Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Coccus hesperidum
(brown soft scale)

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Datasheet

Coccus hesperidum (brown soft scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Coccus hesperidum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown soft scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleSymptoms on citrus (scales on leaves)
Caption
CopyrightAgrEvo
Symptoms on citrus (scales on leaves)AgrEvo
Adult female of Coccus hesperidum.
TitleLine artwork of adult female
CaptionAdult female of Coccus hesperidum.
CopyrightC. Hodgson
Adult female of Coccus hesperidum.
Line artwork of adult femaleAdult female of Coccus hesperidum.C. Hodgson

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • brown soft scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Calypticus hesperidum (Linnaeus) Costa 1829
  • Calypticus laevis Costa 1829, Fernald 1903
  • Chermes lauri Boisduval 1867, Maskell 1893
  • Coccus (Lecanium) hesperidum Linnaeus, Hall 1922
  • Coccus (Lecanium) minimus Newstead, Cockerell 1903
  • Coccus angustatus (Signoret) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus flaveolus (Cockerell) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus hesperidum alienus (Douglas) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus hesperidum lauri (Boisduval) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus hesperidum pacificus (Kuwana) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus jungi Chen 1936, Tang 1991
  • Coccus maculatus (Signoret) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus mauritiensis (Mamet) Mamet 1949
  • Coccus minimus (Newstead) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus minimus pinicola (Maskell) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus nanus (Cockerell) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus patellaeformis Curtis 1843, Fernald 1903
  • Coccus signiferus (Green) Sanders 1906
  • Coccus terminaliae (Cockerell) Fernald 1903
  • Coccus ventralis (Ehrhorn) Fernald 1903
  • Eulecanium assimile amaryllidis (Cockerell) Fernald 1903
  • Kermes aurantj Alfonso 1875, Fernald 1903
  • Lecanium (Calymnatus) hesperidum pacificum Kuwana 1902, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium (Coccus) hesperidum Linnaeus, Green 1937
  • Lecanium (Coccus) hesperidum Linnaeus, Pettit & McDaniel 1920
  • Lecanium (Coccus) signiferum Green, Green 1937
  • Lecanium alienum Douglas 1886, Leonardi 1920
  • Lecanium angustatus Signoret 1873, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium assimile amaryllidis Cockerell, Cockerell 1893 (Nomen nudum)
  • Lecanium assimile amaryllis Cockerell 1894, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium ceratoniae Gennadius 1895, Fernald 1903
  • Lecanium depressum simulans Douglas, Douglas 1887 (Nomen nudum)
  • Lecanium flaveolum Cockerell 1897, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium hesperidum (Linnaeus) Burmeister 1935
  • Lecanium hesperidum alienum Douglas, Cockerell 1899
  • Lecanium hesperidum lauri (Boisduval) Cockerell 1896
  • Lecanium hesperidum minimum Newstead, Newstead 1903
  • Lecanium lauri (Boisduval) Signoret 1873
  • Lecanium maculatum Signoret 1873, Ben-Dov 1976
  • Lecanium mauritiense Mamet 1936, De Lotto 1959
  • Lecanium minimum Newstead 1892, Boratynski & Williams 1964
  • Lecanium minimum pinicola Maskell 1897, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium nanum Cockerell 1896, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium punctuliferum Green 1904, De Lotto 1959
  • Lecanium signiferum Green 1904, Boratynski & Williams 1964
  • Lecanium terminaliae Cockerell 1893, Sanders 1909
  • Lecanium ventrale Ehrhorn 1898, Sanders 1909
  • Saissetia punctulifera (Green) Sanders, 1906

International Common Names

  • English: common shield scale; soft brown scale; soft scale
  • Spanish: cochinilla blanda de los citros; cochinilla blanda del naranjo; escama parda blanda
  • French: chermes des hesperides; cochenille plate; cochenille plate de l'orange; pou des hesperides
  • Portuguese: escama marron

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: voksskjoldlus
  • Finland: oranssikilpikirva
  • Germany: Orangen-schildlaus; Weiche-schildlaus; Zitrus-schildlaus
  • Israel: haknima hachuma haraka
  • Italy: cocciniglia degli agrumi; leganio del liscio degli agrumi; leganio liscio degli agrumi
  • Japan: hirata-katakaigaramusi
  • Netherlands: Dopluis, platte
  • Norway: voksskjoldlus
  • South Africa: sagte dopluis
  • Sweden: orangefägad sköldlus
  • Turkey: yumusak kosnil

EPPO code

  • COCCHE (Coccus hesperidum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Coccus
  •                                         Species: Coccus hesperidum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentBen-Dov, 1993
ArmeniaPresentCIE, 1972
AzerbaijanPresentHayat, 1997
BangladeshPresentCIE, 1972
BhutanPresent
ChinaPresentCIE, 1972
-Hong KongPresent
-TibetPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Georgia (Republic of)PresentHayat, 1997
IndiaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresentReddy and Ruchi, 2015
-Indian PunjabPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCIE, 1972
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresentSuroshe et al., 2016
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-Irian JayaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
-JavaPresentCIE, 1972
-SulawesiPresentWatson et al., 2014
-SumatraPresentCIE, 1972
IranPresentBen-Dov, 1993
IraqPresentBen-Dov, 1993
IsraelPresentBen-Dov, 1993
JapanPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-HonshuPresentCIE, 1972
-KyushuPresentCIE, 1972
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCIE, 1972
-ShikokuPresentCIE, 1972
Korea, DPRPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Korea, Republic ofPresentBen-Dov, 1993
LebanonPresentBen-Dov, 1993
MalaysiaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresentCIE, 1972
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresentCIE, 1972
NepalPresentCIE, 1972
OmanPresent
PakistanPresentSwirski et al., 1997
PhilippinesPresentGill et al., 1977; Swirski et al., 1997
Saudi ArabiaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Sri LankaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
SyriaPresentCIE, 1972; Basheer et al., 2016
TaiwanPresentBen-Dov, 1993
TajikistanPresentCIE, 1972
ThailandPresentBen-Dov, 1993
TurkeyPresentBen-Dov, 1993
TurkmenistanPresentCIE, 1972
VietnamPresentBen-Dov, 1993

Africa

AlgeriaPresentHayat, 1997
AngolaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Burkina FasoPresentCIE, 1972
CameroonPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Cape VerdePresentBen-Dov, 1993
Central African RepublicPresentHayat, 1997
CongoPresent
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Côte d'IvoirePresentCIE, 1972
EgyptPresentCIE, 1972
EthiopiaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
GambiaPresentCIE, 1972
GhanaPresentCIE, 1972
KenyaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
LibyaPresentCIE, 1972
MalawiPresentBen-Dov, 1993
MaliPresentCIE, 1972; Muniappan et al., 2012
MauritiusPresentBen-Dov, 1993
MoroccoPresentHayat, 1997
MozambiquePresentHayat, 1997
NigerPresentCIE, 1972
NigeriaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
RéunionPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Saint HelenaPresentCIE, 1972
-AscensionPresent
SenegalPresentHayat, 1997
SeychellesPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Sierra LeonePresentBen-Dov, 1993
SomaliaPresentCIE, 1972
South AfricaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentBen-Dov, 1993
SudanPresentBen-Dov, 1993
TanzaniaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-ZanzibarPresentBen-Dov, 1993
TogoPresentCIE, 1972
TunisiaPresentCIE, 1972
UgandaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
ZambiaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
ZimbabwePresentBen-Dov, 1993

North America

BermudaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
CanadaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-British ColumbiaPresentCIE, 1972
MexicoPresentBen-Dov, 1993
USAPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-AlabamaPresentHammon and Williams, 1984
-ArizonaPresentCIE, 1972
-CaliforniaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-FloridaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-GeorgiaPresentHammon and Williams, 1984
-HawaiiPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-IowaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-LouisianaPresentHammon and Williams, 1984
-MarylandPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-MississippiPresentHammon and Williams, 1984
-MissouriPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-New MexicoPresentHammon and Williams, 1984
-North CarolinaPresentHammon and Williams, 1984
-OregonPresentCIE, 1972
-PennsylvaniaPresentHammon and Williams, 1984
-South CarolinaPresentHammon and Williams, 1984
-TennesseePresentBen-Dov, 1993
-TexasPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresentHammon and Williams, 1984
-WashingtonPresentCIE, 1972
-West VirginiaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-WyomingPresentBen-Dov, 1993

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
Costa RicaPresentCIE, 1972
CubaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
DominicaPresent
El SalvadorPresentBen-Dov, 1993
GuadeloupePresentBen-Dov, 1993
GuatemalaPresentCIE, 1972
HondurasPresentCIE, 1972
JamaicaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
NicaraguaPresentCIE, 1972
PanamaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Puerto RicoPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Saint LuciaPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresentBen-Dov, 1993
United States Virgin IslandsPresentBen-Dov, 1993

South America

ArgentinaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
BrazilPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-AmazonasPresentCIE, 1972
-BahiaPresentCIE, 1972
-MaranhaoPresentRamos et al., 2018
-ParaPresentCIE, 1972
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCIE, 1972
-Rio Grande do SulPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-Santa CatarinaPresentCIE, 1972
-Sao PauloPresentCIE, 1972
ChilePresentBen-Dov, 1993
-Easter IslandPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990
ColombiaPresentBen-Dov, 1993; Kondo and Muñoz, 2016
EcuadorPresentCIE, 1972
GuyanaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
ParaguayPresentHayat, 1997
PeruPresentPonsonby and Copland, 1997
SurinamePresentBen-Dov, 1993
UruguayPresentCIE, 1972
VenezuelaPresentCIE, 1972

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresentIntroducedBen-Dov, 1993; Malumphy, 2016
BulgariaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
CyprusPresentBen-Dov, 1993; Sisman and Ülgentürk, 2010
DenmarkPresentBen-Dov, 1993
FrancePresentBen-Dov, 1993
-CorsicaPresentCIE, 1972
GermanyPresentBen-Dov, 1993
GreecePresentBen-Dov, 1993; Papadopoulou, 2012
HungaryPresentBen-Dov, 1993
ItalyPresentBen-Dov, 1993
MaltaPresentCIE, 1972
NetherlandsPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-AzoresPresentCIE, 1972
-MadeiraPresentBen-Dov, 1993
RomaniaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
SpainPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-Balearic IslandsPresentCIE, 1972
SwedenPresentBen-Dov, 1993
UKPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-Channel IslandsPresent
UkrainePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Krymskaya OblastPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Yugoslavia (former)PresentBen-Dov, 1993

Oceania

American SamoaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
AustraliaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCIE, 1972
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-South AustraliaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-TasmaniaPresentCIE, 1972
-Western AustraliaPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Cook IslandsPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
FijiPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
French PolynesiaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
KiribatiPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
Marshall IslandsPresentBen-Dov, 1993
New CaledoniaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
New ZealandPresentBen-Dov, 1993; Henderson et al., 2010
NiuePresentWilliams and Watson, 1990
Norfolk IslandPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentBen-Dov, 1993
PalauPresentBen-Dov, 1993
Papua New GuineaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
SamoaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
Solomon IslandsPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
TongaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
TuvaluPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993
VanuatuPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; Ben-Dov, 1993

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amblyseius swirskii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite
Aphytis chilensis Parasite
Aphytis hispanicus Parasite
Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Parasite Ramos et al., 2018
Brumoides suturalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheiloneurus paralia Parasite
Cheiloneurus praenitens Parasite
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults/Nymphs Australia fruit trees
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults/Nymphs Australia; Republic of Georgia fruit trees
Coccophagus matsuyamensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus pulvinariae Parasite Adults/Nymphs USA
Coccophagus scutellaris Parasite Adults/Nymphs Canada; Republic of Georgia ornamental woody plants
Coccophagus semicircularis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus silvestrii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
Encarsia inaron Parasite
Encyrtus albidus Parasite
Encyrtus lecaniorum Parasite Republic of Georgia
Euxanthellus adustus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Laetilia coccidivora Predator Adults/Nymphs
Marietta leopardina Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Mataeomera dubia Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus flavus Parasite Adults/Nymphs USSR
Metaphycus helvolus Parasite
Metaphycus hesperidum Parasite
Metaphycus luteolus Parasite Adults/Nymphs USSR
Metaphycus stanleyi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Canada; USA ornamental woody plants
Metaphycus swirskii Parasite
Microterys ditaeniatus Parasite
Microterys flavus Parasite Australia; New Zealand; Texas; USSR Citrus; fruit trees
Microterys nietneri Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Pachyneuron muscarum Parasite
Promuscidea unfasciativentris Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Pseudoscymnus dwipakalpa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Rhyzobius forestieri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Signiphora flavopalliata Parasite
Timberlakiella applanatonervus Parasite Adults/Nymphs

References

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Andison H, 1940. The soft scale (Coccus hesperidum) infesting holly on Vancouver Island. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 36:3-5

Annecke DP, 1964. The encyrtid and aphelinid parasites (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of soft brown scale, Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in South Africa. Entomological Memoirs. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Government Printer

Annecke DP, 1966. Biological studies of the immature stages of, soft brown scale, Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus (Homoptera: Coccidae). South African Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9:205-228

Annecke DP, Moran VC, 1982. Insects and mites of cultivated plants in South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Butterworths

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Avidov Z, 1970. Pests of the Cultivated Plants of Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: Magnes Press

Avidov Z, Harpaz I, 1969. Plant pests of Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Universities Press

Basheer AM, Asslan L, Saleh A, Diab N, Mohamed E, 2016. Scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in Syria. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 46(2):305-307. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp

Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, 1997. Soft scale insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Volume 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, xxiv + 452 pp

Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, 1997. Soft scale insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Volume 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, xvi + 442 pp

BENNETT FD, HUGHES IW, 1959. Biological control of insect pests in Bermuda. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 50(pt. 3):423-436 pp

Blumberg D, 1997. Encapsulation of parasitoids. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 375-387

Bodenheimer FS, 1951. Citrus Entomology in the Middle East. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr WJ Junk & S Gravenhage

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey

Borchsenius NS, 1957. Subtribe mealybugs and scales (Coccoidea). Soft scale insects Coccidae. Vol. IX. (In Russian). Fauna SSSR. Zoologicheskii Institut Academii Nauk SSSR NS, 66:1-493

Campbell MM, 1972. Observations on the effects of high density populations of spiders. Principally an Ixeuticus sp., on the control of Aonidiella aurantii Mask by Aphytis melinus, DeBach. Experimental Record of the Department of Agriculture, South Australia, No. 7:43

CIE, 1972. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology Distribution Maps of Pests: Coccus hesperidum. Map No. 92. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Darvas B, 1997. Insect development and reproduction disrupters. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 165-182

Darvas B, Virag EJ, 1983. The effectivity of kinoprene and hydroprene against scale insects (Pseudococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae) damaging glasshouse ornamentals. Novenyvedelem, 19(10):455-463

Das GM, Ganguli RN, 1961. Coccoids on tea in north-east India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 23:245-256

De Lotto G, 1957. On some Ethiopian species of the genus Coccus (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 20:295-314

De Lotto G, 1959. Further notes on Ethiopian species of the genus Coccus (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 22:150-173

De Lotto G, 1960. The green scales of coffee in Africa south of the Sahara (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 51:389-403

De Villiers EA, Myburgh AC, 1987. Papaya pests; granadilla pests. In: Myburgh AC, ed. Crop Pests in Southern Africa, Vol. 2. Citrus and other subtropicals. Pretoria, South Africa: Plant Protection Research Institute, 18-19

De Villiers EA, Van den Berg MA, 1987a. Soft and wax scales. In: Myburgh AC, ed. Crop Pests in Southern Africa, Vol. 2. Citrus and other subtropicals. Pretoria, South Africa: Plant Protection Research Institute, 33-37

De Villiers EA, Van den Berg MA, 1987b. Avocado insects of South Africa. South Africa Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook, 10:75-79

Ebeling W, 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Los Angeles, USA: University of California

Essig EO, 1958. Insects and Mites of Western North America. New York, USA: The MacMillan Co

Evans HC, Hywel-Jones NL, 1997. Entomopathogenic fungi. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 3-27

Fernandes IM, 1973. Alguns Coccoidea (Homoptera) do Arquipélago de Cabo Verde. Memorias. Junta de InvestigatSe do Ultramar, Lisboa, 58:251-269

Fonseca JC, 1953. Contribuit¦o para o estudo do Coccus hesperidum L. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). I - Estudo sistematico e morfologico. Broteria, Lisboa, 22:5-53, 97-114

Giliomee JH, 1967. Morphology and taxonomy of adult males of the family Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, Supplement, 7:1-168

Gill RJ, 1988. The Scale Insects of California, Part I. The Soft Scales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Sacramento, California, USA: California Department of Food, Agriculture

Gill RJ, Nakahara S, Williams ML, 1977. A review of the genus Coccus Linnpus in America North of Panama (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Occasional Papers in Entomology, California Department of Food and Agriculture, No. 24:44 pp

Gomez-Menor Ortega J, 1958. Cochinillas que atacen a los frutales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: II. Familias Lecanidae y Margarodidae). Boletin de patologia Vegetal y Entomologia Agricola, Madrid, 23:43-173

Gonzalez RH, 1989. Insects and mites of agricultural and quarantine importance in Chile. Santiago, Chile: Universidad de Chile, 310 pp

Gullan PJ, 1997. Relationships with ants. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 351-373

Hammon AB, Williams ML, 1984. Arthropods of Florida and Neighbouring Land Areas. Vol. 11. The soft scales insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Florida Department of Agriculture, Consumer Services. Contribution 600. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture

Harris KM, 1997. Cecidomyiidae and other Diptera. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 61-68

Hart WG, 1972. Compensatory releases of Microterys flavus as a biological control agent against brown soft scale. Environmental Entomology, 1:414-419

Hart WG, 1983. Factors influencing the population dynamics of Brown Soft Scale, Coccus hesperidum L. in South Texas. PhD Thesis. Texas, USA: Texas A&M University

Hart WG, Ingle S, Garza M, Mata M, 1966. The response of brown soft scale and its parasites to repeated insecticide pressure. Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society, 20:64-68

Hayat M, 1997. Aphelinidae. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 111-145

Henderson RC, Sultan A, Robertson AW, 2010. Scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella: Viscaceae) with description of three new species: Leucaspis albotecta, L. trilobata (Diaspididae) and Eriococcus korthalsellae (Eriococcidae). Zootaxa, 2644:1-24. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2010/f/z02644p024f.pdf

Herting B, Simmonds FJ, 1972. A catalogue of parasites and predators of Terrestrial Arthropods. Section A, Host or prey/enemy. Homoptera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Hodgson CJ, 1967. Notes on Rhodesian Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea): Part I. The genera Coccus, Parasaissetia, Saissetia and a new genus Mashona. Arnoldia (Rhodesia), 3(5):1-22

Hodgson CJ, 1994. The scale insect family Coccidae: an identification manual to genera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 639 pp

Kawai S, 1980. Scale Insects of Japan in Colours. Tokyo, Japan: National Agriculture Education Association, 455 pp

Kfir R, Rosen D, 1980. Biological studies of Microterys flavus (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a primary parasite of soft scales. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 43(2):223-237

Khadzhibeli ZK, 1983. The importance of intraspecific variability for the determination of scale insects. In: Gelovani LV, ed. Fauna i ekologiya bespozvonochnykh zhivotnykh Gruzii "Metsniereba" Tbilisi USSR, 178-195

Kondo T, Muñoz JA, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi, No.0465:1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

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