Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cenchrus echinatus
(southern sandbur)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Cenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cenchrus echinatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • southern sandbur
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. echinatus.
TitleFlowers
CaptionC. echinatus.
Copyright©Colin Wilson
C. echinatus.
FlowersC. echinatus.©Colin Wilson

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cenchrus echinatus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • southern sandbur

Other Scientific Names

  • Cenchrus brevisetus Fourn.
  • Cenchrus pungens HBK
  • Cenchrus quinquevalvis Ham. ex Wall.
  • Cenchrus viridis Spreng.

International Common Names

  • English: bur grass; hedgehog grass; mossman rivergrass; piquant cousin; sandbur grass; sandspur
  • Spanish: abrojo; cabeza de negro; cachorro; cadillo; cadillo carreton; cadillo correntino; cadillo tigre; espolon; guizazo; morado; mozote (de caballo); pasto camelo; pasto roseta; pega-pega; roseta; tembuque cadillo; zacate banderilla; zacate cadillo; zacate erizo; zacate huachapore
  • French: herbe rude

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: arroz bravo; capim carrapicho; capim roseta
  • Fiji: se bulabula
  • French Polynesia: piri-piri
  • Germany: Stacheliges Klettengras
  • Mauritius: herbe à cateaux
  • Philippines: agingai; cauit-cauitan; sagisi
  • Samoa: vao tuitui
  • Sri Lanka: kuvenitana
  • Thailand: yaa son krachap; ya-bung
  • Tonga: hefa
  • USA/Hawaii: konpeito-gusa; ume alu

EPPO code

  • CCHEC (Cenchrus echinatus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Cenchrus
  •                                 Species: Cenchrus echinatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The name Cenchrus is from the Greek word for millet, cenchros. The Greek species name echinatus means armed with spines.

Description

Top of page Erect, 30-90 cm high, forming loose tufts, lower parts of the culm sometimes prostrate, rooting at the lower nodes. The stems are usually flattened and dark green. The leaves are flat, smooth to hairy, 5-30 cm long, 3-11 mm wide, with hairs at the mouth of sheath, the sheath compressed with moderately stiff hairs on the margin of the upper part. The youngest leaf is rolled. The ligule is replaced by a ring of hairs (0.7-1.7 mm long); auricles are absent.

Inflorescence forms a dense cylindrical spike, 3-10 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, the rachis is strongly undulate and rough, spikelets enclosed in spinous burs; distance between individual burs is 2-3 cm. Each bur contains 2-4 spikelets, 5-7 mm long without pedicels. The burs are compressed at the base, globular, clustered, 5-10 mm long, 3.5-6 mm wide, irregular in length and thickness, the inner ones larger than the outer. The tips of the spines turn purple with increasing maturity.

Distribution

Top of page C. echinatus grows from latitudes 33°S to 33°N in the tropics and subtropics of America, Africa, Asia and Oceania.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ZhejiangPresentHu et al., 2009
IndiaPresent
IsraelPresentFeinbrun-Dothan, 1986
LaosPresentWaterhouse, 1993
MalaysiaPresentStone, 1976; Hitchcock, 1971
Middle EastPresent
PhilippinesWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; Pancho and Obien, 1995
Sri LankaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
ThailandPresentHolm et al., 1977; Noda et al., 1985; Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993
VietnamPresentWaterhouse, 1993

Africa

GhanaPresentHutchinson and Dalziel, 1972
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1991
NigeriaPresentHutchinson and Dalziel, 1972
RéunionPresentPeterschmitt et al., 1991
West AfricaPresentHutchinson and Dalziel, 1972; Akobundu and Agyakwa, 1987

North America

MexicoPresentMoreno-Casasola, 1988; Hall and Vandiver, 1991; Holm et al., 1991
USAPresentLunsford et al., 1987; Powell et al., 1990; Holm et al., 1991
-ArizonaPresentTickes, 1992
-FloridaPresentWunderlin, 1939; Hall and Vandiver, 1991; White et al., 1995
-HawaiiWidespreadHASELWOOD and MOTTER, 1966; Hitchcock, 1971; Holm et al., 1977; Munroe and Nishimoto, 1988; Holm et al., 1991

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentHammerton, 1981
Costa RicaPresent, few occurrencesSoto et al., 1986; Holm et al., 1991
CubaPresentPerez et al., 1985; Holm et al., 1991
Dominican RepublicPresentHolm et al., 1991
GuatemalaPresentHolm et al., 1991
HondurasPresentHolm et al., 1991; Zelaya et al., 1997
JamaicaPresentHolm et al., 1991; Barker-Cohen, 1992
Puerto RicoPresentHolm et al., 1991

South America

ArgentinaPresentHolm et al., 1991
BoliviaPresentHolm et al., 1991
BrazilWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Machado and Marchezan, 1989; Holm et al., 1991; Carmona, 1995
-GoiasPresentBarros, 1989; Barros et al., 1992
-Minas GeraisPresentLaca-Buendia and Pires, 1992; Silva et al., 1996
-ParaibaPresentAzevedo et al., 1997
-ParanaPresentAlmeida et al., 1983
-Rio Grande do SulPresentOliveira et al., 1989
-Sao PauloPresentBlanco et al., 1981; Cruz et al., 1991; Ramos and Pitelli, 1994
ChilePresentHolm et al., 1991
ColombiaWidespreadCardenas et al., 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
EcuadorPresentJenett-Siems et al., 1994
ParaguayPresentHolm et al., 1991
PeruWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Cerna-Bazan and Rojas-Vargas, 1979; Holm et al., 1991
SurinamePresentEveraarts, 1993
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991

Europe

HungaryPresent, few occurrencesHolm et al., 1991

Oceania

AustraliaPresentGroves, 1991; Hall and Vandiver, 1991; Holm et al., 1991
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentGroves, 1991; Miller, 1991
-QueenslandPresentGroves, 1991
FijiPresentHolm et al., 1991
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentHolm et al., 1991
Papua New GuineaPresent, few occurrencesHolm et al., 1991
SamoaPresentWhistler, 1983
TongaPresentWhistler, 1983; Holm et al., 1991

Habitat

Top of page C. echinatus is a native of tropical America, occuring as an adventive in most tropical countries. It can grow in many habitats and is found in dry and moist regions in rainfed and irrigated crops and has been reported as a weed of 18 crops in 35 countries, mostly in cereals, pulses, vineyards, plantation crops and pastures (Holm et al., 1977). It prefers moderate moisture and light, sandy, well-drained soils at low elevations (Holm et al., 1977).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Biology and Ecology

Top of page C. echinatus is an annual grass, germinating in spring and flowering most of the year round in the moist tropics. Dormancy of its seeds can be broken by scarification, excision of the caryopsis and 5 minutes immersion in 1-3% potassium nitrate solution (Martins et al., 1997).

Impact

Top of page C. echinatus occurs as a weed in many crops worldwide. It is common in cultivated fields, pastures, fallows, orchards, vineyards, coffee, vegetables, bananas, coconuts and lawns, where it can withstand repeated defoliation. It can be found along roadsides and beaches, in open ground and waste places. Crops competing for nutrients with C. echinatus typically have smaller leaf areas and lower growth rates and yields (Hammerton, 1981; Everaarts, 1993; Ramos and Pitelli, 1994).

The burs of the seed heads can become firmly attached to clothes and coats of animals by the barbed spines. These can penetrate the skin causing painful or annoying injuries. In feeds and hay, the burs of the seed heads reduce the acceptability and palatability of the feed to animals. Nevertheless, it can serve as a forage grass before the burs are formed.

C. echinatus also has some relevance as an alternative host for maize streak monogeminivirus and sugarcane streak monogeminivirus (Brunt et al., 1996).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact mechanisms
  • Competition

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page In West Africa, the similar species C. biflorus can be found, which can be distinguished by having no prickles. Spikelets of C. biflorus are also united at the base to form a disc and not to form a cup as in C. echinatus (Akobundu and Agyakwa, 1987).

In south-eastern USA, C. incertus (coast sandspur) is found concurrently with C. echinatus. The presence of two types of spine on the bur of C. incertus distinguish it from C. echinatus. C. echinatus is also similar to field sandbur, which has been amalgamated with C. incertus (USDA-ARS, 1999), but C. echinatus has burs which are more reddish and more wide than long, being widest at the base.

In C. brownii, the burs are larger, fewer and less densely arranged than in C. echinatus (Hitchcock, 1971; Cardenas et al., 1972).

The rare native species C. calyculatus (Western Polynesia) is more robust and its bur is less spiny than C. echinatus (Whistler, 1983).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Cultural control methods for C. echinatus are similar to those used for weeds in general. These range from cutting, mowing, mulching, tillage and short-term fallows to flooding and are mainly used by small scale farmers.

Biological Control

Concentrated extracts of the shoots and roots of Alocasia sanderiana can be used as a pre-emergence herbicide, inhibiting germination of C. echinatus. As a contact herbicide, the extract is less effective (Gonzal et al., 1989).

A mixture of three fungal pathogens (Drechslera gigantea, Exserohilum rostratum and E. longirostratum) of grasses, applied as an emulsion, controlled C. echinatus in greenhouse and field trials. The crops tested (maize, oats, wheat, sorghum and rye) were immune or resistant to the tested pathogens (Charudattan et al., 1999).

Chemical Control

Herbicides are used by larger growers (Hammerton, 1981; Laca-Buendia and Pires, 1992; Zelaya et al., 1997), instead of cultural methods.

The post-emergence herbicides fluazifop and sethoxydim give good results in onions and soyabeans whereas pre-emergence herbicides give poor control of C. echinatus in soyabeans (Almeida et al., 1983; Barros, 1989; Barker-Cohen, 1992). Fluazifop and haloxyfop also provide season-long control of annual grasses in groundnuts (Lunsford et al., 1987; Cruz et al., 1991).

Fluazifop and fenoxaprop show good efficacy against C. echinatus in rice (Soto et al., 1986), but fluazifop has to be applied at the 3-4 tiller stage before flowering to avoid crop damage.

In cotton, the post-emergence herbicides sethoxydim and clethodim control C. echinatus without any damage to the crop (Laca-Buendia and Pires, 1992).

In cabbage, a treatment with the pre-emergence herbicide oxyfluorfen, with the additional application of chlorthal-dimethyl or trifluralin gives good results (Munroe and Nishimoto, 1988), whereas trifluralin, metolachlor, fluazifop, haloxyfop, fenoxaprop, chloramben and fluorochloridone control C. echinatus in sunflower (Machado and Marchezan, 1989; Oliveira et al., 1989; Avila et al., 1991).

High yields and good control of different weeds in tomato, including C.echinatus were obtained using metribuzin and pendimethalin (Cerna-Bazan and Rojas-Vargas, 1979).

In lawns, C.echinatus can be controlled by oryzalin, pendimethalin and benfluralin (McAfee, 1998).


Integrated Control

In sugarcane, an integrated method of control consisting of appropriate soil preparation made by subsoilering, ploughing and harrowing before cane setting followed by atrazin application shows good weed control. Subsequent on off-barring and hilling-up by cultivators should be practised once or twice before cane leaves are closed in (Kleopan-Suwanarak et al., 1987).

References

Top of page

Akobundu IO, Agyakwa CW, 1987. A Handbook of West African Weeds. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 14.

Almeida FS, Oliveira VF, Manetti Filho J, 1983. Selective control of grass weeds in soyabeans with some recently developed post-emergence herbicides. Tropical Pest Management, 29(3):261-266

Anon., 1972. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds. Tucson, USA: Arizona University of Arizona Press.

Avila JM, Hernandez JG, Acevedo T, 1991. Use of pre and postemergent graminicides on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) sowing in Lara and Portuguesa States. Agronomia Tropical (Maracay), 41(3/4):135-146.

AzevOdo DMPde, Lima EF, Batista FAS, Beltrao NEde M, Vieira DJ, N=brega LBda, Batista Dantas ES, Ara·jo JDde, 1997. Critical period of competition between weeds and castor plant. Comunicado Te^acute~cnico - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algoda^tilde~o, No. 44:6 pp.; 12 ref.

Barker-Cohen JE, 1992. The efficacy of three herbicides in onion crops in Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: West Indies University.

Barros AC de, Matos FSA, Netto CT, 1992. Evaluation of herbicides in the control of weeds in the soyabean crop. Planta Daninha, 10(1/2):45-49.

Barros ACde, 1989. Efficacy and selectivity of post-emergence herbicides for control of southern sandbar (Cenchrus echinatus L.) in soyabean crops. Comunicado Tecnico - Empresa Goiana de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, No.15:9 pp.

Blanco HG, Oliveira DA, Coletti JT, 1981. Weed competition on plant cane. 2. Period of competition by a natural weed community. 3. Effects of the weeds on cane nutrition. Biologico, 47(3):77-88.

Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs AJ, Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp.

Cardenas J, Reyes CE, Doll JD, 1972. Tropical weeds Vol. 1. Bogota, Colombia: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario.

CARDI, 1980. Weed Control in the Caribbean - Problems and recommendations. Report on two workshops April/May, 1980. Trinidad: CARDI.

Carmona R, 1995. Soil seed banks and the establishment of weeds in agro-ecosystems. Planta Daninha, 13(1):3-9.

Cerna-Bazan L, Rojas-Vargas A, 1979. Comparison of pre- and post-emergence herbicides in tomato crop. Turrialba, 29(3):163-168.

Charudattan R, Chandramoha S, De Valerio JT, Kadir, Rosskopf E, Semer C, Shabana YM, Smither-Kopperl M, Tessmann D, Vincent A, Yandoc C, 1999. Evaluation and Development of Plant Pathogens for Biological Control of Weeds. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida. World Wide Web page at: http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/biocontrol/bcwg/S268-96.html.

Cruz LSP, Novo MCSS, Pereira JCVNA, Nagai V, 1991. Herbicides applied post-emergence in groundnuts: I. Weed control and persistence in the soil. Bragantia, 50(1):103-114

Everaarts AP, 1993. Effects of competition with weeds on the growth, development and yield of sorghum. Journal of Agricultural Science, 120(2):187-196.

Feinbrun-Dothan N, 1986. Flora Palaestina. Jerusalem, Israel: The Israel Academy of Science and Humanities.

Gonzal LR, Sales JA, Sales MA, 1989. Efficacy of Kris Plant (Alocasia sanderiana Bull.) extract as herbicide. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Underutilized Bioresources in the Tropics, Manila, Philippines, 1988.

Groves RH, 1991. Weeds of tropical Australia. In: Baker T, ed. Tropical Grassy Weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 189-196.

Hall DW, Vandiver VV, 1991. Weeds in Florida, SP 37. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, USA: Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

Hammerton JL, 1981. Weed problems and weed control in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Tropical Pest Management, 27(3):379-387

Haselwood EL, Motter GG, 1966. Handbook of Hawaiian weeds [ed. by Haselwood EL, Motter GG]. Honolulu, HI, USA: Experiment Station/Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, 479 pp.

Hitchcock AS, 1971. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. New York, USA: Dover Publications.

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

HSfliger E, Scholz H, 1980. Grass Weeds 1. Basle, Switzerland: Ciba Geigy.

Hu DongDong, Ma DanDan, Liu JianQiang, Ou DanYan, Li GenYou, 2009. A new record of Gramineae in Zhejiang. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry Science and Technology, 29(6):64-65. http://scholar.ilib.cn/I-zjlykj.2005.02.html

Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 3. 2nd edition. London, UK: Crown Agents.

Jenett-Siems K, Kaloga M, Eich E, 1994. Ergobalansine/ergobalansinine, a proline-free peptide-type alkaloid of the fungal genus Balansia, is a constituent of Ipomoea piurensis. Journal of Natural Products, 57(9):1304-1306

Kleopan-Suwanarak, Sermisiri-Kongsaengdao, Narisorn-Kajonpon, 1987. Integrated weed control in sugarcane. Research Report in 1986: Sugarcane. Thailand: Suphanburi Field Crops Research Center.

Laca-Buendia JP, Pires GAD, 1992. Evaluation of the efficiency of the control of gramineous weeds by the herbicide clethodim in a herbaceous cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum var. latifolium Hutch.). Planta Daninha, 10(1-2):50-54

Lunsford JN, Rogers B, Greeson V, Yonce H, 1987. Season long annual grass control in peanuts with Fusilade 2000. Proceedings, American Peanut Research and Education Society, 19:58

Machado SL de O, Marchezan E, 1989. Evaluation of herbicide efficacy and selectivity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crops. Lavoura Arrozeira, 42(385):16-20

Martins CC, Velini ED, Martins D, 1997. Dormancy breaking in southern sandbur seeds. Planta Daninha, 15(1):61-71; 30 ref.

McAfee JA, 1998. Controlling Field Sandbur (Grassbur) in Turfgrass. Extension Report. Texas A&M University, Dallas, Texas. World Wide Web page at: http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/plantanswers/turf/grassbur.html.

Miller IL, 1991. Mossman river grass (Cenchrus echinatus). Agnote (Darwin), 456.

Moreno-Casasola P, 1988. Patterns of plant species distribution on coastal dunes along the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Biogeography, 15(5/6):787-806.

Munroe CE, Nishimoto RK, 1988. Oxyfluorfen (Goal) for weed control in cabbage. Research Extension Series No. 099. Hawaii, USA: Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.

Noda K, Teerawatsakul M, Prakongvongs C, Chaiwiratnukul L, 1985. Major Weeds in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Department of Agriculture.

Oliveira M, Oliveira SL de, Marchezan E, 1989. Evaluation of the efficacy and selectivity of herbicides applied to sunflower in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lavoura Arrozeira, 42(385):16-20.

Pancho JV, Obien SR, 1995. Manual of Ricefield Weeds in the Philippines. Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines: Philippine Rice Research Institute.

Perez M, Palenzuela I, Plana LG, Diaz LE, 1985. Inventory of undesirable plants of two citrus-growing regions in Cuba. Cultivos Tropicales, 7(1):65-74.

Peterschmitt M, Reynaud B, Sommermeyer G, Baudin P, 1991. Characterization of maize streak virus isolates using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and by transmission to a few hosts. Plant Disease, 75(1):27-32

Powell RG, Plattner RD, Yates SG, Clay K, Leuchtmann A, 1990. Ergobalansine, a new ergot-type peptide alkaloid isolated from Cenchrus echinatus (sandbur grass) infected with Balansia obtecta, and produced in liquid cultures of B. obtecta and Balansia cyperi. Journal of Natural Products, 53(5):1272-1279

Ramos LRde M, Pitelli RA, 1994. Nutrient extraction of weeds in competition with the corn crop (Zea mays L.). Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia, 37(1):123-138; 15 ref.

Sauerborn E, Sauerborn J, 1985. Wichtige Unkrautarten der Tropen und Subtropen. PLITS, 3(3).

Silva AA da, Ferreira FA, Silva JF da, Oliveira MF de, 1996. Sugarcane tolerance of flazasulfuron in isolated and sequential applications and in mixture with other herbicides, and its effects for controlling Cyperus rotundus L. and also other species of weeds. Revista Ceres, 42(245):102-111.

Soto A A, Aguero A R, Zuniga N, 1986. Rice tolerance of fenoxaprop-ethyl and fluazifop-butyl: rates and time of application. Turrialba, 36(3):381-388

Stone BC, 1976. Sand-bur (Cenchrus echinatus), an additional weed for the Malaysian grass flora. Planter, 52(607):397-399

Tickes BR, 1992. Sandbur control in established alfalfa. Research Progress Report Western Society of Weed Science III/6-III/7.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp.

USDA-ARS, 1999. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Whistler WA, 1983. Weed handbook of Western Polynesia. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft fnr Technische Zusammenarbeit, 157 pp.

White JF Jr, Sharp LT, Martin TI, Glenn AE, 1995. Endophyte-host associations in grasses. XXI. Studies on the structure and development of Balansia obtecta. Mycologia, 87(2):172-181

Wunderlin RP, 1939. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central Florida, 65-66.

Zelaya IA, Owen MDK, Pitty A, 1997. Effect of tillage and environment on weed population dynamics in the dry tropics. CEIBA, 38(2):123-135; 4 pp. of ref.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map