Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Centratherum punctatum
(lark daisy)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Centratherum punctatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lark daisy
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. punctatum is a perennial herb to small subshrub listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as a weed principally impacting disturbed places and semi-natural ecosystems (...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Centratherum punctatum subsp. punctatum (centratherum); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Kapano Gulch, Lanai. April, 2007.
TitleHabit, showing flowers and leaves
CaptionCentratherum punctatum subsp. punctatum (centratherum); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Kapano Gulch, Lanai. April, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Centratherum punctatum subsp. punctatum (centratherum); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Kapano Gulch, Lanai. April, 2007.
Habit, showing flowers and leavesCentratherum punctatum subsp. punctatum (centratherum); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Kapano Gulch, Lanai. April, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Centratherum punctatum subsp. punctatum (centratherum); flowers and leaves. Kapano Gulch, Lanai. April, 2007.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionCentratherum punctatum subsp. punctatum (centratherum); flowers and leaves. Kapano Gulch, Lanai. April, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Centratherum punctatum subsp. punctatum (centratherum); flowers and leaves. Kapano Gulch, Lanai. April, 2007.
Flowers and leavesCentratherum punctatum subsp. punctatum (centratherum); flowers and leaves. Kapano Gulch, Lanai. April, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Centratherum punctatum Cass.

Preferred Common Name

  • lark daisy

Other Scientific Names

  • Ampherephis aristata Kunth
  • Ampherephis mutica Kunth
  • Ampherephis pulchella Cass. ex Steud.
  • Amphibecis violacea (Schrank) Schrank
  • Baccharoides brachylepis (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) Kuntze
  • Baccharoides holtonii (Baker) Kuntze
  • Baccharoides muticum (Kunth) Kuntze
  • Baccharoides punctatum (Cass.) Kuntze
  • Baccharoides violaceum (Schrank) Kuntze
  • Centratherum aristatum (Kunth) Cass. ex B.D.Jacks
  • Centratherum aristatum Cass.
  • Centratherum brachylepis Sch.Bip. ex Baker
  • Centratherum camporum (Hassl.) Malme
  • Centratherum camporum var. longipes (Hassl.) Malme
  • Centratherum holtoni Baker
  • Centratherum pulchellum Cass. Steud.
  • Centratherum violaceum (Schrank) Gleason
  • Crantzia ovata Vell.
  • Spixia violacea Schrank

International Common Names

  • English: Brazilian button flower; centratherum; lark-daisy
  • Spanish: alcanfor; chupón; margarita; mejorana; siempreviva; verbena; virginia
  • Portuguese: perpetua-do-mato

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Brazilian button flower
  • Lesser Antilles: magéwit; marguerite
  • USA: larkdaisy

EPPO code

  • CNTPU (Centratherum punctatum)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

C. punctatum is a perennial herb to small subshrub listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as a weed principally impacting disturbed places and semi-natural ecosystems (Randall, 2012). In Australia, this species is listed as a common weed that can be found growing on the edges of rainforest and in some drier types of open forest and woodland (CSIRO, 2010). Currently, C. punctatum is considered an invasive species in Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, New Caledonia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Centratherum
  •                                 Species: Centratherum punctatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Generally, the genus Centratherum has been treated as a widely distributed tropical genus in the subfamily Asteroideae of the large and diverse Asteraceae family. This genus can be found in Central and South America, the West Indies, Australia, the Philippines, India, and Java (Kirkman, 1981). By 1973, J.C. Willis recognized approximately 20 species for the genus, but considering that more than 90 names have been associated with this genus since it was first described by H. Cassini in 1817 its taxonomic classification is still obscure (Kirkman, 1981). By 1981, L.K. Kirkman distinguished three subspecies of C. punctatum:

  1. C. punctatum Cass. ssp. punctatum: Distributed from Central America to South America and the West Indies.
  2. C. punctatum Cass. ssp. fruticosum (Elmer) Kirkman, occurring in the Philippines.
  3. C. punctatum Cass. ssp. australianum Kirkman, occurring in Australia (New South Wales, Queensland and Northern territory).

According to this author, these three taxa, although distinct, appear to be very closely related and are probably derived from one source (Kirkman, 1981).

Description

Top of page

Herbs or small subshrubs, 10 – 50 cm tall, stems erect and pubescent, single- and multi- stemmed. Leaves lanceolate to ovate or obovate, acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, margins with entire or with 4-6 pairs of teeth, 1.5-5(-6) cm long, 0.5-4 cm broad, glandular punctate and villosulous on both surfaces, lateral veins ascending, 3-6 pairs, inconspicuous. Inflorescences sessile, solitary, terminating the branches. Heads discoid with many florets; involucre broadly hemispherical, the outer involucral bracts 6-15, foliaceous, curved and spreading, the inner involucral bracts scariose, 4-6-seriate, narrowly deltoid, apically acute to obtuse, spinescent, awns 1-4 mm long, awns and involucral bracts ciliolate; receptacle flat, alveolate, naked; corolla tube narrowly cylindric, expanding slightly at the apex, purple, 5-7 mm long, 5-lobed, the lobes linear to lanceolate, 1-2 mm long; stamens 5, the anthers 1-1.5 mm long, apically acute, obtusely sagittate at base; styles 6-7 mm long, bilobed, the lobes puberulous, 1-2 mm long, acute. Achenes narrowly turbinate, weakly ribbed, 1-2 mm long; pappus of deciduous filiform scales 1-2 mm long, antrorsely puberulent (CSIRO, 2010; Tropicos, 2013).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

The native distribution range of C. punctatum is very ambiguous. Depending on the authors this species is considered native to Central and South America, but also to the Philippines and Australia (Kirkman, 1981; Davidse et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2013). Recent reviews and checklists have it as naturalized in Asia, Africa, Madeira, the West Indies, and islands in the Pacific Ocean (Flann, 2009; see also distribution table for details).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

NigeriaPresentIntroducedFlann (2009)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedFlann (2009)

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedFlann (2009)
-KeralaPresentIntroducedPrasad and Raveendran (2013)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedFlann (2009)
PhilippinesPresentNativeKirkman (1981)
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)Cultivated
TaiwanPresentIntroducedChen ShihHuei et al. (1999)

Europe

PortugalPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedFlann (2009)

North America

BarbadosPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Tortola
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Saba
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Considered a weed
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedGraveson (2012)Naturalized. Introduced as ornamental
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeKirkman (1981)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Considered a weed
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen (2008)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentFlann (2009)
-Northern TerritoryPresentFlann (2009)
-QueenslandPresentFlann (2009)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)
PalauPresentIntroducedSpace et al. (2003)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeZuloaga et al. (2008)Corrientes, Misiones, Santa Fe
BoliviaPresentNativeKirkman (1981)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-AlagoasPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-BahiaPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-CearaPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-GoiasPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-MaranhaoPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-ParaibaPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-ParanaPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-PernambucoPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-PiauiPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
-SergipePresentNativeAlmeida and Dematteis (2013)
ColombiaPresentNativeKirkman (1981)
EcuadorPresentNativePruski (1997)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentInvasiveCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French GuianaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007)
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007)
ParaguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al. (2008)
PeruPresentNativeKirkman (1981)
VenezuelaPresentNativeHokche et al. (2008)Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro, Portuguesa, Sucre

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

C. punctatum is a cosmopolitan species that was probably introduced to be used as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, but there is also a high probability that it has been introduced unintentionally as a contaminant due to the small size of its seeds (Flann, 2009; USDA-ARS, 2013). It has been suggested that C. punctatum was dispersed along trade routes between America, Europe and the Orient (Kirkman, 1981). E.D. Merrill (1954) suggested the likely introduction of plants from America into the Philippines and Australia via trade routes which were established by the Portuguese around the 1500s and the Spaniards about 1565 (Merrill, 1954; Kirkman, 1981). In the case of the West Indies, this species was first collected in 1879 in Martinique, 1882 in Dominica and 1979 in Puerto Rico (US National Herbarium collections).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

C. punctatum is very common in tropical regions mainly in disturbed areas, along roadsides and forest edges where it behaves as a weed (CSIRO, 2012; Randall, 2012; PIER, 2013). It produces small seeds (1-2 mm) which can be easy dispersed by wind and also as a contaminant. Thus, once established the likelihood of colonizing new habitats (mainly disturbed areas and bare grounds) is relatively high.

Habitat

Top of page

C. punctatum grows mostly in tropical areas from sea level up to 1200 m asl. It behaves as a weed both outside and inside its native distribution range, where can be very common in disturbed areas, forest edges, and along roadsides (PIER, 2013). In Panama, this species has been described as locally common in rocky or gravelly savanna-like areas (Woodson and Schery, 1975; Tropicos, 2013). In Australia it is described as a weed of disturbed places from 400-740 masl and can be found on the edges of vine forest and rainforest and in some drier types of open forest and woodland (CSIRO, 2010). In Hawaii, it can be found growing in areas with sunny and dry conditions (Staples and Herbst, 2005; PIER, 2013).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number for C. punctatum varies from n = 16 to n = 32 (Kirkman, 1981; Carr et al., 1999). 

Reproductive Biology

Disk florets are bisexual in Centratherum and can be pollinated by insects and wind (Tropicos, 2013). 

Physiology and Phenology

C. punctatum punctatum and C. punctatum fruticosum have been reported flowering and fruiting all year long. C. punctatum australianum has been recorded flowering and fruiting from February to May (Kirkman, 1981).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 35

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5001900mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

C. punctatum spreads by seeds. In this species the pappus has numerous, deciduous, and small bristles (1-2 mm long) and seeds are easily dispersed by wind (Kirkman, 1981). In addition, because this species grows as a weed in disturbed areas, propagules can also be dispersed as contaminants in mud adhering to vehicles, humans or livestock.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapePlanted as ornamental Yes Woodson and Schery, 1975
Garden waste disposalPlanted as ornamental Yes Woodson and Schery, 1975
Internet salesSeeds sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesCommercialized as ornamental. Seeds sold online. (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes
Seed tradeSeeds sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPlanted as ornamental Yes Woodson and Schery, 1975
MailSeeds sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes
WindAchenes Yes Yes Woodson and Schery, 1975

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

C. punctatum grows as a weed and has the potential to rapidly colonize disturbed areas forming dense mats. Consequently C. punctatum is altering the successional processes on these areas and competing with native vegetation for resources such as light and nutrients. This species represents a conservation concern principally in insular ecosystems such as Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Hawaii, Galápagos Islands, and New Caledonia where it has become invasive (Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2013).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

Top of page

C. punctatum has been primarily used as an ornamental. However, recently it has been used in studies which have shown that leaf extracts exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties and suggest that this species might be used a potential medicinal agent (Pawar and Arumugan, 2011). Similarly in Nigeria, a research group has shown that essential oils extracted from C. punctatum may also have antimicrobial properties (Ogunwande et al., 2005).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Amenity

Materials

  • Essential oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Almeida G; Dematteis M, 2013. [English title not available]. (Centratherum in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil.) . Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB16046

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Carr GD; King RM; Powell AM; Robinson H, 1999. Chromosome numbers in Compositae. XVIII. American Journal of Botany, 86(7):1003-1013.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated.

Chen ShihHuei; Wu MingJou; Li SzMing, 1999. Centratherum punctatum Cass. ssp. fruticosum, a newly naturalized sunflower species in Taiwan. Taiwania, 44(2):299-305.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett; RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp.

Correa A; Galdames MDC; Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

CSIRO, 2010. Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 6th edition., Australia: CSIRO. http://keys.trin.org.au/key-server/data/0e0f0504-0103-430d-8004-060d07080d04/media/Html/index.html

Davidse G; Sousa-Peña M; Knapp S; Chiang F, 2009. Asteraceae. Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang, F.]., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Flann C, 2009. Global Compositae Checklist. http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/Default.aspx

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia. http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

Kirkman LK, 1981. Taxonomic revision of Centratherum and Phyllocephalum (Compositae: Vernonieae). Rhodora, 83:1-24.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

MERRILL ED, 1954. The botany of Cook's voyages. Chronica botanica, 14(5/6):161-384.

Ogunwande IA; Olawere NO; Usman L, 2005. Composition of the leaf oil of Centratherum punctatum Cass growing in Nigeria. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 17:496-498.

Pawar NK; Arumugam N, 2011. Leaf extract of Centratherum punctatum exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti proliferative properties. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 4:71-76.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Prasad KS; Raveendran K, 2013. Centratherum punctatum Cass. ssp. punctatum (Asteraceae) - naturalised in Kerala. Journal of Non-Timber Forest Products, 20(3):231-232.

Pruski JF, 1997. Asteraceae. Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana, 3:177-393.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Space JC; Waterhouse BM; Miles JE; Tiobech J; Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

Staples GW; Herbst DR, 2005. A tropical garden flora, Plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press, 908 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Tropicos, 2013. Centratherum punctatum Cass. in Tropicos., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/2702241

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Willis JC, 1973. A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns. 8th edn. Cambridge, UK: University Press.

Woodson RE; Schery RW, 1975. Flora of Panama: Compositae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 62:835-1322.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Volume 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae) [ed. by Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 983 pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Almeida G, Dematteis M, 2013. [English title not available]. (Centratherum in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB16046

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. unpaginated.

Chen ShihHuei, Wu MingJou, Li SzMing, 1999. Centratherum punctatum Cass. ssp. fruticosum, a newly naturalized sunflower species in Taiwan. Taiwania. 44 (2), 299-305.

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett, RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore., Singapore: National University of Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research. 273 pp.

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama. (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama)., Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 599 pp.

Flann C, 2009. Global Compositae Checklist., http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/Default.aspx

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia., http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela. (Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela)., Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela. 860 pp.

Kirkman LK, 1981. Taxonomic revision of Centratherum and Phyllocephalum (Compositae: Vernonieae). In: Rhodora, 83 1-24.

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Prasad K S, Raveendran K, 2013. Centratherum punctatum Cass. ssp. punctatum (Asteraceae) - naturalised in Kerala. Journal of Non-Timber Forest Products. 20 (3), 231-232.

Pruski JF, 1997. Asteraceae. In: Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana, 3 177-393.

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants., Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae. [ed. by Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. xcvi + 983 pp.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Global Compositae Checklisthttp://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/Default.aspx

Contributors

Top of page

23/01/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map