Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Coccus viridis
(soft green scale)

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Datasheet

Coccus viridis (soft green scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Coccus viridis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • soft green scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. viridis, sooty mould due to scale infestation.
TitleScale infestation
CaptionC. viridis, sooty mould due to scale infestation.
Copyright©S.D. Sawant
C. viridis, sooty mould due to scale infestation.
Scale infestationC. viridis, sooty mould due to scale infestation.©S.D. Sawant
C. viridis infected by entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii on citrus.|Coccus viridis infected by V. lecanii on citrus.
TitleCoccus viridis infected by V. lecanii|Natural enemy
CaptionC. viridis infected by entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii on citrus.|Coccus viridis infected by V. lecanii on citrus.
Copyright©S.D. Sawant
C. viridis infected by entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii on citrus.|Coccus viridis infected by V. lecanii on citrus.
Coccus viridis infected by V. lecanii|Natural enemyC. viridis infected by entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii on citrus.|Coccus viridis infected by V. lecanii on citrus.©S.D. Sawant

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Coccus viridis (Green)

Preferred Common Name

  • soft green scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Eulecanium viridis
  • Lecanium viride
  • Lecanium viridis

International Common Names

  • English: coffee, scale, green; green coffee scale; green scale; green shield scale; soft scale, green
  • Spanish: cochinilla verde del caffe; escama verde; escama verde blanda; escama verde de los cítricos; escama verde del cafeto; escamas del cafe
  • French: cochenille verte du cafeier; cochenille verte du caféier
  • Portuguese: cochonilha verde; escama verde

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schildlaus, Gruene Kaffee-
  • Netherlands: Dopluis, groene; Koffieluis, groene

EPPO code

  • COCCVI (Coccus viridis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Coccus
  •                                         Species: Coccus viridis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
ComorosPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
ChinaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
LaosAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

PortugalPresent, Localized
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
BermudaPresent
British Virgin IslandsPresent
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent, Widespread
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent, Localized
-QueenslandPresent, Localized
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresent
KiribatiPresent
NauruPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
NiuePresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
TuvaluPresent
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Midway IslandsPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, Localized
-BahiaPresent
-Distrito FederalPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus annulatus Parasite India; Karnataka; India; Tamil Nadu coffee; Vallaris solanacea
Aschersonia aleyrodes Pathogen Arthropods|Nymphs
Aschersonia placenta Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Azya luteipes Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Azya orbigera Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Camponotus rufipes Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cerapteroceroides similis Parasite
Chilocorus cacti Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus melanophthalmus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus politus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus bogoriensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus caridei Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Puerto Rico
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India; Karnataka Manilkara zapota; Vallaris solanacea
Coccophagus cowperi Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India; Karnataka Manilkara zapota; Vallaris solanacea
Coccophagus fallax Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Puerto Rico
Coelophora atrolineata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Hawaii
Coelophora quadrivittata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Creobota proleucella Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia; Queensland; India; Tamil Nadu Citrus; Plumeria rubra
Decadiomus hughesi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Diversinervus stramineus Parasite
Dorymyrmex insanus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Encyrtus lecaniorum Parasite India; Karnataka coffee
Entomophthora lecanii Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eublemma costimacula Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eublemma vacillans Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Cape Verde Citrus
Halmus chalybeus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hypocrella javanica Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hypocrella raciborskii Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hypocrella reieckiana Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Jauravia pallidula Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India
Marietta leopardina Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus baruensis Parasite Papua New Guinea coffee
Metaphycus helvolus Parasite India; Karnataka coffee
Metaphycus lichtensiae Parasite India; Karnataka Nerium oleander
Metaphycus luteolus Parasite Hawaii
Metaphycus maculatus Parasite India; Karnataka Citrus; Nerium oleander
Metaphycus stanleyi Parasite
Microterys flavus Parasite India; Karnataka coffee
Miletus boisduvali Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Praleurocerus viridis Parasite
Pseudoazya luteipes Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Hawaii
Rhyzobius forestieri Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Cape Verde Citrus

References

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Anon, 1923. Horticultural Inspection Notes. Journal of Economic Entomology, 16(2), 236-239 pp.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arriola Padilla VJ; Estrada Martínez E; Romero Nápoles J; González Hernández H; Pérez Miranda R, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on ornamental plants in greenhouses from the central zone of the Morelos state, Mexico. (Insectos escama (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) en plantas ornamentales en viveros de la zona centro del estado de Morelos, México.) Interciencia, 41(8):552-560. http://www.interciencia.org/v41_08/indexe.html

Bach, C. E., 1991. Direct and indirect interactions between ants (Pheidole megacephala), scales (Coccus viridis) and plants (Pluchea indica). Oecologia, 87(2), 233-239. doi: 10.1007/BF00325261

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey.

Camp, A. F. , Wilmot, R. J. , 1932. The Relation of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas Concentration to the Kill of various Stages of the Blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby). Journal of Economic Entomology, 25(3), 476-483 pp. doi: 10.1093/jee/25.3.476

Charanasri, V., Nishida, T., 1973. Relative abundance of three Coccinellid predators of the green scale, Coccus viridis (Green) on Plumeria trees. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 22(1), 27-32.

Culik MP; Ventura JA; Martins Ddos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Sixth International Pineapple Symposium, Joao Pessoa, Brazil, 18-23 November 2007.], No.822:215-218. http://www.actahort.org

Culik, M. P., Martins, D. dos S., Ventura, J. A., Peronti, A. L. B. G., Gullan, P. J., Kondo, T., 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 7(3), 61-65. doi: 10.1590/S1676-06032007000300006

Easwaramoorthy, S., Jayaraj, S., 1978. Effectiveness of the white halo fungus, Cephalosporium lecanii, against field populations of coffee green bug, Coccus viridis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 32(1), 88-96. doi: 10.1016/0022-2011(78)90178-7

Easwaramoorthy, S., Regupathy, A., Santharam, G., Jayaraj, S., 1978. The effect of subnormal concentrations of insecticides in combination with the fungal pathogen, Cephalosporium lecanii Zimm. in the control of coffee green scale, Coccus viridis Green. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 86(2), 161-166.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Granara de Willink, M. C., Pirovani, V. D., Ferreira, P. S. F., 2010. Coccus species affecting Coffea arabica in Brazil (Coccoideae: Coccidae) and the redescription of two species. (Las especies de Coccus que afectan Coffea arabica en Brasil (Coccoidea: Coccidae) y redescripcion de dos especies). Neotropical Entomology, 39(3), 391-399. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000300013

Hanks, L. M., Sadof, C. S., 1990. The effect of ants on nymphal survivorship of Coccus viridis (Homoptera: Coccidae). Biotropica, 22(2), 210-213. doi: 10.2307/2388415

Hansen, J. D., Hara, A. H., Chan, H. T., Jr., Tenbrink, V. L., 1991. Efficacy of hydrogen cyanide fumigation as a treatment for pests of Hawaiian cut flowers and foliage after harvest. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(2), 532-536. doi: 10.1093/jee/84.2.532

Hara, A. H., Hata, T. Y., Hu, B. K. S., Kaneko, T., Tenbrink, V. L., 1994. Hot-water immersion of cape jasmine cuttings for disinfestation of green scale (Homoptera: Coccidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(6), 1569-1573. doi: 10.1093/jee/87.6.1569

Hara, A. H., Yalemar, J. A., Jang, E. B., Moy, J. H., 2002. Irradiation as a possible quarantine treatment for green scale Coccus viridis (Green) (Homoptera: Coccidae). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 25(3), 349-358. doi: 10.1016/S0925-5214(01)00187-9

Jackson, D., Skillman, J., Vandermeer, J., 2012. Indirect biological control of the coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix, by the entomogenous fungus Lecanicillium lecanii in a complex coffee agroecosystem. Biological Control, 61(1), 89-97. doi: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2012.01.004

Jutsum, A. R., Cherrett, J. M., Fisher, M., 1981. Interactions between the fauna of citrus trees in Trinidad and the ants Atta cephalotes and Azteca sp. Journal of Applied Ecology, 18(1), 187-195. doi: 10.2307/2402488

Kohler G, 1976. Contribution to knowledge of the male of the green coffee coccid, Coccus viridis (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccinea - Coccidae). (Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Mannchens der Grunen Kaffeeschildlaus, Coccus viridis (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccinea - Coccidae).) Beitrage zur Entomologie, 26(2):471-477.

Kondo, T., Hardy, N. B., 2008. Synonymy of Etiennea Matile-Ferrero with Hemilecanium Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccidae), based on morphology of adult females, adult males and first-instar nymphs, and description of a new potential pest species from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Entomological Science, 11(2), 189-213. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-8298.2008.00268.x

Lin YenPo, Kondo, T., Gullan, P., Cook, L. G., 2013. Delimiting genera of scale insects: molecular and morphological evidence for synonymising Taiwansaissetia Tao, Wong and Chang with Coccus Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Systematic Entomology, 38(2), 249-264. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00664.x

Lopez, V. F., Kairo, M. T. K., Pollard, G. V., Pierre, C., Commodore, N., Dominique, D., 2009. Post-release survey to assess impact and potential host range expansion by Amitus hesperidum and Encarsia perplexa, two parasitoids introduced for the biological control of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi in Dominica. BioControl, 54(4), 497-503. doi: 10.1007/s10526-008-9207-4

Malumphy C; Treseder K, 2012. Green coffee scale Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae), new to Britain. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 25(4):217-223. http://www.benhs.org.uk

Malumphy, C., 2014. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles. Zootaxa, 3846(1), 69-86. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3846.1.3

Mani, M., Visalakshy, P. N. G., Krishnamoorthy, A., Venugopalan, R., 2008. Role of Coccophagus sp. in the suppression of the soft green scale Coccus viridis (Green) (Hompoptera: Coccidae) on sapota. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 18(7), 721-725. doi: 10.1080/09583150802298769

Manickavasagam, S., Rameshkumar, A., 2010. New records of genera and species of encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Tamil Nadu, India. Madras Agricultural Journal, 97(10/12), 402-407. http://5150276320642793027-a-1802744773732722657-s-sites.googlegroups.com/site/majmasu/archive/vol-97-no-10-12/9710-12-402-407.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7cp0bngJ0Gs4KwgODVOsORZCEve1Dfoi5taepJb8U9P4kNa-vtsOvhlPmqOdZZ2xgeT0Ku0vovMEKUUxOLsdeYgDKAl_mHag2kwpwKASCOK8T-CUpOPBMhA3EDl0hJY42ikeqYxXyREyTzEAWBUWeyiDavIpDSNjopUiNuk2BkdWzSHDQ1Oscq5KhsJHVbvJKxgg0lQl8q5Vv-i7AsQ-fBVewi-MJiz-g6x4l_G4IySjAw6l4z8%3D&attredirects=0

Martorell, L. F., 1945. A survey of the forest insects of Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 29(3; 4), 70-608.

Matile-Ferrero, D., Étienne, J., 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]). Revue Française d'Entomologie, 28(4), 161-190.

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería Servicio Fitosanitario del Estado (Costa Rica), 2009. Listado de Plagas (insectos y ácaros) en cultivos de importancia económica en Costa Rica (C). http://www.protecnet.go.cr/laboratorios/plagcul/cultivoc.htm

Muhammad Sarwar, 2006. Occurrence of insect pests on guava (Psidium guajava) tree. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 38(3), 197-200.

Murphy, S. T., 1991. Insect natural enemies of coffee green scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Kenya and their potential for biological control of Coccus celatus and C. viridis in Papua New Guinea. Entomophaga, 36(4), 519-529. doi: 10.1007/BF02374434

Nakao, S. I., Takagi, S., Tachikawa, T., Wongsiri, T., 1977. Scale insects collected on citrus and other plants and their hymenopterous parasites in Thailand. Insecta Matsumurana, 11, 61-72.

Pellizzari, G., Porcelli, F., 2014. Alien scale insects (Hemiptera Coccoidea) in European and Mediterranean countries: the fate of new and old introductions. Phytoparasitica, 42(5), 713-721. doi: 10.1007/s12600-014-0414-5

Prinsloo, G. L., 1985. On the southern African species of Diversinervus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), with descriptions of two new species. Entomophaga, 30(2), 133-142. doi: 10.1007/BF02372246

Reddy SGE; Ruchi Sharma, 2015. First report of scale insects as pests of Kangra tea in Himachal Pradesh, India. Current Biotica, 9(3):289-292. http://www.currentbiotica.com/CB/Journals9-Issue-III/CB-9-3-Short-notes-4.pdf

Sasscer, E. R. , 1923. Important Foreign Insects collected on Imported Nursery Stock in 1922. Journal of Economic Entomology, 16(2), 152-158 pp. doi: 10.1093/jee/16.2.152

Smith, M. R. , 1942. The relationship of ants and other organisms to certain scale insects on Coffee in Porto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 26(2), 21-27 pp.

Song SingYing, Tan ChingWen, Hwang ShawYhi, 2012. Host range of Cybocephalus flavocapitis and Cybocephalus nipponicus, two potential biological control agents for the cycad aulacaspis scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 15(4), 595-599. doi: 10.1016/j.aspen.2012.06.001

Suh SooJung, Bombay, K., 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi, (No.0448), 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

Suh SooJung, Yu HyeMi, Hong KiJeong, 2013. List of intercepted scale insects at Korean ports of entry and potential invasive species of scale insects to Korea (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 52(2), 141-160. http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/is/mv/showPDF_ocean.jsp?method=download&pYear=2013&koi=KISTI1.1003%2FJNL.JAKO201321365238861&sp=141&CN1=JAKO201321365238861&poid=entomo&kojic=OOGCBV&sVnc=v52n2&sFree=

Tamburo, S. E., Butcher, F. G., 1955. Biological studies of the Florida dusky wing skipper, and a preliminary survey of other insects on Barbados cherry. 38(2), 65-69. doi: 10.2307/3492819

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Williams, D. J., Watson, G. W., 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families . Wallingford, UK: CAB International.267 pp.

Wolff, V. R. S., Kondo, T., Peronti, A. L. B. G., Noronha, A. C. S., 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 45(3), 274-279. doi: 10.1007/s13744-016-0365-2

Distribution References

Almeida L F V, Peronti A L B G, Martinelli N M, Wolff V R S, 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist. 101 (3), 353-363. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen DOI:10.1653/024.101.0324

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arriola Padilla V J, Estrada Martínez E, Romero Nápoles J, González Hernández H, Pérez Miranda R, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on ornamental plants in greenhouses from the central zone of the Morelos state, Mexico. (Insectos escama (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) en plantas ornamentales en viveros de la zona centro del estado de Morelos, México.). Interciencia. 41 (8), 552-560. http://www.interciencia.org/v41_08/indexe.html

Bach C E, 1991. Direct and indirect interactions between ants (Pheidole megacephala), scales (Coccus viridis) and plants (Pluchea indica). Oecologia. 87 (2), 233-239. DOI:10.1007/BF00325261

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. In: Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey. 142pp.

Brhane D, Girmay M, Debru H, Hayelom M, Tekie M H M, Sharma V K, Naqvi S D Y, 2018. Survey on insect-pests of guava and management practices around Hamelmalo sub-zoba. Journal of Eco-friendly Agriculture. 13 (1), 69-71. http://ecoagrijournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Full-paper131.pdf

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Camp A F , Wilmot R J, 1932. The Relation of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas Concentration to the Kill of various Stages of the Blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby). Journal of Economic Entomology. 25 (3), 476-483 pp. DOI:10.1093/jee/25.3.476

Charanasri V, Nishida T, 1973. Relative abundance of three Coccinellid predators of the green scale, Coccus viridis (Green) on Plumeria trees. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 22 (1), 27-32.

Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Ventura J A, Peronti A L B G, Gullan P J, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 7 (3), 61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en DOI:10.1590/S1676-06032007000300006

Culik M P, Ventura J A, Martins D dos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae. 215-218. http://www.actahort.org

Easwaramoorthy S, Jayaraj S, 1978. Effectiveness of the white halo fungus, Cephalosporium lecanii, against field populations of coffee green bug, Coccus viridis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 32 (1), 88-96. DOI:10.1016/0022-2011(78)90178-7

Easwaramoorthy S, Regupathy A, Santharam G, Jayaraj S, 1978. The effect of subnormal concentrations of insecticides in combination with the fungal pathogen, Cephalosporium lecanii Zimm. in the control of coffee green scale, Coccus viridis Green. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 86 (2), 161-166.

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