Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Canavalia gladiata
(sword bean)

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Datasheet

Canavalia gladiata (sword bean)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Canavalia gladiata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sword bean
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Canavalia gladiata is a fast-growing climber that has been widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas for its edible seeds and seed pods as an ornamental, and for ground cover, forage and green manure. This species has escaped fr...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flowering habit. Bhayandar East, Thane, Maharashtra, India. December 2012.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flowering habit. Bhayandar East, Thane, Maharashtra, India. December 2012.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flowering habit. Bhayandar East, Thane, Maharashtra, India. December 2012.
Flowering habitCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flowering habit. Bhayandar East, Thane, Maharashtra, India. December 2012.©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower. Maharashtra, India. March 2010.
TitleFlower
CaptionCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower. Maharashtra, India. March 2010.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower. Maharashtra, India. March 2010.
FlowerCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower. Maharashtra, India. March 2010.©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower. Maharashtra, India.  February 2008.
TitleFlower
CaptionCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower. Maharashtra, India. February 2008.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower. Maharashtra, India.  February 2008.
FlowerCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower. Maharashtra, India. February 2008.©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower and foliage. Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. December 2017.
TitleFlower and foliage
CaptionCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower and foliage. Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. December 2017.
Copyright©Yercaud Elango/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower and foliage. Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. December 2017.
Flower and foliageCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Flower and foliage. Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. December 2017.©Yercaud Elango/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Fruit and foliage. Bloomington, Indiana, USA. October 2011.
TitleFruit and foliage
CaptionCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Fruit and foliage. Bloomington, Indiana, USA. October 2011.
Copyright©Vmenkov/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Fruit and foliage. Bloomington, Indiana, USA. October 2011.
Fruit and foliageCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Fruit and foliage. Bloomington, Indiana, USA. October 2011.©Vmenkov/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Seedpod. Maharashtra, India.  February 2008.
TitleSeedpod
CaptionCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Seedpod. Maharashtra, India. February 2008.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Seedpod. Maharashtra, India.  February 2008.
SeedpodCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Seedpod. Maharashtra, India. February 2008.©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Fruit and foliage. Bloomington, Indiana, USA. October 2011.
TitleFruit and foliage
CaptionCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Fruit and foliage. Bloomington, Indiana, USA. October 2011.
Copyright©Vmenkov/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Fruit and foliage. Bloomington, Indiana, USA. October 2011.
Fruit and foliageCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Fruit and foliage. Bloomington, Indiana, USA. October 2011.©Vmenkov/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Dried pods. Singapore. August 2015.
TitleDried pods
CaptionCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Dried pods. Singapore. August 2015.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by David E Mead/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean); Dried pods. Singapore. August 2015.
Dried podsCanavalia gladiata (sword bean); Dried pods. Singapore. August 2015.Public Domain - Released by David E Mead/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
C. gladiata: 1, flowering shoot; 2, young fruits; 3, seeds.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleC. gladiata - line drawing
CaptionC. gladiata: 1, flowering shoot; 2, young fruits; 3, seeds. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
C. gladiata: 1, flowering shoot; 2, young fruits; 3, seeds.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
C. gladiata - line drawingC. gladiata: 1, flowering shoot; 2, young fruits; 3, seeds. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.PROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • sword bean

Other Scientific Names

  • Canavalia foureiri G.Don
  • Canavalia gladiolata J.D.Sauer
  • Canavalia incurva (Thunb.) DC.
  • Canavalia loureirii G.Don
  • Canavalia lunareti Carriere
  • Canavalia machaeroides (DC.) Steud.
  • Canavalia maxima Thouars
  • Dolichos gladiatus Jacq.
  • Dolichos incurvus Thunb.
  • Malocchia gladiata (Jacq.) Savi

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese jackbean; sword jackbean
  • Spanish: frijol de burro; frijol de playa ; haba de burro; poroto sable
  • French: dolic en sabre; pois sabre; pois sabre rouge
  • Chinese: dao dou
  • Portuguese: feijão-de-porco; feijão-espada

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: tioeuhs
  • Cuba: haba de caballo; frijol café; frijol de machete
  • Dominican Republic: carabanz
  • Germany: Schwertbohne
  • India: chamma kaya; tamma; tammi kaya
  • Indonesia: kacang parasman; kara pedang; koas bakol
  • Laos: 'khao 'khièo; khùa
  • Malaysia: kacang parang; kacang polong
  • Philippines: habas; magtambokau
  • Thailand: thua-phra
  • Vietnam: dậu rựa

EPPO code

  • CNAGL (Canavalia gladiata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Canavalia gladiata is a fast-growing climber that has been widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas for its edible seeds and seed pods as an ornamental, and for ground cover, forage and green manure. This species has escaped from cultivation and can be found naturalized in ruderal sites, lowlands, wet habitats, savannahs and grassy habitats. In addition, C. gladiata is well adapted to grow in adverse environmental conditions (e.g. acid soils and waterlogging) and produces large amounts of seed. Currently, it is listed as invasive only in Cuba, but it can be found naturalized in a wide range of habitats and regions around the world. It is also included in the Global Compendium of Weeds.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Papilionoideae
  •                                 Genus: Canavalia
  •                                     Species: Canavalia gladiata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Canavalia comprises approximately 60 species of lianas that are mostly distributed not only across tropical and subtropical America, but also in Asia and Africa. Taxonomic revisions have divided this genus into four subgenera (de Queiroz et al., 2015; Moteetee, 2016; Snak et al., 2016): Canavalia (including species with a pantropical distribution), Catodonia (including species with a neotropical distribution, excepting one species also found in the Old World), Maunaloa (including species occurring in Hawaii) and Wenderothia (including species with a neotropical distribution).

Description

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The following is based on descriptions by Moteetee (2016) and the Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019):

Vigorous woody perennial climber with twining stems, up to 10 m long; leaflets ovate or ovate-elliptic, acuminate at the apex, 80-200 × 75-150 mm, sparsely pubescent; petiole (50) 145-175 mm long; stipules ±2 mm long. Peduncles 100-300 mm long, with 8-10 flowers, flowers 25-30 mm long; bracteoles ±1 mm long. Calyx sparsely pubescent, upper lip large, 12-15 mm long, lower lip much smaller, 8-10 mm long. Corolla white or pink; standard broadly obovate, 25-35 × 15-20 mm, claw 3-4 mm long; wings oblong, 14-18 × 4-5 mm, smaller than keel, claw 3-5 mm long; keel obovate,16-22 × 6-8 mm, claw 3-5 mm long. Ovary narrowly oblong, 8-10 mm long. Pod linear-oblong, very large, slightly compressed, 160-400 (-600) × 35-50 mm, with two longitudinal ribs near the upper suture, 8-16-seeded; seeds very large, brick red, pink or reddish brown, with hilum extending most of the upper margin elliptic-oblong, ca. 3.5 × 2 cm; hilum ca. 1.5 cm.

Cultivars vary widely, particularly in the degree of twining, the size of the pods and the number and colour of the seeds. In some areas semi-erect forms are found. Forms with red or reddish to blackish seeds are sometimes classified as C. gladiata var. gladiata and forms with white seeds as var. alba (Makino) Hisauchi.

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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Canavalia gladiata is native to Asia. It was probably domesticated in eastern Asia and it is only known in cultivation, except as an escape. It is widely cultivated across tropical and subtropical regions. It can currently be found cultivated and naturalized across Asia, Africa, Australia, North, Central and South America and the Caribbean (PROTA, 2019POWO, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
RwandaPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HubeiPresentCultivated
IndiaPresentNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-AssamPresentNative
-KeralaPresentCultivated
-Tamil NaduPresentCultivated
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
-JavaPresentIntroduced
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
-SabahPresentIntroduced
-SarawakPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

North America

CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedWeed
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-CearaPresentIntroduced
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
SurinamePresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

Habitat

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Canavalia gladiata can be found growing in ruderal areas, lowlands, wet habitats, savannahs and grassy habitats and disturbed areas near cultivation and villages. It is usually grown near houses and allowed to trail on walls, fences and trees (Moteetee, 2016; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019; PROTA, 2019).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. gladiata is 2n = 22 (Rodrigues and Torne, 1990). Hybrids of C. gladiata with C. africana and C. ensiformis occur in the wild from natural crosses (PROTA, 2019).

Reproductive Biology

C. gladiata has bisexual flowers that are visited and pollinated by insects, mostly bees. This species is self-compatible but out-crossing rates greater than 20% have been reported (Kooi, 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). Seeds germinate readily and the plant is a fast-growing species. Young pods for vegetable use can be harvested 3-5 months after sowing while mature seeds can be harvested 5-10 months after sowing (Kooi, 2016Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Physiology and Phenology

In China, C. gladiata has been recorded flowering from July to September and fruiting in October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019). In India, C. gladiata produces flowers and fruits from July to December (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019).

Longevity

C. gladiata is a perennial plant but it is also cultivated as an annual crop. 

Associations

C. gladiata has a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (Kooi, 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Environmental Requirements

C. gladiata prefers a tropical climate. It grows best in areas with mean annual temperatures in the range 15-30°C (tolerates 12-36°C) and mean annual rainfall in the range 800-1800 mm (tolerates 600-2600 mm). This species thrives at elevations from sea level up to 1500 m; it is adapted to nutrient-depleted soils and acid soils with a pH of 4.5-7.0 (tolerates 4.3-7.5). C. gladiata also tolerates some salinity in the soil and some waterlogging but does not tolerate frost. It has a deep root system that allows it to resist drought when established (Ekanayake et al., 1999; Kooi, 2016; PROTA, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 36

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6002600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Pathogen Other|All Stages not specific
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Pathogen Fruits|pods; Plants|Stems not specific
Spodoptera frugiperda Herbivore Other|All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Canavalia gladiata is primarily affected by the fungal species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum which causes root rot. Han et al. (2020) reported the first occurrence of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on stems and pods of C. gladiata in South Korea. Other major pests affecting this species are fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and beetle grubs that bore into the stems. In Asia, Elsinoe canavaliae causes scab in C. gladiata (Ekanayake et al., 1999; Kooi, 2016; PROTA, 2019).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Canavalia gladiata spreads by seed. Pods are dehiscent, opening readily when dry, releasing the seeds (PROTA, 2019).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionCultivated for its seeds and seed pods Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
DisturbanceNaturalized in ruderal areas Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
ForageUsed to feed cattle and poultry Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Garden waste disposalSeeds Yes Yes Kooi (2016)
Habitat restoration and improvementUsed as green manure Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
HorticultureGrown as an ornamental Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Internet salesSeeds sold online Yes Yes
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Ornamental purposesGrown as an ornamental Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
People foragingSeeds consumed by humans Yes Yes PROTA (2019)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes Kooi (2016)
LivestockUsed to feed cattle and poultry Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
MailSeeds sold online Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Impact

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The mature seed of C. gladiata contains alkaloids that maybe toxic to humans and animals. These toxic alkaloids can be destroyed by soaking and thoroughly boiling the seeds twice in water with salt or by fermentation (PROTA, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Hybridization
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Canavalia gladiata is cultivated for its seeds and seed pods. The young green pods are extensively eaten across Asia and Africa served as a boiled green vegetable. Dry, fully mature seeds should be eaten with caution, as they may be poisonous. Detoxification is possible by changing the cooking water, soaking, rinsing or fermentation. The seeds are eaten in Ethiopia and Tanzania but usually only as a famine food. C. gladiata is also used as a cover crop and green manure. The seed is also used as forage and fodder to feed cattle and poultry, although dry seeds eaten in large quantities may cause poisoning. It is also grown as an ornamental climber on fences and houses.

Extracts from leaves and seeds are used in traditional medicine. In Korea, it is used in the treatment of vomiting, abdominal dropsy, kidney-related lumbago, asthma, obesity, stomach ache, dysentery, coughs, headache, intercostal neuralgia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, inflammatory diseases and swellings (Lim, 2012). In Japan, it is effective in treating haemorrhoids, pyorrhoea, otitis media, boils and cancers, all kinds of inflammatory diseases and atopic dermatitis. In Korea, a soap based on extracts of sword bean is used for the treatment of athlete’s foot and acne (Ekanayake et al., 1999; Kooi, 2016; PROTA, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Soil improvement

Human food and beverage

  • Pulse
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Green manure
  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Some authors consider the species C. gladiata, C. africana and C. ensiformis as a single species as they cross freely and their uses and chemical composition are similar. Furthermore, DNA analyses could not find differences between C. gladiata and C. ensiformis. These two species are very similar in growth habit, but they can be distinguished by the following morphological traits (Moteetee, 2016; PROTA, 2019):

  • seed colour: red or pink in C. gladiata and white in C. ensiformis;
  • hilum length: in C. gladiata, the hilum covers most of the upper margin of the seed while in C. ensiformis, the hilum covers only a quarter of the seed.

C. gladiata also appears to be closely allied to C. africana, but the main difference is in the pod size: up to 60 cm long in C. gladiata vs. up to 17 cm long in C. africana (Moteetee, 2016; PROTA, 2019).

References

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De Queiroz LP, Pastore JFB, Cardoso D, Snak C, De C. Lima AL, Gagnon E, Vatanparast M, Holland AE, Egan AN, 2015. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis reveals the monophyly of a recircumscribed papilionoid legume tribe Diocleae with well-supported generic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 90, 1-19. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1055790315001189 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.04.016

Ekanayake S, Jansz ER, Nair BM, Abeysekera AM, 1999. A review on an underutilized legume Canavalia gladiata. Vidyodaya Journal of Science, 8, 1-25. http://dr.lib.sjp.ac.lk/handle/123456789/868

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Han, I., Park, K., Lee, H., Lee, S. M., Shin, J., Choi, S. L., Kim, J., 2020. First report of Sclerotinia rot in sword bean caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in South Korea. Plant Disease, 104(3), 988-988. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1840-PDN

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Kooi G, 2016. Canavalia gladiata (PROSEA). PlantUse English.https://uses.plantnet-project.org/e/index.php?title=Canavalia_gladiata_(PROSEA)&oldid=220349

Lim TK, 2012. Canavalia gladiata. In: Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Fruits. Volume 2, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. 569-576. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789400717633

Moteetee, A. N., 2016. Canavalia (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae) species in South Africa: naturalised and indigenous. South African Journal of Botany, 103, 6-16. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2015.08.013

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

PROTA, 2019. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Rodrigues, B. F., Torne, S. G., 1990. Karyological studies in three Canavalia species. Cytologia, 55(3), 395 - 398. doi: 10.1508/cytologia.55.395

Snak C, Vatanparast M, Silva C, Lewis GP, Lavin M, Kajita T, Queiroz LP de, 2016. A dated phylogeny of the papilionoid legume genus Canavalia reveals recent diversification by a pantropical liana lineage. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 98, 133-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.02.001

Useful Tropical Plants, 2019. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

GRIIS, 2019. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Han I, Park K, Lee H, Lee S M, Shin J, Choi S L, Kim J, 2020. First report of Sclerotinia rot in sword bean caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in South Korea. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 988-988. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1840-PDN

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Kull C A, Tassin J, Moreau S, Ramiarantsoa H R, Blanc-Pamard C, Carrière S M, 2012. The introduced flora of Madagascar. Biological Invasions. 14 (4), 875-888. DOI:10.1007/s10530-011-0124-6

Moteetee A N, 2016. Canavalia (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae) species in South Africa: naturalised and indigenous. South African Journal of Botany. 6-16. DOI:10.1016/j.sajb.2015.08.013

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Queiroz LP, Snak C, 2015. (Canavalia). In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB109902

Randall R P, 2017. A global compendium of weeds. [ed. by Randall R P]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall. iii + 3653 pp.

Vadivel V, Doss A, Pugalenthi M, 2010. Evaluation of nutritional value and protein quality of raw and differentially processed sword bean [Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC.] seeds. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 10 (7), 2850-2865. http://www.ajfand.net/Issue37/PDFs/Pugalenthi9190.pdf

Contributors

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07/12/2019 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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