-160 x 15-20 µm.
ConidiaConidia of C. heterostrophus (magnification x400); conidia measure 70-160 x 15-20 µm.Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
TitleConidia
Caption
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Conidia©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Drechsler) Drechsler

Preferred Common Name

  • southern leaf spot

Other Scientific Names

  • Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake) Shoem
  • Drechslera maydis (Nisikado & Miyabe) Subram. & Jain, 1966
  • Helminthosporium maydis Y. Nisik.
  • Ophiobolus heterostrophus Drechsler

International Common Names

  • English: maydis leaf blight; southern corn leaf blight; southern leaf blight of maize
  • Spanish: mancha de la hoja del maiz
  • French: helminthosporiose du maïs

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattfleckenkrankheit: Mais

EPPO code

  • COCHHE (Cochliobolus heterostrophus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Cochliobolus
  •                                     Species: Cochliobolus heterostrophus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Burkina FasoPresentRobledo (1977); IRAT (1978); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresentBah (1980); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Eaton et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
EswatiniPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GabonPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GhanaPresentDanquah et al. (1975); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentSingh et al. (1979); UK, CAB International (1981); Eaton et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
NigerPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Obi (1987); EPPO (2020)
RéunionPresentIRAT (1978); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentGevers et al. (1979); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Teri and Keswani (1982); EPPO (2020)
TogoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
BhutanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-AnhuiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-ChongqingPresentEPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Dai et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
-GansuPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-HebeiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-HeilongjiangPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-Inner MongoliaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Xie et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-JilinPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-ShaanxiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Li et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
-ShandongPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Liu et al. (1990); EPPO (2020)
-ShanghaiPresentEPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentRao et al. (1979); UK, CAB International (1981); Reddy and Reddy (1989); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Vinh and Sarbhoy (1991)
-BiharPresentJha et al. (1977); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-DelhiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Himachal PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-LakshadweepPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-Madhya PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-MeghalayaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Vinh and Sarbhoy (1991); EPPO (2020)
-OdishaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Dey et al. (1988); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-RajasthanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Chauhan and Pandey (1992); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Kaiser and Das (1989); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-Irian JayaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Foroutan and Rahimian (1990); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Inoue et al. (1989); EPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-ShikokuPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
LaosPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
OmanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentKozaka et al. (1979); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentKim et al. (1978); UK, CAB International (1981); Park et al. (1992); Park et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Jeyanandarajah (1991); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Duan et al. (1992); Wu and Wang (1994); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Eaton et al. (1993); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Europe

BulgariaPresentSevov et al. (1973); Popov and Popova (1976); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
CroatiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Brekalo et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
FrancePresentIRAT (1978); UK, CAB International (1981); Wu and Liang (1984); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentD'Ercole et al. (1979); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
RussiaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1981); Erokhina and Zatsepina (1990); Bolkvadze (1991); Martyniyuk (2003)
-Russian Far EastAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
-Southern RussiaAbsent, Formerly presentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SpainAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresentHani et al. (1973); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1981); Rolev (1991); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

North America

BahamasPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
CanadaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentGillespie (1972); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentUK, CAB International (1981); Jacqua (1989); Messiaen (1993); EPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Eaton et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentHunter (1977); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-DelawarePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-District of ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1981); Horner (1990); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentSumner and Littrell (1974); Tipton and Mondal (1975); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentARAGAKI and BERGQUIST (1971); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Byrnes et al. (1989); Haarmann et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Ashman (1991); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentTipton and Mondal (1975); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-KentuckyPresentCalvert and Zuber (1973); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentLindberg (1972); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentSmith (1972); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentLukens et al. (1973); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentSafir et al. (1972); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Scott and Zummo (1990); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentCalvert and White (1972); Neuffer and Calvert (1975); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentContreras and Boothroyd (1974); UK, CAB International (1981); Smith and Gracen (1993); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Goodman et al. (1989); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Byrnes et al. (1989); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Johnson (1989); Johnson (1992); EPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-TexasPresentCraig et al. (1976); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-West VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
AustraliaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1981); Greathead and Greathead (1992); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentColless (1975); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentAlcom and Pont (1973); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Christmas IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
French PolynesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GuamPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Wall (1991); EPPO (2020)
Marshall IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
NiuePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Solomon IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
TongaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentMartinez and Bruni (1972); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Macedo et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
-BahiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-GoiasPresentJuliatti and Souza (2005)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
-ParanaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Campo A. (1994); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
French GuianaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentMuller and McDonald (1973); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ParaguayPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentMalaguti and Subero M. (1971); UK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / wilting
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / rot
Stems / discoloration of bark

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Burkholderia cepacia Antagonist
Chaetomium globosum Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

References

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1975. List of diseases of important economic crop plants already reported in Indonesia. Bulletin Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, No.14:60 pp.

1978. IRAT - Reunion. Annual report 1978. IRAT - Reunion. Rapport annuel 1978. St. Denis. Reunion, 198 pp.

1979. IRAT - Reunion. Annual report 1979. IRAT - Reunion. Rapport annuel 1979. St. Denis. Reunion, 194 pp.

1980. Annual report 1979. Report, Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales et des Cultures Vivrieres, France, 212 pp.

Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Saleem, Hidayat-ur-Rahman, Fida Muhammad, 1992. Genetic variability for yield & disease resistance in full & short season varieties of maize. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 8(2):195-198

Alcom JL, Pont W, 1973. Drechslera maydis race O in North Queensland. Australian Plant Pathology Society Newsletter, 2:19-20.

Aleksandrov IN, 1986. Maize infection by Helminthosporium maydis Nisik. & Miyake in the North Ossetian ASSR. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 20(3):219-222

Aleksandrov IN, Primakovskaya MA, 1980. Helminthosporium species dangerous to maize. Zashchita Rastenii, No.8:38-39

Ali Khan, Shabeer Ahmad, 1992. Genotype assay of maize for resistance to Maydis leaf blight under artificial field epiphytotics of Peshawar region. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 8(5):547-549

Allmen JMvon, Rottmann WH, Gengenbach BG, Harvey AJ, Lonsdale DM, 1991. Transfer of methomyl and HmT-toxin sensitivity from T-cytoplasm maize to tobacco. Molecular and General Genetics, 229(3):405-412; 38 ref.

Almeida AMP, 1974. Glasshouse testing of maize cultivars for resistance to Helminthosporium maydis Nisikado & Miyake and Helminthosporium turcicum Passerine. Agronomia Sulriograndense, 10(2):189-193

Aragaki M, Bergquist RR, 1971. Occurrence of Helminthosporium maydis in Hawaii. Plant Disease Reporter, 55(5):392-393.

Ashman RB, 1991. Registration of three popcorn (maize) parental lines HP62-02, HP72-11, and HP68-07. Crop Science, 31:1402-1403.

Bah CP, 1980. Identification of race T Nisikado & Miyake of Helminthosporium maydis in the Ivory Coast. Agronomie Tropicale, 35(3):284-287

Bekele E, Sumner DR, 1983. Epidemiology of southern corn leaf blight in continuous corn culture. Plant Disease, 67(7):738-742

Bolkvadze ZA, 1991. Helminthosporiose diseases of maize. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 3:50

Boothroyd CW, 1971. Transmission of Helminthosporium maydis race T by infected corn seed. Phytopathology, 61:747-748.

Braun CJ, Siedow JN, Levings CS, III, 1989. The T-urf13 gene is responsible for toxin sensitivity in maize and E. coli. UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, New Series. In: The molecular basis of plant development. Proceedings of an E. I. du Pont de Nemours-UCLA Symposium held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, USA, 26 March-2 April 1988. New York, USA: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 92:79-85.

Brekalo J, Palaversic B, Rojc M, 1991. Monitoring the occurrence and severity of maize diseases in Croatia from 1985 to 1989. Zastita Bilja, 42(1):51-60

Bronson CR, 1988. Ascospore abortion in crosses of Cochliobolus heterostrophus heterozygous for the virulence locus Tox1. Genome, 30(1):12-18

Burnette DC, White DG, 1985. Control of northern corn leaf blight and southern corn leaf blight with various fungicides. Fung. Nem. Tests, 40:148-149.

Byrnes KJ, Pataky JK, White DG, 1989. Relationships between yield of three maize hybrids and severity of southern leaf blight caused by race O of Bipolaris maydis. Plant Disease, 73(10):834-840

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 346. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Calvert OH, White JA, 1972. Ultrastructural characterization of races O and T of Helminthosporium maydis. Phytopathology, 62:749-750.

Calvert OH, Zuber MS, 1973. Ear-rotting potential of Helminthosporium maydis race T in corn. Phytopathology, 63(6):769-772

Campo A RO, 1994. Leaf diseases of maize in Monteria, Cordoba. ASCOLFI Informa, 20(2):23-24

Campos V de P, Silva DO, Carvalho MGde, 1980. Pathotoxins produced in vitro by Brazilian isolates of Helminthosporium maydis Nisikado & Miyake. Revista de Microbiologia, 11(3):97-103

Carson ML, Jacobs T, ed. , Parlevliet JE, 1993. Relationship between parasitic and saprophytic fitness in Cochliobolus heterostrophus, cause of southern leaf blight of maize. Durability of Disease Resistance, 18:30.

Cassini R, Gay JP, Cassini R, 1973. Fungicide treatment of maize seed against Helminthosporium maydis race T. Phytiatr. Phytopharm., 22:27-31.

Chakrabarty SK, Anitha K, Rao RDVJP, Mohammed Ismail, Babu BS, Babu Abraham, Varaprasad KS, Khetarpal RK, 2004. Pests intercepted in oilseeds germplasm imported during 1986-2003. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 32(2):120-124.

Chang RY, Peterson PA, 1995. Genetic control of resistance to Bipolaris maydis: one gene or two genes? Journal of Heredity, 86(2):94-97.

Chauhan S, Pandey BN, 1992. A new leaf blight of Populus deltoides caused by Bipolaris maydis. Indian Phytopathology, 45(1):130-133

Colless JM, 1975. Influence of different maize genotypes and cytoplasms on resistance to Drechslera maydis race T on the north coast of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 15(73):281-284

Comstock JC, Martinson CA, Epstein AH, 1974. Fungicidal control of southern corn leaf blight on Texas male-sterile corn. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:104-107.

Contreras MR, Boothroyd CW, 1974. Orientation of epidermal cell nuclei towards site of penetration of corn leaves by Helminthosporium maydis race. Phytopathology, 64:579.

Coors JG, Mardones MC, 1989. Registration of W552, W570, W572, and W576 parental lines of maize. Crop Science, 29(1):247-248

Craig J, Webster OJ, Zuber MS, 1976. Registration of PR-MO2 maize germplasm (Reg. No. GP63). Crop Science, 16:446-447.

Croiser WF, Braverman SW, 1971. Helminthosporium maydis in seeds of Minnesota-grown field corn. Phytopathology, 61(4):427-428.

Cui Y, Ma CH, Liu KM, Wei JK, 1991. Induction of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in male-sterile line and maintainer line of maize by Bipolaris (Helminthosporium) maydis race C (HMC) toxin. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica, 7(1):25-30

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