Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Coccus hesperidum
(brown soft scale)

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Datasheet

Coccus hesperidum (brown soft scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Coccus hesperidum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown soft scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleSymptoms on citrus (scales on leaves)
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Symptoms on citrus (scales on leaves)©AgrEvo
Adult female of Coccus hesperidum.
TitleLine artwork of adult female
CaptionAdult female of Coccus hesperidum.
CopyrightC. Hodgson
Adult female of Coccus hesperidum.
Line artwork of adult femaleAdult female of Coccus hesperidum.C. Hodgson

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • brown soft scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Calypticus hesperidum (Linnaeus) Costa 1829
  • Calypticus laevis Costa 1829, Fernald 1903
  • Chermes lauri Boisduval 1867, Maskell 1893
  • Coccus (Lecanium) hesperidum Linnaeus, Hall 1922
  • Coccus (Lecanium) minimus Newstead, Cockerell 1903
  • Coccus angustatus (Signoret) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus flaveolus (Cockerell) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus hesperidum alienus (Douglas) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus hesperidum lauri (Boisduval) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus hesperidum pacificus (Kuwana) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus jungi Chen 1936, Tang 1991
  • Coccus maculatus (Signoret) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus mauritiensis (Mamet) Mamet 1949
  • Coccus minimus (Newstead) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus minimus pinicola (Maskell) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus nanus (Cockerell) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus patellaeformis Curtis 1843, Fernald 1903
  • Coccus signiferus (Green) Sanders 1906
  • Coccus terminaliae (Cockerell) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus ventralis (Ehrhorn) Fernald 1903
  • Eulecanium assimile amaryllidis (Cockerell) Fernald 1903
  • Kermes aurantj Alfonso 1875, Fernald 1903
  • Lecanium (Calymnatus) hesperidum pacificum Kuwana 1902, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium (Coccus) hesperidum Linnaeus, Green 1937
  • Lecanium (Coccus) hesperidum Linnaeus, Pettit & McDaniel 1920
  • Lecanium (Coccus) signiferum Green, Green 1937
  • Lecanium alienum Douglas 1886, Leonardi 1920
  • Lecanium angustatus Signoret 1873, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium assimile amaryllidis Cockerell, Cockerell 1893 (Nomen nudum)
  • Lecanium assimile amaryllis Cockerell 1894, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium ceratoniae Gennadius 1895, Fernald 1903
  • Lecanium depressum simulans Douglas, Douglas 1887 (Nomen nudum)
  • Lecanium flaveolum Cockerell 1897, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium hesperidum (Linnaeus) Burmeister 1935
  • Lecanium hesperidum alienum Douglas, Cockerell 1899
  • Lecanium hesperidum lauri (Boisduval) Cockerell 1896
  • Lecanium hesperidum minimum Newstead, Newstead 1903
  • Lecanium lauri (Boisduval) Signoret 1873
  • Lecanium maculatum Signoret 1873, Ben-Dov 1976
  • Lecanium mauritiense Mamet 1936, De Lotto 1959
  • Lecanium minimum Newstead 1892, Boratynski & Williams 1964
  • Lecanium minimum pinicola Maskell 1897, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium nanum Cockerell 1896, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium punctuliferum Green 1904, De Lotto 1959
  • Lecanium signiferum Green 1904, Boratynski & Williams 1964
  • Lecanium terminaliae Cockerell 1893, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium ventrale Ehrhorn 1898, Sanders 1909
  • Saissetia punctulifera (Green) Sanders, 1906

International Common Names

  • English: common shield scale; soft brown scale; soft scale
  • Spanish: cochinilla blanda de los citros; cochinilla blanda del naranjo; escama parda blanda
  • French: chermes des hesperides; cochenille plate; cochenille plate de l'orange; pou des hesperides
  • Portuguese: escama marron

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: voksskjoldlus
  • Finland: oranssikilpikirva
  • Germany: Orangen-schildlaus; Weiche-schildlaus; Zitrus-schildlaus
  • Israel: haknima hachuma haraka
  • Italy: cocciniglia degli agrumi; leganio del liscio degli agrumi; leganio liscio degli agrumi
  • Japan: hirata-katakaigaramusi
  • Netherlands: Dopluis, platte
  • Norway: voksskjoldlus
  • South Africa: sagte dopluis
  • Sweden: orangefägad sköldlus
  • Turkey: yumusak kosnil

EPPO code

  • COCCHE (Coccus hesperidum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Coccus
  •                                         Species: Coccus hesperidum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 29 Apr 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
Saint HelenaPresent
-AscensionPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
ChinaPresent
-TibetPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
DenmarkPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FrancePresent
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
RomaniaPresent
SpainPresent
-Balearic IslandsPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
UkrainePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CrimeaPresent
United KingdomPresent
-Channel IslandsPresent
-EnglandPresent

North America

BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
BermudaPresent
CanadaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IowaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
KiribatiPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
NiuePresent
Norfolk IslandPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
TuvaluPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent2002
-MaranhaoPresent
-ParaPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
-Easter IslandPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amblyseius swirskii Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite
Aphytis chilensis Parasite
Aphytis hispanicus Parasite
Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Parasite Ramos et al. (2018)
Brumoides suturalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cheiloneurus paralia Parasite
Cheiloneurus praenitens Parasite
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia fruit trees
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia; Republic of Georgia fruit trees
Coccophagus matsuyamensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus pulvinariae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs USA
Coccophagus scutellaris Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Canada; Republic of Georgia ornamental woody plants
Coccophagus semicircularis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus silvestrii Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
Encarsia inaron Parasite
Encyrtus albidus Parasite
Encyrtus lecaniorum Parasite Republic of Georgia
Euxanthellus adustus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Laetilia coccidivora Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Marietta leopardina Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Mataeomera dubia Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus flavus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs USSR
Metaphycus helvolus Parasite
Metaphycus hesperidum Parasite
Metaphycus luteolus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs USSR
Metaphycus stanleyi Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Canada; USA ornamental woody plants
Metaphycus swirskii Parasite
Microterys ditaeniatus Parasite
Microterys flavus Parasite Australia; New Zealand; Texas; USSR Citrus; fruit trees
Microterys nietneri Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pachyneuron muscarum Parasite
Promuscidea unfasciativentris Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudoscymnus dwipakalpa Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Rhyzobius forestieri Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs; Arthropods|Pupae
Signiphora flavopalliata Parasite
Timberlakiella applanatonervus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs

References

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Andison H, 1940. The soft scale (Coccus hesperidum) infesting holly on Vancouver Island. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 36:3-5

Annecke DP, 1964. The encyrtid and aphelinid parasites (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of soft brown scale, Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in South Africa. Entomological Memoirs. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Government Printer

Annecke DP, 1966. Biological studies of the immature stages of, soft brown scale, Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus (Homoptera: Coccidae). South African Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9:205-228

Annecke DP, Moran VC, 1982. Insects and mites of cultivated plants in South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Butterworths

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Avidov Z, 1970. Pests of the Cultivated Plants of Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: Magnes Press

Avidov Z, Harpaz I, 1969. Plant pests of Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Universities Press

Basheer AM, Asslan L, Saleh A, Diab N, Mohamed E, 2016. Scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in Syria. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 46(2):305-307. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp

Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, 1997. Soft scale insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Volume 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, xxiv + 452 pp

Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, 1997. Soft scale insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Volume 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, xvi + 442 pp

BENNETT FD, HUGHES IW, 1959. Biological control of insect pests in Bermuda. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 50(pt. 3):423-436 pp

Blumberg D, 1997. Encapsulation of parasitoids. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 375-387

Bodenheimer FS, 1951. Citrus Entomology in the Middle East. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr WJ Junk & S Gravenhage

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey

Borchsenius NS, 1957. Subtribe mealybugs and scales (Coccoidea). Soft scale insects Coccidae. Vol. IX. (In Russian). Fauna SSSR. Zoologicheskii Institut Academii Nauk SSSR NS, 66:1-493

Campbell MM, 1972. Observations on the effects of high density populations of spiders. Principally an Ixeuticus sp., on the control of Aonidiella aurantii Mask by Aphytis melinus, DeBach. Experimental Record of the Department of Agriculture, South Australia, No. 7:43

CIE, 1972. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology Distribution Maps of Pests: Coccus hesperidum. Map No. 92. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Darvas B, 1997. Insect development and reproduction disrupters. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 165-182

Darvas B, Virag EJ, 1983. The effectivity of kinoprene and hydroprene against scale insects (Pseudococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae) damaging glasshouse ornamentals. Novenyvedelem, 19(10):455-463

Das GM, Ganguli RN, 1961. Coccoids on tea in north-east India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 23:245-256

De Lotto G, 1957. On some Ethiopian species of the genus Coccus (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 20:295-314

De Lotto G, 1959. Further notes on Ethiopian species of the genus Coccus (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 22:150-173

De Lotto G, 1960. The green scales of coffee in Africa south of the Sahara (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 51:389-403

De Villiers EA, Myburgh AC, 1987. Papaya pests; granadilla pests. In: Myburgh AC, ed. Crop Pests in Southern Africa, Vol. 2. Citrus and other subtropicals. Pretoria, South Africa: Plant Protection Research Institute, 18-19

De Villiers EA, Van den Berg MA, 1987a. Soft and wax scales. In: Myburgh AC, ed. Crop Pests in Southern Africa, Vol. 2. Citrus and other subtropicals. Pretoria, South Africa: Plant Protection Research Institute, 33-37

De Villiers EA, Van den Berg MA, 1987b. Avocado insects of South Africa. South Africa Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook, 10:75-79

Ebeling W, 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Los Angeles, USA: University of California

Essig EO, 1958. Insects and Mites of Western North America. New York, USA: The MacMillan Co

Evans HC, Hywel-Jones NL, 1997. Entomopathogenic fungi. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 3-27

Fernandes IM, 1973. Alguns Coccoidea (Homoptera) do Arquipélago de Cabo Verde. Memorias. Junta de InvestigatSe do Ultramar, Lisboa, 58:251-269

Fonseca JC, 1953. Contribuit¦o para o estudo do Coccus hesperidum L. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). I - Estudo sistematico e morfologico. Broteria, Lisboa, 22:5-53, 97-114

Giliomee JH, 1967. Morphology and taxonomy of adult males of the family Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, Supplement, 7:1-168

Gill RJ, 1988. The Scale Insects of California, Part I. The Soft Scales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Sacramento, California, USA: California Department of Food, Agriculture

Gill RJ, Nakahara S, Williams ML, 1977. A review of the genus Coccus Linnpus in America North of Panama (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Occasional Papers in Entomology, California Department of Food and Agriculture, No. 24:44 pp

Gomez-Menor Ortega J, 1958. Cochinillas que atacen a los frutales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: II. Familias Lecanidae y Margarodidae). Boletin de patologia Vegetal y Entomologia Agricola, Madrid, 23:43-173

Gonzalez RH, 1989. Insects and mites of agricultural and quarantine importance in Chile. Santiago, Chile: Universidad de Chile, 310 pp

Gullan PJ, 1997. Relationships with ants. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 351-373

Hammon AB, Williams ML, 1984. Arthropods of Florida and Neighbouring Land Areas. Vol. 11. The soft scales insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Florida Department of Agriculture, Consumer Services. Contribution 600. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture

Harris KM, 1997. Cecidomyiidae and other Diptera. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 61-68

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Hart WG, 1983. Factors influencing the population dynamics of Brown Soft Scale, Coccus hesperidum L. in South Texas. PhD Thesis. Texas, USA: Texas A&M University

Hart WG, Ingle S, Garza M, Mata M, 1966. The response of brown soft scale and its parasites to repeated insecticide pressure. Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society, 20:64-68

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Marotta S, 1997. General Life History. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 251-256

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Mibey RK, 1997. Soot moulds. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 275-290

Mifsud, D., Mazzeo, G., Russo, A., Watson, G. W., 2014. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago. Zootaxa, 3866(4), 499-525. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2014/f/z03866p525f.pdf

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería Servicio Fitosanitario del Estado (Costa Rica), 2009. Listado de Plagas (insectos y ácaros) en cultivos de importancia económica en Costa Rica (C). http://www.protecnet.go.cr/laboratorios/plagcul/cultivoc.htm

Muniappan R, Watson GW, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 28(1):1-7. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/28/28001.pdf

Nakao SI, Takagi S, Tachikawa T, Wongsiri T, 1977. Scale insects collected on citrus and other plants and their hymenopterous parasites in Thailand. Insecta Matsumurana, 11:61-72

Oncuer C, 1974. The Coccus species (Homoptera: Coccidae) damaging Citrus groves in the Aegean region; studies on their morphological characters, distribution and natural enemies. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, Suppl. 1:59 pp

Oncuer C, 1977. Investigations on the identification, distribution and effectiveness of the families of the natural enemies associated with the most important species of scale insects (Coccidae, Homoptera) causing damage to fruit trees in the Province of Izmir. Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi Yayinlari, 336:129 pp

Paik WH, 1978. Insecta VI. Coccoidea. (In Korean). Illustrated Flora and Fauna of Korea 22:1-481

Panis A, 1977. Bioecology of the common citrus scale in the Mediterranean region (Homoptera, Coccidea, Coccidae). Boletin del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 3:157-160

Panis A, 1980. Scale insects (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) within the framework of integrated control in Mediterranean citrus culture. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et de Pathologie Vegetale, 79:12-22

Papadopoulou SC, 2012. Coccus hesperidum (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on Ocimum basilicum: a new record of host plant in Greece. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 5(1):23-25. http://en.bpi.gr/files/journal/2012/january/Volume%205%20-%20Issue%201%20%28January%202012%29.pdf

Peck O, 1963. A catalogue of the Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 30:1-1092

Ponsonby DJ, Copland MJW, 1997. Coccinellidae and other Coleoptera. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 29-60

Prinsloo GL, 1997. Encyrtidae. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 69-109

Quayle HJ, 1938. Soft Brown Scale, Coccus hesperidum L. In: Insects of Citrus and other Subtropical Fruits. Ithaca, New York, USA: Comstock Publishing Co., Inc., 96-101

Ramos, A. S. de J. C., Lemos, R. N. S. de, Costa, V. A., Peronti, A. L. B. G., Silva, E. A. da, Mondego, J. M., Moreira, A. A., 2018. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in tropical fruit trees in the eastern Amazon, Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 101(2), 273-278. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen doi: 10.1653/024.101.0219

Reddy SGE, Ruchi Sharma, 2015. First report of scale insects as pests of Kangra tea in Himachal Pradesh, India. Current Biotica, 9(3):289-292. http://www.currentbiotica.com/CB/Journals9-Issue-III/CB-9-3-Short-notes-4.pdf

Reed DK, Hart WG, Ingle SJ, 1968. Laboratory rearing of soft brown scale and its hymenopterous parasites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 61:1443-1446

Rose M, Stauffer S, 1997. Laboratory and mass rearing. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 397-419

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Saakyan-Baranova AA, 1964. On the biology of the soft scale Coccus hesperidum L. (Homoptera: Coccoidea). (In Russian). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenye, 43:268-296

Sisman S, Ülgentürk S, 2010. Scale insects species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 34(2):219-224. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

Stauffer S, Rose M, 1997. Biological control of soft scale insects in interior plantscapes in the USA. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 183-205

Suroshe SS, Jyotsana Sharma, Singh NV, Pal RK, 2016. New report of insect pests and their natural enemies in pomegranate. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 73(3):445-448. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijh&type=home

Swirski E, Ben-Dov, Y, Wysoki, M, 1997. Other subtropical fruit trees. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 271-292

Talhouk AMS, 1975. Citrus pests throughout the World. Ciba-Geigy Agrochemicals, Technical Monograph, 4:21

Tang FT, Li J, 1988. Observations on the Coccoidea of Inner Mongolia in China. China: Inner Mongolia University Press

Tao CC, Wong C, Chang Y, 1983. Monograph of Coccidae of Taiwan, Republic of China (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Journal of Taiwan Museum, 36(1):57-107

Tereznikova EM, 1981. Scale Insects. Eriococcidae, Kermesidae and Coccidae. (In Ukrainian). Fauna Ukraini. Akademyiya Nauk Ukrainskoi RSR. Institut Zoologii, Kiev, 20:1-215

Tremblay E, 1997. Endosymbionts. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 261-267

Viggiani G, 1997. Eulophidae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae and Signiphoridae. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 147-158

Vranjic JA, 1997. Effects on host plant. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 323-336

Wang TC, 1980. Handbook for the Determination of the Common Coccoids. China: Chinese Academy of Sciences

Watson GW, Muniappan R, Shepard BM, Sembel DT, Rauf A, Carner GR, Benson EP, 2014. Sap-sucking insect records (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha and Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Indonesia. Florida Entomologist, 97(4):1594-1597. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp

Williams ML, Kosztarab M, 1972. Morphology and systematics of the Coccidae of Virginia with notes on their biology (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Research Division Bulletin of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 74:1-215

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Ponsonby DJ, Copland MJW, 1997. Coccinellidae and other Coleoptera. In: Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 7B [ed. by Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press. 29-60.

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Reddy S G E, Ruchi Sharma, 2015. First report of scale insects as pests of Kangra tea in Himachal Pradesh, India. Current Biotica. 9 (3), 289-292. http://www.currentbiotica.com/CB/Journals9-Issue-III/CB-9-3-Short-notes-4.pdf

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Swirski E, Ben-Dov Y, Wysoki M, 1997. Other subtropical fruit trees. In: Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, 7B [ed. by Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press. 271-292.

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Villanueva R T, Gauthier N, Ahmed M Z, 2021. First record of Coccus hesperidum L. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in industrial hemp in Kentucky. Florida Entomologist. 103 (4), 514-515. DOI:10.1653/024.103.00415

Watson G W, Muniappan R, Shepard B M, Sembel D T, Rauf A, Carner G R, Benson E P, 2014. Sap-sucking insect records (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha and Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Indonesia. Florida Entomologist. 97 (4), 1594-1597. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/ DOI:10.1653/024.097.0432

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

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